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Overview
Comment:More documentation spellcheck and cleanup. No changes to code. (CVS 5263)
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 3edfc64f27ba50ba43b79435b3f5d273e3c29aff
User & Date: mihailim 2008-06-21 16:47:09
Context
2008-06-21
18:02
More documentation spellcheck and cleanup. No changes to code. (CVS 5264) check-in: 9ae03f56 user: mihailim tags: trunk
16:47
More documentation spellcheck and cleanup. No changes to code. (CVS 5263) check-in: 3edfc64f user: mihailim tags: trunk
13:35
More documentation spellcheck and cleanup. No changes to code. (CVS 5262) check-in: 47b7b05e user: mihailim tags: trunk
Changes
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** on how SQLite interfaces are suppose to operate.
**
** The name of this file under configuration management is "sqlite.h.in".
** The makefile makes some minor changes to this file (such as inserting
** the version number) and changes its name to "sqlite3.h" as
** part of the build process.
**
** @(#) $Id: sqlite.h.in,v 1.345 2008/06/21 13:35:57 mihailim Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITE3_H_
#define _SQLITE3_H_
#include <stdarg.h>     /* Needed for the definition of va_list */

/*
** Make sure we can call this stuff from C++.
................................................................................
**          the E parameter is not NULL, then [sqlite3_exec()] shall store
**          in *E an appropriate error message written into memory obtained
**          from [sqlite3_malloc()].
**
** {F12134} The [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] routine shall set the value of
**          *E to NULL if E is not NULL and there are no errors.
**
** {F12137} The [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] function shall set the error code
**          and message accessible via [sqlite3_errcode()],
**          [sqlite3_errmsg()], and [sqlite3_errmsg16()].
**
** {F12138} If the S parameter to [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] is NULL or an
**          empty string or contains nothing other than whitespace, comments,
**          and/or semicolons, then results of [sqlite3_errcode()],
**          [sqlite3_errmsg()], and [sqlite3_errmsg16()]
................................................................................
  void *,                                    /* 1st argument to callback */
  char **errmsg                              /* Error msg written here */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Result Codes {F10210}
** KEYWORDS: SQLITE_OK {error code} {error codes}

**
** Many SQLite functions return an integer result code from the set shown
** here in order to indicates success or failure.
**
** See also: [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes]
*/
#define SQLITE_OK           0   /* Successful result */
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_ROW         100  /* sqlite3_step() has another row ready */
#define SQLITE_DONE        101  /* sqlite3_step() has finished executing */
/* end-of-error-codes */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Extended Result Codes {F10220}
** KEYWORDS: {extended error code} {extended error codes}
** KEYWORDS: {extended result codes}
**
** In its default configuration, SQLite API routines return one of 26 integer
** [SQLITE_OK | result codes].  However, experience has shown that many of
** these result codes are too coarse-grained.  They do not provide as
** much information about problems as programmers might like.  In an effort to
** address this, newer versions of SQLite (version 3.3.8 and later) include
** support for additional result codes that provide more detailed information
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX        10  /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX     11  /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extended Result Codes {F12200}
**
** The sqlite3_extended_result_codes() routine enables or disables the
** [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes] feature of SQLite.
** The extended result codes are disabled by default for historical
** compatibility considerations.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12201} Each new [database connection] shall have the
**          [extended result codes] feature disabled by default.
**
** {F12202} The [sqlite3_extended_result_codes(D,F)] interface shall enable
................................................................................
** filename argument. The filename argument is interpreted as UTF-8 for
** sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open_v2() and as UTF-16 in the native byte
** order for sqlite3_open16(). A [database connection] handle is usually
** returned in *ppDb, even if an error occurs.  The only exception is that
** if SQLite is unable to allocate memory to hold the [sqlite3] object,
** a NULL will be written into *ppDb instead of a pointer to the [sqlite3]
** object. If the database is opened (and/or created) successfully, then
** [SQLITE_OK] is returned.  Otherwise an error code is returned.  The
** [sqlite3_errmsg()] or [sqlite3_errmsg16()] routines can be used to obtain
** an English language description of the error.
**
** The default encoding for the database will be UTF-8 if
** sqlite3_open() or sqlite3_open_v2() is called and
** UTF-16 in the native byte order if sqlite3_open16() is used.
**
................................................................................
**          <todo>Is SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE|SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE required
**          in sqlite3_open_v2()?</todo>
**
** {F12721} The [database connection] created by [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,V)]
**          will use the [sqlite3_vfs] object identified by the V parameter,
**          or the default [sqlite3_vfs] object if V is a NULL pointer.
**
** {F12723} Two [database connection | database connections] will share
**          a common cache if both were opened with the same VFS while
**          [sqlite3_enable_shared_cache | shared cache mode was enabled] and
**          if both filenames compare equal using memcmp() after having been
**          processed by the [sqlite3_vfs | xFullPathname] method of the VFS.
*/
int sqlite3_open(
  const char *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb          /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
);
................................................................................
  int flags,              /* Flags */
  const char *zVfs        /* Name of VFS module to use */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Error Codes And Messages {F12800}
**
** The sqlite3_errcode() interface returns the numeric
** [SQLITE_OK | result code] or [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result code]
** for the most recent failed sqlite3_* API call associated
** with [sqlite3] handle 'db'. If a prior API call failed but the
** most recent API call succeeded, the return value from sqlite3_errcode()
** is undefined.
**
** The sqlite3_errmsg() and sqlite3_errmsg16() return English-language
** text that describes the error, as either UTF8 or UTF16 respectively.
** Memory to hold the error message string is managed internally.
** The application does not need to worry with freeing the result.
** However, the error string might be overwritten or deallocated by
** subsequent calls to other SQLite interface functions.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12801} The [sqlite3_errcode(D)] interface returns the numeric
**          [SQLITE_OK | result code] or
**          [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result code]
**          for the most recently failed interface call associated
**          with [database connection] D.
**
** {F12803} The [sqlite3_errmsg(D)] and [sqlite3_errmsg16(D)]
**          interfaces return English-language text that describes
**          the error in the mostly recently failed interface call,
**          encoded as either UTF8 or UTF16 respectively.
**
** {F12807} The strings returned by [sqlite3_errmsg()] and [sqlite3_errmsg16()]
................................................................................
const char *sqlite3_errmsg(sqlite3*);
const void *sqlite3_errmsg16(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: SQL Statement Object {F13000}
** KEYWORDS: {prepared statement} {prepared statements}
**
** An instance of this object represents a single SQL statement.  This
** object is variously known as a "prepared statement" or a 
** "compiled SQL statement" or simply as a "statement".
** 
** The life of a statement object goes something like this:
**
** <ol>
** <li> Create the object using [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or a related
**      function.
** <li> Bind values to host parameters using
**      [sqlite3_bind_blob | sqlite3_bind_* interfaces].
** <li> Run the SQL by calling [sqlite3_step()] one or more times.
** <li> Reset the statement using [sqlite3_reset()] then go back
**      to step 2.  Do this zero or more times.
** <li> Destroy the object using [sqlite3_finalize()].
** </ol>
**
** Refer to documentation on individual methods above for additional
................................................................................
** [database connection] whose limit is to be set or queried.  The
** second parameter is one of the [limit categories] that define a
** class of constructs to be size limited.  The third parameter is the
** new limit for that construct.  The function returns the old limit.
**
** If the new limit is a negative number, the limit is unchanged.
** For the limit category of SQLITE_LIMIT_XYZ there is a hard upper
** bound set by a compile-time C-preprocess macro named SQLITE_MAX_XYZ.
** (The "_LIMIT_" in the name is changed to "_MAX_".)
** Attempts to increase a limit above its hard upper bound are
** silently truncated to the hard upper limit.
**
** Run time limits are intended for use in applications that manage
** both their own internal database and also databases that are controlled
** by untrusted external sources.  An example application might be a
** webbrowser that has its own databases for storing history and
** separate databases controlled by JavaScript applications downloaded
** off the Internet.  The internal databases can be given the
** large, default limits.  Databases managed by external sources can
** be given much smaller limits designed to prevent a denial of service
** attach.  Developers might also want to use the [sqlite3_set_authorizer()]
** interface to further control untrusted SQL.  The size of the database
** created by an untrusted script can be contained using the
** [max_page_count] [PRAGMA].
**
** This interface is currently considered experimental and is subject
** to change or removal without prior notice.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12762} A successful call to [sqlite3_limit(D,C,V)] where V is
**          positive changes the
**          limit on the size of construct C in [database connection] D
**          to the lesser of V and the hard upper bound on the size
**          of C that is set at compile-time.
**
** {F12766} A successful call to [sqlite3_limit(D,C,V)] where V is negative
**          leaves the state of [database connection] D unchanged.
**
** {F12769} A successful call to [sqlite3_limit(D,C,V)] returns the
**          value of the limit on the size of construct C in
**          in [database connection] D as it was prior to the call.
*/
int sqlite3_limit(sqlite3*, int id, int newVal);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Limit Categories {F12790}
** KEYWORDS: {limit category} {limit categories}
** 
** These constants define various aspects of a [database connection]
** that can be limited in size by calls to [sqlite3_limit()].
** The meanings of the various limits are as follows:
**
** <dl>
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH</dt>
** <dd>The maximum size of any
** string or blob or table row.<dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH</dt>
** <dd>The maximum length of an SQL statement.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN</dt>
** <dd>The maximum number of columns in a table definition or in the
** result set of a SELECT or the maximum number of columns in an index
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG              6
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_ATTACHED                  7
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH       8
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER           9

