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SQLite training in Houston TX on 2019-11-05 (details)
Part of the 2019 Tcl Conference

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Overview
Comment:The output of sqlite3_trace() now shows each command of a trigger as it is evaluated. This feature involved major changes to the parser, such as removing the ExprSpan object and replacing it with a new mechanism for capturing the original SQL text of phrases in the input SQL.
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SHA3-256: 0fdf97efe5df745510c6b4b377a8ee5683a3a237630bfbd0f56e57c7c6e5b246
User & Date: drh 2017-12-27 22:09:53
References
2018-01-10
00:40
Compute the correct column name even if the column identifier is the very last token in the SQL statement. This fixes a problem introduced by check-in [0fdf97efe5df745510c6b] and reported by the community during beta-testing. check-in: 36b89d72 user: drh tags: trunk
Context
2017-12-29
12:50
Add test cases for the undocumented behavior of duplicate columns on an INSERT or UPDATE. check-in: f4349c0c user: drh tags: trunk
2017-12-27
22:09
The output of sqlite3_trace() now shows each command of a trigger as it is evaluated. This feature involved major changes to the parser, such as removing the ExprSpan object and replacing it with a new mechanism for capturing the original SQL text of phrases in the input SQL. check-in: 0fdf97ef user: drh tags: trunk
21:30
Omit all sqlite3_trace() output from the triggers associated with foreign key constraints. Closed-Leaf check-in: fda08e3d user: drh tags: span-refactor
18:19
Enhance the Lemon parser generator so that it creates a faster parser at the cost of slightly larger parser tables. Add the ability to measure coverage of the generated state machine when compiling with the -DYYCONVERGE option. In SQLite, add the SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PARSER_COVERAGE test-control to query the new parser coverage feature. check-in: 1b22b42e user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/build.c.

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**
** Default value expressions must be constant.  Raise an exception if this
** is not the case.
**
** This routine is called by the parser while in the middle of
** parsing a CREATE TABLE statement.
*/
void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse *pParse, ExprSpan *pSpan){





  Table *p;
  Column *pCol;
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  p = pParse->pNewTable;
  if( p!=0 ){
    pCol = &(p->aCol[p->nCol-1]);
    if( !sqlite3ExprIsConstantOrFunction(pSpan->pExpr, db->init.busy) ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "default value of column [%s] is not constant",
          pCol->zName);
    }else{
      /* A copy of pExpr is used instead of the original, as pExpr contains
      ** tokens that point to volatile memory. The 'span' of the expression
      ** is required by pragma table_info.
      */
      Expr x;
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pCol->pDflt);
      memset(&x, 0, sizeof(x));
      x.op = TK_SPAN;
      x.u.zToken = sqlite3DbStrNDup(db, (char*)pSpan->zStart,
                                    (int)(pSpan->zEnd - pSpan->zStart));
      x.pLeft = pSpan->pExpr;
      x.flags = EP_Skip;
      pCol->pDflt = sqlite3ExprDup(db, &x, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
      sqlite3DbFree(db, x.u.zToken);
    }
  }
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pSpan->pExpr);
}

/*
** Backwards Compatibility Hack:
** 
** Historical versions of SQLite accepted strings as column names in
** indexes and PRIMARY KEY constraints and in UNIQUE constraints.  Example:







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**
** Default value expressions must be constant.  Raise an exception if this
** is not the case.
**
** This routine is called by the parser while in the middle of
** parsing a CREATE TABLE statement.
*/
void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(
  Parse *pParse,           /* Parsing context */
  Expr *pExpr,             /* The parsed expression of the default value */
  const char *zStart,      /* Start of the default value text */
  const char *zEnd         /* First character past end of defaut value text */
){
  Table *p;
  Column *pCol;
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  p = pParse->pNewTable;
  if( p!=0 ){
    pCol = &(p->aCol[p->nCol-1]);
    if( !sqlite3ExprIsConstantOrFunction(pExpr, db->init.busy) ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "default value of column [%s] is not constant",
          pCol->zName);
    }else{
      /* A copy of pExpr is used instead of the original, as pExpr contains
      ** tokens that point to volatile memory.	

      */
      Expr x;
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pCol->pDflt);
      memset(&x, 0, sizeof(x));
      x.op = TK_SPAN;
      x.u.zToken = sqlite3DbSpanDup(db, zStart, zEnd);

      x.pLeft = pExpr;
      x.flags = EP_Skip;
      pCol->pDflt = sqlite3ExprDup(db, &x, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
      sqlite3DbFree(db, x.u.zToken);
    }
  }
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pExpr);
}

/*
** Backwards Compatibility Hack:
** 
** Historical versions of SQLite accepted strings as column names in
** indexes and PRIMARY KEY constraints and in UNIQUE constraints.  Example:

Changes to src/expr.c.

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** pList might be NULL following an OOM error.  But pSpan should never be
** NULL.  If a memory allocation fails, the pParse->db->mallocFailed flag
** is set.
*/
void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parsing context */
  ExprList *pList,        /* List to which to add the span. */
  ExprSpan *pSpan         /* The span to be added */

){
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  assert( pList!=0 || db->mallocFailed!=0 );
  if( pList ){
    struct ExprList_item *pItem = &pList->a[pList->nExpr-1];
    assert( pList->nExpr>0 );
    assert( db->mallocFailed || pItem->pExpr==pSpan->pExpr );
    sqlite3DbFree(db, pItem->zSpan);
    pItem->zSpan = sqlite3DbStrNDup(db, (char*)pSpan->zStart,
                                    (int)(pSpan->zEnd - pSpan->zStart));
  }
}

/*
** If the expression list pEList contains more than iLimit elements,
** leave an error message in pParse.
*/







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** pList might be NULL following an OOM error.  But pSpan should never be
** NULL.  If a memory allocation fails, the pParse->db->mallocFailed flag
** is set.
*/
void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parsing context */
  ExprList *pList,        /* List to which to add the span. */
  const char *zStart,     /* Start of the span */
  const