/*
** CAPI3REF: Compiling An SQL Statement {F13010}

**
** To execute an SQL query, it must first be compiled into a byte-code
** program using one of these routines. 
**
** The first argument "db" is an [database connection] 

** obtained from a prior call to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()]
** or [sqlite3_open16()]. 

** The second argument "zSql" is the statement to be compiled, encoded
** as either UTF-8 or UTF-16.  The sqlite3_prepare() and sqlite3_prepare_v2()
** interfaces uses UTF-8 and sqlite3_prepare16() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2()
** use UTF-16. {END}
**
** If the nByte argument is less
** than zero, then zSql is read up to the first zero terminator.
** If nByte is non-negative, then it is the maximum number of 
** bytes read from zSql.  When nByte is non-negative, the
** zSql string ends at either the first '\000' or '\u0000' character or 
** the nByte-th byte, whichever comes first. If the caller knows
** that the supplied string is nul-terminated, then there is a small
** performance advantage to be had by passing an nByte parameter that 
** is equal to the number of bytes in the input string <i>including</i> 
** the nul-terminator bytes.{END}
**
** *pzTail is made to point to the first byte past the end of the
** first SQL statement in zSql.  These routines only compile the first
** statement in zSql, so *pzTail is left pointing to what remains
** uncompiled.
**
** *ppStmt is left pointing to a compiled [prepared statement] that can be
** executed using [sqlite3_step()].  Or if there is an error, *ppStmt is
** set to NULL.  If the input text contains no SQL (if the input
** is and empty string or a comment) then *ppStmt is set to NULL.
** {U13018} The calling procedure is responsible for deleting the
** compiled SQL statement
** using [sqlite3_finalize()] after it has finished with it.
**
** On success, [SQLITE_OK] is returned.  Otherwise an 
** [error code] is returned.
**
** The sqlite3_prepare_v2() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2() interfaces are
** recommended for all new programs. The two older interfaces are retained
** for backwards compatibility, but their use is discouraged.
** In the "v2" interfaces, the prepared statement
** that is returned (the [sqlite3_stmt] object) contains a copy of the 
** original SQL text. {END} This causes the [sqlite3_step()] interface to
** behave a differently in two ways:
**
** <ol>
** <li>
** If the database schema changes, instead of returning [SQLITE_SCHEMA] as it
** always used to do, [sqlite3_step()] will automatically recompile the SQL
** statement and try to run it again.  If the schema has changed in
** a way that makes the statement no longer valid, [sqlite3_step()] will still
** return [SQLITE_SCHEMA].  But unlike the legacy behavior, 
** [SQLITE_SCHEMA] is now a fatal error.  Calling
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] again will not make the
** error go away.  Note: use [sqlite3_errmsg()] to find the text
** of the parsing error that results in an [SQLITE_SCHEMA] return. {END}
** </li>
**
** <li>
** When an error occurs, 
** [sqlite3_step()] will return one of the detailed 
** [error codes] or [extended error codes]. 
** The legacy behavior was that [sqlite3_step()] would only return a generic
** [SQLITE_ERROR] result code and you would have to make a second call to
** [sqlite3_reset()] in order to find the underlying cause of the problem.
** With the "v2" prepare interfaces, the underlying reason for the error is
** returned immediately.
** </li>
** </ol>
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13011} The [sqlite3_prepare(db,zSql,...)] and
**          [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,...)] interfaces interpret the
................................................................................
**          text in their zSql parameter as UTF-8.
**
** {F13012} The [sqlite3_prepare16(db,zSql,...)] and
**          [sqlite3_prepare16_v2(db,zSql,...)] interfaces interpret the
**          text in their zSql parameter as UTF-16 in the native byte order.
**
** {F13013} If the nByte argument to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,nByte,...)]
**          and its variants is less than zero, then SQL text is
**          read from zSql is read up to the first zero terminator.
**
** {F13014} If the nByte argument to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,nByte,...)]
**          and its variants is non-negative, then at most nBytes bytes
**          SQL text is read from zSql.
**
** {F13015} In [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,N,P,pzTail)] and its variants
**          if the zSql input text contains more than one SQL statement
**          and pzTail is not NULL, then *pzTail is made to point to the
**          first byte past the end of the first SQL statement in zSql.
**          <todo>What does *pzTail point to if there is one statement?</todo>
**
** {F13016} A successful call to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,N,ppStmt,...)]
**          or one of its variants writes into *ppStmt a pointer to a new
**          [prepared statement] or a pointer to NULL
**          if zSql contains nothing other than whitespace or comments. 
**
** {F13019} The [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] interface and its variants return
**          [SQLITE_OK] or an appropriate [error code] upon failure.
**
** {F13021} Before [sqlite3_prepare(db,zSql,nByte,ppStmt,pzTail)] or its
**          variants returns an error (any value other than [SQLITE_OK])
**          it first sets *ppStmt to NULL.
*/
int sqlite3_prepare(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const char *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const char **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
................................................................................
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const void **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
);

/*
** CAPIREF: Retrieving Statement SQL {F13100}
**
** This interface  can be used to retrieve a saved copy of the original
** SQL text used to create a [prepared statement].

**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13101} If the [prepared statement] passed as 
**          the an argument to [sqlite3_sql()] was compiled
**          compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or
**          [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()],
**          then [sqlite3_sql()] function returns a pointer to a
**          zero-terminated string containing a UTF-8 rendering
**          of the original SQL statement.
**
** {F13102} If the [prepared statement] passed as 
**          the an argument to [sqlite3_sql()] was compiled
**          compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare()] or
**          [sqlite3_prepare16()],
**          then [sqlite3_sql()] function returns a NULL pointer.
**
** {F13103} The string returned by [sqlite3_sql(S)] is valid until the
**          [prepared statement] S is deleted using [sqlite3_finalize(S)].
*/
const char *sqlite3_sql(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Dynamically Typed Value Object  {F15000}
** KEYWORDS: {protected sqlite3_value} {unprotected sqlite3_value}
**
** SQLite uses the sqlite3_value object to represent all values
** that can be stored in a database table.
** SQLite uses dynamic typing for the values it stores.  
** Values stored in sqlite3_value objects can be
** be integers, floating point values, strings, BLOBs, or NULL.
**
** An sqlite3_value object may be either "protected" or "unprotected".
** Some interfaces require a protected sqlite3_value.  Other interfaces
** will accept either a protected or an unprotected sqlite3_value.
** Every interface that accepts sqlite3_value arguments specifies 
** whether or not it requires a protected sqlite3_value.
**
** The terms "protected" and "unprotected" refer to whether or not
** a mutex is held.  A internal mutex is held for a protected
** sqlite3_value object but no mutex is held for an unprotected
** sqlite3_value object.  If SQLite is compiled to be single-threaded
** (with SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0 and with [sqlite3_threadsafe()] returning 0)
** then there is no distinction between
** protected and unprotected sqlite3_value objects and they can be
** used interchangeable.  However, for maximum code portability it
** is recommended that applications make the distinction between
** between protected and unprotected sqlite3_value objects even if
** they are single threaded.
**
** The sqlite3_value objects that are passed as parameters into the
** implementation of 
** [sqlite3_create_function | application-defined SQL functions]
** are protected.
** The sqlite3_value object returned by
** [sqlite3_column_value()] is unprotected.
** Unprotected sqlite3_value objects may only be used with
** [sqlite3_result_value()] and [sqlite3_bind_value()].  
** The [sqlite3_value_blob | sqlite3_value_type()] family of
** interfaces require protected sqlite3_value objects.
*/
typedef struct Mem sqlite3_value;

/*
** CAPI3REF:  SQL Function Context Object {F16001}
**
** The context in which an SQL function executes is stored in an
** sqlite3_context object.  A pointer to an sqlite3_context
** object is always first parameter to 
** [sqlite3_create_function | application-defined SQL functions].
** The applicationed-defined SQL function implementation will pass this
** pointer through into calls to
** [sqlite3_result_int | sqlite3_result()],
** [sqlite3_aggregate_context()],
** [sqlite3_user_data()],
** [sqlite3_context_db_handle()],
** [sqlite3_get_auxdata()], and/or [sqlite3_set_auxdata()].
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_context sqlite3_context;

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Binding Values To Prepared Statements {F13500}


**
** In the SQL strings input to [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and its
** variants, literals may be replace by a parameter in one
** of these forms:
**
** <ul>
** <li>  ?
** <li>  ?NNN
** <li>  :VVV
** <li>  @VVV
** <li>  $VVV
** </ul>
**
** In the parameter forms shown above NNN is an integer literal,
** VVV alpha-numeric parameter name.
** The values of these parameters (also called "host parameter names"
** or "SQL parameters")
** can be set using the sqlite3_bind_*() routines defined here.
**
** The first argument to the sqlite3_bind_*() routines always
** is a pointer to the [sqlite3_stmt] object returned from
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or its variants. The second

** argument is the index of the parameter to be set. The
** first parameter has an index of 1.  When the same named
** parameter is used more than once, second and subsequent
** occurrences have the same index as the first occurrence. 
** The index for named parameters can be looked up using the
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()] API if desired.  The index
** for "?NNN" parameters is the value of NNN.
** The NNN value must be between 1 and the compile-time
** parameter SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER (default value: 999).
**
** The third argument is the value to bind to the parameter.
**
** In those
** routines that have a fourth argument, its value is the number of bytes
** in the parameter.  To be clear: the value is the number of <u>bytes</u>
** in the value, not the number of characters. 
** If the fourth parameter is negative, the length of the string is
** the number of bytes up to the first zero terminator.
**
** The fifth argument to sqlite3_bind_blob(), sqlite3_bind_text(), and
** sqlite3_bind_text16() is a destructor used to dispose of the BLOB or
** string after SQLite has finished with it. If the fifth argument is
** the special value [SQLITE_STATIC], then SQLite assumes that the
** information is in static, unmanaged space and does not need to be freed.
** If the fifth argument has the value [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], then
** SQLite makes its own private copy of the data immediately, before
** the sqlite3_bind_*() routine returns.
**
** The sqlite3_bind_zeroblob() routine binds a BLOB of length N that
** is filled with zeros.  A zeroblob uses a fixed amount of memory
** (just an integer to hold it size) while it is being processed.
** Zeroblobs are intended to serve as placeholders for BLOBs whose
** content is later written using 
** [sqlite3_blob_open | increment BLOB I/O] routines. A negative
** value for the zeroblob results in a zero-length BLOB.
**
** The sqlite3_bind_*() routines must be called after
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] (and its variants) or [sqlite3_reset()] and
** before [sqlite3_step()].
** Bindings are not cleared by the [sqlite3_reset()] routine.
** Unbound parameters are interpreted as NULL.
**
................................................................................
** virtual machine that is the wrong state or which has already been finalized.
** Detection of misuse is unreliable.  Applications should not depend
** on SQLITE_MISUSE returns.  SQLITE_MISUSE is intended to indicate a
** a logic error in the application.  Future versions of SQLite might
** panic rather than return SQLITE_MISUSE.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13506} The [sqlite3_prepare | SQL statement compiler] recognizes
**          tokens of the forms "?", "?NNN", "$VVV", ":VVV", and "@VVV"
**          as SQL parameters, where NNN is any sequence of one or more
**          digits and where VVV is any sequence of one or more 
**          alphanumeric characters or "::" optionally followed by
**          a string containing no spaces and contained within parentheses.
**
** {F13509} The initial value of an SQL parameter is NULL.
**
** {F13512} The index of an "?" SQL parameter is one larger than the
**          largest index of SQL parameter to the left, or 1 if
**          the "?" is the leftmost SQL parameter.
**
................................................................................
**
** {F13518} The index of an ":VVV", "$VVV", or "@VVV" SQL parameter is
**          the same as the index of leftmost occurrences of the same
**          parameter, or one more than the largest index over all
**          parameters to the left if this is the first occurrence
**          of this parameter, or 1 if this is the leftmost parameter.
**
** {F13521} The [sqlite3_prepare | SQL statement compiler] fail with
**          an [SQLITE_RANGE] error if the index of an SQL parameter
**          is less than 1 or greater than SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER.

**
** {F13524} Calls to [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,N,V,...)]
**          associate the value V with all SQL parameters having an
**          index of N in the [prepared statement] S.
**
** {F13527} Calls to [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,N,...)]
**          override prior calls with the same values of S and N.
................................................................................
**
** {F13530} Bindings established by [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,...)]
**          persist across calls to [sqlite3_reset(S)].
**
** {F13533} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] SQLite binds the first L
**          bytes of the blob or string pointed to by V, when L
**          is non-negative.
**
** {F13536} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)] or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] SQLite binds characters
**          from V through the first zero character when L is negative.
**
** {F13539} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
................................................................................
**          constant [SQLITE_STATIC], SQLite assumes that the value V
**          is held in static unmanaged space that will not change
**          during the lifetime of the binding.
**
** {F13542} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] when D is the special
**          constant [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], the routine makes a 
**          private copy of V value before it returns.
**
** {F13545} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] when D is a pointer to
**          a function, SQLite invokes that function to destroy the
**          V value after it has finished using the V value.
**
** {F13548} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(S,N,V,L)] the value bound
**          is a blob of L bytes, or a zero-length blob if L is negative.
**
** {F13551} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_value(S,N,V)] the V argument may
**          be either a [protected sqlite3_value] object or an
**          [unprotected sqlite3_value] object.
*/
int sqlite3_bind_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int n, void(*)(void*));
int sqlite3_bind_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int, double);
................................................................................
int sqlite3_bind_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
int sqlite3_bind_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const sqlite3_value*);
int sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int n);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Number Of SQL Parameters {F13600}
**
** This routine can be used to find the number of SQL parameters
** in a prepared statement.  SQL parameters are tokens of the
** form "?", "?NNN", ":AAA", "$AAA", or "@AAA" that serve as
** placeholders for values that are [sqlite3_bind_blob | bound]
** to the parameters at a later time.
**
** This routine actually returns the index of the largest parameter.
** For all forms except ?NNN, this will correspond to the number of
** unique parameters.  If parameters of the ?NNN are used, there may
** be gaps in the list.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13601} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(S)] interface returns
**          the largest index of all SQL parameters in the
**          [prepared statement] S, or 0 if S
**          contains no SQL parameters.
*/
int sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Name Of A Host Parameter {F13620}
**
** This routine returns a pointer to the name of the n-th
** SQL parameter in a [prepared statement].
** SQL parameters of the form "?NNN" or ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA"
** have a name which is the string "?NNN" or ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA"
** respectively.
** In other words, the initial ":" or "$" or "@" or "?"
** is included as part of the name.
** Parameters of the form "?" without a following integer have no name.

**
** The first host parameter has an index of 1, not 0.
**
** If the value n is out of range or if the n-th parameter is
** nameless, then NULL is returned.  The returned string is
** always in the UTF-8 encoding even if the named parameter was
** originally specified as UTF-16 in [sqlite3_prepare16()] or
** [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13621} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(S,N)] interface returns
**          a UTF-8 rendering of the name of the SQL parameter in
**          [prepared statement] S having index N, or
**          NULL if there is no SQL parameter with index N or if the
**          parameter with index N is an anonymous parameter "?".
*/
const char *sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Index Of A Parameter With A Given Name {F13640}
................................................................................
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13641} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(S,N)] interface returns
**          the index of SQL parameter in [prepared statement]
**          S whose name matches the UTF-8 string N, or 0 if there is
**          no match.
*/
int sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(sqlite3_stmt*, const char *zName);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Reset All Bindings On A Prepared Statement {F13660}
**
** Contrary to the intuition of many, [sqlite3_reset()] does not
** reset the [sqlite3_bind_blob | bindings] on a 
** [prepared statement].  Use this routine to
** reset all host parameters to NULL.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13661} The [sqlite3_clear_bindings(S)] interface resets all
**          SQL parameter bindings in [prepared statement] S
**          back to NULL.
*/
int sqlite3_clear_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Number Of Columns In A Result Set {F13710}
**
** Return the number of columns in the result set returned by the 
** [prepared statement]. This routine returns 0
** if pStmt is an SQL statement that does not return data (for 
** example an UPDATE).
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13711} The [sqlite3_column_count(S)] interface returns the number of
**          columns in the result set generated by the
**          [prepared statement] S, or 0 if S does not generate
**          a result set.
*/
int sqlite3_column_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Column Names In A Result Set {F13720}
**
** These routines return the name assigned to a particular column
** in the result set of a SELECT statement.  The sqlite3_column_name()
** interface returns a pointer to a zero-terminated UTF8 string
** and sqlite3_column_name16() returns a pointer to a zero-terminated
** UTF16 string.  The first parameter is the
** [prepared statement] that implements the SELECT statement.
** The second parameter is the column number.  The left-most column is
** number 0.
**
** The returned string pointer is valid until either the 
** [prepared statement] is destroyed by [sqlite3_finalize()]
** or until the next call sqlite3_column_name() or sqlite3_column_name16()
** on the same column.
**
** If sqlite3_malloc() fails during the processing of either routine
** (for example during a conversion from UTF-8 to UTF-16) then a
** NULL pointer is returned.
**
** The name of a result column is the value of the "AS" clause for
** that column, if there is an AS clause.  If there is no AS clause
** then the name of the column is unspecified and may change from
** one release of SQLite to the next.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13721} A successful invocation of the [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)]
**          interface returns the name
**          of the Nth column (where 0 is the left-most column) for the
**          result set of [prepared statement] S as a
**          zero-terminated UTF-8 string.
**
** {F13723} A successful invocation of the [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)]
**          interface returns the name
**          of the Nth column (where 0 is the left-most column) for the

**          result set of [prepared statement] S as a
**          zero-terminated UTF-16 string in the native byte order.
**
** {F13724} The [sqlite3_column_name()] and [sqlite3_column_name16()]
**          interfaces return a NULL pointer if they are unable to
**          allocate memory to hold their normal return strings.
**
** {F13725} If the N parameter to [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)] or
**          [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)] is out of range, then the
**          interfaces return a NULL pointer.
** 
** {F13726} The strings returned by [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)] and
**          [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)] are valid until the next
**          call to either routine with the same S and N parameters
**          or until [sqlite3_finalize(S)] is called.
**
** {F13727} When a result column of a [SELECT] statement contains
**          an AS clause, the name of that column is the identifier
................................................................................
** {F11338} The [sqlite3_reset(S)] interface does not change the values
**          of any [sqlite3_bind_blob|bindings] on [prepared statement] S.
*/
int sqlite3_reset(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Create Or Redefine SQL Functions {F16100}
** KEYWORDS: {function creation routines} 


**
** These two functions (collectively known as
** "function creation routines") are used to add SQL functions or aggregates
** or to redefine the behavior of existing SQL functions or aggregates.  The
** difference only between the two is that the second parameter, the
** name of the (scalar) function or aggregate, is encoded in UTF-8 for
** sqlite3_create_function() and UTF-16 for sqlite3_create_function16().
................................................................................
  sqlite3*, 
  void(*)(void *,int ,char const *,char const *,sqlite3_int64),
  void*
);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Enable Or Disable Shared Pager Cache {F10330}

**
** This routine enables or disables the sharing of the database cache
** and schema data structures between connections to the same database.
** Sharing is enabled if the argument is true and disabled if the argument
** is false.
**
** Cache sharing is enabled and disabled
................................................................................
****** EXPERIMENTAL - subject to change without notice **************
*/

/*
** CAPI3REF: A Handle To An Open BLOB {F17800}
**
** An instance of this object represents an open BLOB on which
** incremental I/O can be preformed.
** Objects of this type are created by
** [sqlite3_blob_open()] and destroyed by [sqlite3_blob_close()].
** The [sqlite3_blob_read()] and [sqlite3_blob_write()] interfaces
** can be used to read or write small subsections of the blob.
** The [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface returns the size of the
** blob in bytes.
*/







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** on how SQLite interfaces are suppose to operate.
**
** The name of this file under configuration management is "sqlite.h.in".
** The makefile makes some minor changes to this file (such as inserting
** the version number) and changes its name to "sqlite3.h" as
** part of the build process.
**
** @(#) $Id: sqlite.h.in,v 1.346 2008/06/21 16:47:09 mihailim Exp $
*/
#ifndef _SQLITE3_H_
#define _SQLITE3_H_
#include <stdarg.h>     /* Needed for the definition of va_list */

/*
** Make sure we can call this stuff from C++.
................................................................................
**          the E parameter is not NULL, then [sqlite3_exec()] shall store
**          in *E an appropriate error message written into memory obtained
**          from [sqlite3_malloc()].
**
** {F12134} The [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] routine shall set the value of
**          *E to NULL if E is not NULL and there are no errors.
**
** {F12137} The [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] function shall set the [error code]
**          and message accessible via [sqlite3_errcode()],
**          [sqlite3_errmsg()], and [sqlite3_errmsg16()].
**
** {F12138} If the S parameter to [sqlite3_exec(D,S,C,A,E)] is NULL or an
**          empty string or contains nothing other than whitespace, comments,
**          and/or semicolons, then results of [sqlite3_errcode()],
**          [sqlite3_errmsg()], and [sqlite3_errmsg16()]
................................................................................
  void *,                                    /* 1st argument to callback */
  char **errmsg                              /* Error msg written here */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Result Codes {F10210}
** KEYWORDS: SQLITE_OK {error code} {error codes}
** KEYWORDS: {result code} {result codes}
**
** Many SQLite functions return an integer result code from the set shown
** here in order to indicates success or failure.
**
** See also: [SQLITE_IOERR_READ | extended result codes]
*/
#define SQLITE_OK           0   /* Successful result */
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_ROW         100  /* sqlite3_step() has another row ready */
#define SQLITE_DONE        101  /* sqlite3_step() has finished executing */
/* end-of-error-codes */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Extended Result Codes {F10220}
** KEYWORDS: {extended error code} {extended error codes}
** KEYWORDS: {extended result code} {extended result codes}
**
** In its default configuration, SQLite API routines return one of 26 integer
** [SQLITE_OK | result codes].  However, experience has shown that many of
** these result codes are too coarse-grained.  They do not provide as
** much information about problems as programmers might like.  In an effort to
** address this, newer versions of SQLite (version 3.3.8 and later) include
** support for additional result codes that provide more detailed information
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_MUTEX        10  /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */
#define SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMUTEX     11  /* sqlite3_mutex_methods* */

/*
** CAPI3REF: Enable Or Disable Extended Result Codes {F12200}
**
** The sqlite3_extended_result_codes() routine enables or disables the
** [extended result codes] feature of SQLite. The extended result
** codes are disabled by default for historical compatibility considerations.

**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12201} Each new [database connection] shall have the
**          [extended result codes] feature disabled by default.
**
** {F12202} The [sqlite3_extended_result_codes(D,F)] interface shall enable
................................................................................
** filename argument. The filename argument is interpreted as UTF-8 for
** sqlite3_open() and sqlite3_open_v2() and as UTF-16 in the native byte
** order for sqlite3_open16(). A [database connection] handle is usually
** returned in *ppDb, even if an error occurs.  The only exception is that
** if SQLite is unable to allocate memory to hold the [sqlite3] object,
** a NULL will be written into *ppDb instead of a pointer to the [sqlite3]
** object. If the database is opened (and/or created) successfully, then
** [SQLITE_OK] is returned.  Otherwise an [error code] is returned.  The
** [sqlite3_errmsg()] or [sqlite3_errmsg16()] routines can be used to obtain
** an English language description of the error.
**
** The default encoding for the database will be UTF-8 if
** sqlite3_open() or sqlite3_open_v2() is called and
** UTF-16 in the native byte order if sqlite3_open16() is used.
**
................................................................................
**          <todo>Is SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE|SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE required
**          in sqlite3_open_v2()?</todo>
**
** {F12721} The [database connection] created by [sqlite3_open_v2(F,D,G,V)]
**          will use the [sqlite3_vfs] object identified by the V parameter,
**          or the default [sqlite3_vfs] object if V is a NULL pointer.
**
** {F12723} Two [database connections] will share a common cache if both were
**          opened with the same VFS while [shared cache mode] was enabled and

**          if both filenames compare equal using memcmp() after having been
**          processed by the [sqlite3_vfs | xFullPathname] method of the VFS.
*/
int sqlite3_open(
  const char *filename,   /* Database filename (UTF-8) */
  sqlite3 **ppDb          /* OUT: SQLite db handle */
);
................................................................................
  int flags,              /* Flags */
  const char *zVfs        /* Name of VFS module to use */
);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Error Codes And Messages {F12800}
**
** The sqlite3_errcode() interface returns the numeric [result code] or

** [extended result code] for the most recent failed sqlite3_* API call
** associated with a [database connection]. If a prior API call failed
** but the most recent API call succeeded, the return value from
** sqlite3_errcode() is undefined.
**
** The sqlite3_errmsg() and sqlite3_errmsg16() return English-language
** text that describes the error, as either UTF8 or UTF16 respectively.
** Memory to hold the error message string is managed internally.
** The application does not need to worry about freeing the result.
** However, the error string might be overwritten or deallocated by
** subsequent calls to other SQLite interface functions.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12801} The [sqlite3_errcode(D)] interface returns the numeric
**          [result code] or [extended result code] for the most recently

**          failed interface call associated with the [database connection] D.

**
** {F12803} The [sqlite3_errmsg(D)] and [sqlite3_errmsg16(D)]
**          interfaces return English-language text that describes
**          the error in the mostly recently failed interface call,
**          encoded as either UTF8 or UTF16 respectively.
**
** {F12807} The strings returned by [sqlite3_errmsg()] and [sqlite3_errmsg16()]
................................................................................
const char *sqlite3_errmsg(sqlite3*);
const void *sqlite3_errmsg16(sqlite3*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: SQL Statement Object {F13000}
** KEYWORDS: {prepared statement} {prepared statements}
**
** An instance of this object represents a single SQL statement.
** This object is variously known as a "prepared statement" or a
** "compiled SQL statement" or simply as a "statement".
**
** The life of a statement object goes something like this:
**
** <ol>
** <li> Create the object using [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or a related
**      function.
** <li> Bind values to [host parameters] using the sqlite3_bind_*()
**      interfaces.
** <li> Run the SQL by calling [sqlite3_step()] one or more times.
** <li> Reset the statement using [sqlite3_reset()] then go back
**      to step 2.  Do this zero or more times.
** <li> Destroy the object using [sqlite3_finalize()].
** </ol>
**
** Refer to documentation on individual methods above for additional
................................................................................
** [database connection] whose limit is to be set or queried.  The
** second parameter is one of the [limit categories] that define a
** class of constructs to be size limited.  The third parameter is the
** new limit for that construct.  The function returns the old limit.
**
** If the new limit is a negative number, the limit is unchanged.
** For the limit category of SQLITE_LIMIT_XYZ there is a hard upper
** bound set by a compile-time C preprocessor macro named SQLITE_MAX_XYZ.
** (The "_LIMIT_" in the name is changed to "_MAX_".)
** Attempts to increase a limit above its hard upper bound are
** silently truncated to the hard upper limit.
**
** Run time limits are intended for use in applications that manage
** both their own internal database and also databases that are controlled
** by untrusted external sources.  An example application might be a
** webbrowser that has its own databases for storing history and
** separate databases controlled by JavaScript applications downloaded
** off the Internet.  The internal databases can be given the
** large, default limits.  Databases managed by external sources can
** be given much smaller limits designed to prevent a denial of service
** attack.  Developers might also want to use the [sqlite3_set_authorizer()]
** interface to further control untrusted SQL.  The size of the database
** created by an untrusted script can be contained using the
** [max_page_count] [PRAGMA].
**
** This interface is currently considered experimental and is subject
** to change or removal without prior notice.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F12762} A successful call to [sqlite3_limit(D,C,V)] where V is
**          positive changes the limit on the size of construct C in the

**          [database connection] D to the lesser of V and the hard upper
**          bound on the size of C that is set at compile-time.
**
** {F12766} A successful call to [sqlite3_limit(D,C,V)] where V is negative
**          leaves the state of the [database connection] D unchanged.
**
** {F12769} A successful call to [sqlite3_limit(D,C,V)] returns the
**          value of the limit on the size of construct C in the
**          [database connection] D as it was prior to the call.
*/
int sqlite3_limit(sqlite3*, int id, int newVal);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Run-Time Limit Categories {F12790}
** KEYWORDS: {limit category} {limit categories}
**
** These constants define various aspects of a [database connection]
** that can be limited in size by calls to [sqlite3_limit()].
** The meanings of the various limits are as follows:
**
** <dl>
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH</dt>
** <dd>The maximum size of any string or BLOB or table row.<dd>

**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH</dt>
** <dd>The maximum length of an SQL statement.</dd>
**
** <dt>SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN</dt>
** <dd>The maximum number of columns in a table definition or in the
** result set of a SELECT or the maximum number of columns in an index
................................................................................
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG              6
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_ATTACHED                  7
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH       8
#define SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER           9

/*
** CAPI3REF: Compiling An SQL Statement {F13010}
** KEYWORDS: {SQL statement compiler}
**
** To execute an SQL query, it must first be compiled into a byte-code
** program using one of these routines.
**

** The first argument, "db", is a [database connection] obtained from a
** prior call to [sqlite3_open()], [sqlite3_open_v2()] or [sqlite3_open16()].

**
** The second argument, "zSql", is the statement to be compiled, encoded
** as either UTF-8 or UTF-16.  The sqlite3_prepare() and sqlite3_prepare_v2()
** interfaces use UTF-8, and sqlite3_prepare16() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2()
** use UTF-16.{END}
**
** If the nByte argument is less than zero, then zSql is read up to the

** first zero terminator. If nByte is non-negative, then it is the maximum
** number of  bytes read from zSql.  When nByte is non-negative, the
** zSql string ends at either the first '\000' or '\u0000' character or
** the nByte-th byte, whichever comes first. If the caller knows
** that the supplied string is nul-terminated, then there is a small
** performance advantage to be gained by passing an nByte parameter that
** is equal to the number of bytes in the input string <i>including</i>
** the nul-terminator bytes.{END}
**
** *pzTail is made to point to the first byte past the end of the
** first SQL statement in zSql.  These routines only compile the first
** statement in zSql, so *pzTail is left pointing to what remains
** uncompiled.
**
** *ppStmt is left pointing to a compiled [prepared statement] that can be
** executed using [sqlite3_step()].  If there is an error, *ppStmt is set
** to NULL.  If the input text contains no SQL (if the input is an empty
** string or a comment) then *ppStmt is set to NULL.
** {U13018} The calling procedure is responsible for deleting the compiled

** SQL statement using [sqlite3_finalize()] after it has finished with it.
**
** On success, [SQLITE_OK] is returned, otherwise an [error code] is returned.

**
** The sqlite3_prepare_v2() and sqlite3_prepare16_v2() interfaces are
** recommended for all new programs. The two older interfaces are retained
** for backwards compatibility, but their use is discouraged.
** In the "v2" interfaces, the prepared statement
** that is returned (the [sqlite3_stmt] object) contains a copy of the
** original SQL text. {END} This causes the [sqlite3_step()] interface to
** behave a differently in two ways:
**
** <ol>
** <li>
** If the database schema changes, instead of returning [SQLITE_SCHEMA] as it
** always used to do, [sqlite3_step()] will automatically recompile the SQL
** statement and try to run it again.  If the schema has changed in
** a way that makes the statement no longer valid, [sqlite3_step()] will still
** return [SQLITE_SCHEMA].  But unlike the legacy behavior, [SQLITE_SCHEMA] is

** now a fatal error.  Calling [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] again will not make the
** error go away.  Note: use [sqlite3_errmsg()] to find the text
** of the parsing error that results in an [SQLITE_SCHEMA] return. {END}
** </li>
**
** <li>

** When an error occurs, [sqlite3_step()] will return one of the detailed
** [error codes] or [extended error codes].  The legacy behavior was that
** [sqlite3_step()] would only return a generic [SQLITE_ERROR] result code
** and you would have to make a second call to [sqlite3_reset()] in order
** to find the underlying cause of the problem. With the "v2" prepare
** interfaces, the underlying reason for the error is returned immediately.

** </li>
** </ol>
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13011} The [sqlite3_prepare(db,zSql,...)] and
**          [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,...)] interfaces interpret the
................................................................................
**          text in their zSql parameter as UTF-8.
**
** {F13012} The [sqlite3_prepare16(db,zSql,...)] and
**          [sqlite3_prepare16_v2(db,zSql,...)] interfaces interpret the
**          text in their zSql parameter as UTF-16 in the native byte order.
**
** {F13013} If the nByte argument to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,nByte,...)]
**          and its variants is less than zero, the SQL text is
**          read from zSql is read up to the first zero terminator.
**
** {F13014} If the nByte argument to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,nByte,...)]
**          and its variants is non-negative, then at most nBytes bytes of
**          SQL text is read from zSql.
**
** {F13015} In [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,N,P,pzTail)] and its variants
**          if the zSql input text contains more than one SQL statement
**          and pzTail is not NULL, then *pzTail is made to point to the
**          first byte past the end of the first SQL statement in zSql.
**          <todo>What does *pzTail point to if there is one statement?</todo>
**
** {F13016} A successful call to [sqlite3_prepare_v2(db,zSql,N,ppStmt,...)]
**          or one of its variants writes into *ppStmt a pointer to a new
**          [prepared statement] or a pointer to NULL if zSql contains
**          nothing other than whitespace or comments.
**
** {F13019} The [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] interface and its variants return
**          [SQLITE_OK] or an appropriate [error code] upon failure.
**
** {F13021} Before [sqlite3_prepare(db,zSql,nByte,ppStmt,pzTail)] or its
**          variants returns an error (any value other than [SQLITE_OK]),
**          they first set *ppStmt to NULL.
*/
int sqlite3_prepare(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database handle */
  const char *zSql,       /* SQL statement, UTF-8 encoded */
  int nByte,              /* Maximum length of zSql in bytes. */
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const char **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
................................................................................
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,  /* OUT: Statement handle */
  const void **pzTail     /* OUT: Pointer to unused portion of zSql */
);

/*
** CAPIREF: Retrieving Statement SQL {F13100}
**
** This interface can be used to retrieve a saved copy of the original
** SQL text used to create a [prepared statement] if that statement was
** compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13101} If the [prepared statement] passed as the argument to

**          [sqlite3_sql()] was compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or
**          [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()], then [sqlite3_sql()] returns

**          a pointer to a zero-terminated string containing a UTF-8 rendering
**          of the original SQL statement.
**
** {F13102} If the [prepared statement] passed as the argument to

**          [sqlite3_sql()] was compiled using either [sqlite3_prepare()] or
**          [sqlite3_prepare16()], then [sqlite3_sql()] returns a NULL pointer.

**
** {F13103} The string returned by [sqlite3_sql(S)] is valid until the
**          [prepared statement] S is deleted using [sqlite3_finalize(S)].
*/
const char *sqlite3_sql(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Dynamically Typed Value Object {F15000}
** KEYWORDS: {protected sqlite3_value} {unprotected sqlite3_value}
**
** SQLite uses the sqlite3_value object to represent all values
** that can be stored in a database table. SQLite uses dynamic typing

** for the values it stores. Values stored in sqlite3_value objects
** can be integers, floating point values, strings, BLOBs, or NULL.
**
** An sqlite3_value object may be either "protected" or "unprotected".
** Some interfaces require a protected sqlite3_value.  Other interfaces
** will accept either a protected or an unprotected sqlite3_value.
** Every interface that accepts sqlite3_value arguments specifies
** whether or not it requires a protected sqlite3_value.
**
** The terms "protected" and "unprotected" refer to whether or not
** a mutex is held.  A internal mutex is held for a protected
** sqlite3_value object but no mutex is held for an unprotected
** sqlite3_value object.  If SQLite is compiled to be single-threaded
** (with SQLITE_THREADSAFE=0 and with [sqlite3_threadsafe()] returning 0)
** then there is no distinction between protected and unprotected
** sqlite3_value objects and they can be used interchangeably.  However,
** for maximum code portability it is recommended that applications

** still make the distinction between between protected and unprotected
** sqlite3_value objects even if they are single threaded.
**
** The sqlite3_value objects that are passed as parameters into the
** implementation of [application-defined SQL functions] are protected.


** The sqlite3_value object returned by
** [sqlite3_column_value()] is unprotected.
** Unprotected sqlite3_value objects may only be used with
** [sqlite3_result_value()] and [sqlite3_bind_value()].
** The [sqlite3_value_blob | sqlite3_value_type()] family of
** interfaces require protected sqlite3_value objects.
*/
typedef struct Mem sqlite3_value;

/*
** CAPI3REF: SQL Function Context Object {F16001}
**
** The context in which an SQL function executes is stored in an
** sqlite3_context object.  A pointer to an sqlite3_context object
** is always first parameter to [application-defined SQL functions].

** The application-defined SQL function implementation will pass this

** pointer through into calls to [sqlite3_result_int | sqlite3_result()],
** [sqlite3_aggregate_context()], [sqlite3_user_data()],

** [sqlite3_context_db_handle()], [sqlite3_get_auxdata()],
** and/or [sqlite3_set_auxdata()].
*/
typedef struct sqlite3_context sqlite3_context;

/*
** CAPI3REF: Binding Values To Prepared Statements {F13500}
** KEYWORDS: {host parameter} {host parameters} {host parameter name}
** KEYWORDS: {SQL parameter} {SQL parameters}
**
** In the SQL strings input to [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] and its variants,
** literals may be replaced by a parameter in one of these forms:

**
** <ul>
** <li>  ?
** <li>  ?NNN
** <li>  :VVV
** <li>  @VVV
** <li>  $VVV
** </ul>
**
** In the parameter forms shown above NNN is an integer literal,
** and VVV is an alpha-numeric parameter name. The values of these
** parameters (also called "host parameter names" or "SQL parameters")

** can be set using the sqlite3_bind_*() routines defined here.
**
** The first argument to the sqlite3_bind_*() routines is always
** a pointer to the [sqlite3_stmt] object returned from
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] or its variants.
**
** The second argument is the index of the SQL parameter to be set.
** The leftmost SQL parameter has an index of 1.  When the same named
** SQL parameter is used more than once, second and subsequent
** occurrences have the same index as the first occurrence.
** The index for named parameters can be looked up using the
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()] API if desired.  The index
** for "?NNN" parameters is the value of NNN.
** The NNN value must be between 1 and the compile-time
** parameter SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER (default value: 999).
**
** The third argument is the value to bind to the parameter.
**

** In those routines that have a fourth argument, its value is the
** number of bytes in the parameter.  To be clear: the value is the
** number of <u>bytes</u> in the value, not the number of characters.
** If the fourth parameter is negative, the length of the string is
** the number of bytes up to the first zero terminator.
**
** The fifth argument to sqlite3_bind_blob(), sqlite3_bind_text(), and
** sqlite3_bind_text16() is a destructor used to dispose of the BLOB or
** string after SQLite has finished with it. If the fifth argument is
** the special value [SQLITE_STATIC], then SQLite assumes that the
** information is in static, unmanaged space and does not need to be freed.
** If the fifth argument has the value [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], then
** SQLite makes its own private copy of the data immediately, before
** the sqlite3_bind_*() routine returns.
**
** The sqlite3_bind_zeroblob() routine binds a BLOB of length N that
** is filled with zeroes.  A zeroblob uses a fixed amount of memory
** (just an integer to hold its size) while it is being processed.
** Zeroblobs are intended to serve as placeholders for BLOBs whose
** content is later written using
** [sqlite3_blob_open | incremental BLOB I/O] routines.
** A negative value for the zeroblob results in a zero-length BLOB.
**
** The sqlite3_bind_*() routines must be called after
** [sqlite3_prepare_v2()] (and its variants) or [sqlite3_reset()] and
** before [sqlite3_step()].
** Bindings are not cleared by the [sqlite3_reset()] routine.
** Unbound parameters are interpreted as NULL.
**
................................................................................
** virtual machine that is the wrong state or which has already been finalized.
** Detection of misuse is unreliable.  Applications should not depend
** on SQLITE_MISUSE returns.  SQLITE_MISUSE is intended to indicate a
** a logic error in the application.  Future versions of SQLite might
** panic rather than return SQLITE_MISUSE.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].

**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13506} The [SQL statement compiler] recognizes tokens of the forms
**          "?", "?NNN", "$VVV", ":VVV", and "@VVV" as SQL parameters,
**          where NNN is any sequence of one or more digits
**          and where VVV is any sequence of one or more alphanumeric
**          characters or "::" optionally followed by a string containing
**          no spaces and contained within parentheses.
**
** {F13509} The initial value of an SQL parameter is NULL.
**
** {F13512} The index of an "?" SQL parameter is one larger than the
**          largest index of SQL parameter to the left, or 1 if
**          the "?" is the leftmost SQL parameter.
**
................................................................................
**
** {F13518} The index of an ":VVV", "$VVV", or "@VVV" SQL parameter is
**          the same as the index of leftmost occurrences of the same
**          parameter, or one more than the largest index over all
**          parameters to the left if this is the first occurrence
**          of this parameter, or 1 if this is the leftmost parameter.
**
** {F13521} The [SQL statement compiler] fails with an [SQLITE_RANGE]
**          error if the index of an SQL parameter is less than 1
**          or greater than the compile-time SQLITE_MAX_VARIABLE_NUMBER
**          parameter.
**
** {F13524} Calls to [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,N,V,...)]
**          associate the value V with all SQL parameters having an
**          index of N in the [prepared statement] S.
**
** {F13527} Calls to [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,N,...)]
**          override prior calls with the same values of S and N.
................................................................................
**
** {F13530} Bindings established by [sqlite3_bind_text | sqlite3_bind(S,...)]
**          persist across calls to [sqlite3_reset(S)].
**
** {F13533} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] SQLite binds the first L
**          bytes of the BLOB or string pointed to by V, when L
**          is non-negative.
**
** {F13536} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)] or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] SQLite binds characters
**          from V through the first zero character when L is negative.
**
** {F13539} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
................................................................................
**          constant [SQLITE_STATIC], SQLite assumes that the value V
**          is held in static unmanaged space that will not change
**          during the lifetime of the binding.
**
** {F13542} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] when D is the special
**          constant [SQLITE_TRANSIENT], the routine makes a
**          private copy of the value V before it returns.
**
** {F13545} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_blob(S,N,V,L,D)],
**          [sqlite3_bind_text(S,N,V,L,D)], or
**          [sqlite3_bind_text16(S,N,V,L,D)] when D is a pointer to
**          a function, SQLite invokes that function to destroy the
**          value V after it has finished using the value V.
**
** {F13548} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(S,N,V,L)] the value bound
**          is a BLOB of L bytes, or a zero-length BLOB if L is negative.
**
** {F13551} In calls to [sqlite3_bind_value(S,N,V)] the V argument may
**          be either a [protected sqlite3_value] object or an
**          [unprotected sqlite3_value] object.
*/
int sqlite3_bind_blob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int n, void(*)(void*));
int sqlite3_bind_double(sqlite3_stmt*, int, double);
................................................................................
int sqlite3_bind_text16(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const void*, int, void(*)(void*));
int sqlite3_bind_value(sqlite3_stmt*, int, const sqlite3_value*);
int sqlite3_bind_zeroblob(sqlite3_stmt*, int, int n);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Number Of SQL Parameters {F13600}
**
** This routine can be used to find the number of [SQL parameters]
** in a [prepared statement].  SQL parameters are tokens of the
** form "?", "?NNN", ":AAA", "$AAA", or "@AAA" that serve as
** placeholders for values that are [sqlite3_bind_blob | bound]
** to the parameters at a later time.
**
** This routine actually returns the index of the largest (right-most)
** parameter. For all forms except ?NNN, this will correspond to the
** number of unique parameters.  If parameters of the ?NNN are used,
** there may be gaps in the list.
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13601} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(S)] interface returns
**          the largest index of all SQL parameters in the
**          [prepared statement] S, or 0 if S contains no SQL parameters.

*/
int sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Name Of A Host Parameter {F13620}
**
** This routine returns a pointer to the name of the n-th
** [SQL parameter] in a [prepared statement].
** SQL parameters of the form "?NNN" or ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA"
** have a name which is the string "?NNN" or ":AAA" or "@AAA" or "$AAA"
** respectively.
** In other words, the initial ":" or "$" or "@" or "?"
** is included as part of the name.
** Parameters of the form "?" without a following integer have no name
** and are also referred to as "anonymous parameters".
**
** The first host parameter has an index of 1, not 0.
**
** If the value n is out of range or if the n-th parameter is
** nameless, then NULL is returned.  The returned string is
** always in UTF-8 encoding even if the named parameter was
** originally specified as UTF-16 in [sqlite3_prepare16()] or
** [sqlite3_prepare16_v2()].
**
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13621} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(S,N)] interface returns
**          a UTF-8 rendering of the name of the SQL parameter in
**          the [prepared statement] S having index N, or
**          NULL if there is no SQL parameter with index N or if the
**          parameter with index N is an anonymous parameter "?".
*/
const char *sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(sqlite3_stmt*, int);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Index Of A Parameter With A Given Name {F13640}
................................................................................
** See also: [sqlite3_bind_blob|sqlite3_bind()],
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_count()], and
** [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index()].
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13641} The [sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(S,N)] interface returns
**          the index of SQL parameter in the [prepared statement]
**          S whose name matches the UTF-8 string N, or 0 if there is
**          no match.
*/
int sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(sqlite3_stmt*, const char *zName);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Reset All Bindings On A Prepared Statement {F13660}
**
** Contrary to the intuition of many, [sqlite3_reset()] does not reset
** the [sqlite3_bind_blob | bindings] on a [prepared statement].

** Use this routine to reset all host parameters to NULL.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13661} The [sqlite3_clear_bindings(S)] interface resets all SQL
**          parameter bindings in the [prepared statement] S back to NULL.

*/
int sqlite3_clear_bindings(sqlite3_stmt*);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Number Of Columns In A Result Set {F13710}
**
** Return the number of columns in the result set returned by the
** [prepared statement]. This routine returns 0 if pStmt is an SQL
** statement that does not return data (for example an UPDATE).

**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13711} The [sqlite3_column_count(S)] interface returns the number of
**          columns in the result set generated by the [prepared statement] S,
**          or 0 if S does not generate a result set.

*/
int sqlite3_column_count(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Column Names In A Result Set {F13720}
**
** These routines return the name assigned to a particular column
** in the result set of a SELECT statement.  The sqlite3_column_name()
** interface returns a pointer to a zero-terminated UTF-8 string
** and sqlite3_column_name16() returns a pointer to a zero-terminated
** UTF-16 string.  The first parameter is the [prepared statement]
** that implements the SELECT statement. The second parameter is the
** column number.  The leftmost column is number 0.

**
** The returned string pointer is valid until either the [prepared statement]
** is destroyed by [sqlite3_finalize()] or until the next call to
** sqlite3_column_name() or sqlite3_column_name16() on the same column.

**
** If sqlite3_malloc() fails during the processing of either routine
** (for example during a conversion from UTF-8 to UTF-16) then a
** NULL pointer is returned.
**
** The name of a result column is the value of the "AS" clause for
** that column, if there is an AS clause.  If there is no AS clause
** then the name of the column is unspecified and may change from
** one release of SQLite to the next.
**
** INVARIANTS:
**
** {F13721} A successful invocation of the [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)]
**          interface returns the name of the Nth column (where 0 is
**          the leftmost column) for the result set of the

**          [prepared statement] S as a zero-terminated UTF-8 string.
**
** {F13723} A successful invocation of the [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)]
**          interface returns the name of the Nth column (where 0 is

**          the leftmost column) for the result set of the
**          [prepared statement] S as a zero-terminated UTF-16 string
**          in the native byte order.
**
** {F13724} The [sqlite3_column_name()] and [sqlite3_column_name16()]
**          interfaces return a NULL pointer if they are unable to
**          allocate memory to hold their normal return strings.
**
** {F13725} If the N parameter to [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)] or
**          [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)] is out of range, then the
**          interfaces return a NULL pointer.
**
** {F13726} The strings returned by [sqlite3_column_name(S,N)] and
**          [sqlite3_column_name16(S,N)] are valid until the next
**          call to either routine with the same S and N parameters
**          or until [sqlite3_finalize(S)] is called.
**
** {F13727} When a result column of a [SELECT] statement contains
**          an AS clause, the name of that column is the identifier
................................................................................
** {F11338} The [sqlite3_reset(S)] interface does not change the values
**          of any [sqlite3_bind_blob|bindings] on [prepared statement] S.
*/
int sqlite3_reset(sqlite3_stmt *pStmt);

/*
** CAPI3REF: Create Or Redefine SQL Functions {F16100}
** KEYWORDS: {function creation routines}
** KEYWORDS: {application-defined SQL function}
** KEYWORDS: {application-defined SQL functions}
**
** These two functions (collectively known as
** "function creation routines") are used to add SQL functions or aggregates
** or to redefine the behavior of existing SQL functions or aggregates.  The
** difference only between the two is that the second parameter, the
** name of the (scalar) function or aggregate, is encoded in UTF-8 for
** sqlite3_create_function() and UTF-16 for sqlite3_create_function16().
................................................................................
  sqlite3*, 
  void(*)(void *,int ,char const *,char const *,sqlite3_int64),
  void*
);

/*
** CAPI3REF:  Enable Or Disable Shared Pager Cache {F10330}
** KEYWORDS: {shared cache} {shared cache mode}
**
** This routine enables or disables the sharing of the database cache
** and schema data structures between connections to the same database.
** Sharing is enabled if the argument is true and disabled if the argument
** is false.
**
** Cache sharing is enabled and disabled
................................................................................
****** EXPERIMENTAL - subject to change without notice **************
*/

/*
** CAPI3REF: A Handle To An Open BLOB {F17800}
**
** An instance of this object represents an open BLOB on which
** [sqlite3_blob_open | incremental BLOB I/O] can be preformed.
** Objects of this type are created by
** [sqlite3_blob_open()] and destroyed by [sqlite3_blob_close()].
** The [sqlite3_blob_read()] and [sqlite3_blob_write()] interfaces
** can be used to read or write small subsections of the blob.
** The [sqlite3_blob_bytes()] interface returns the size of the
** blob in bytes.
*/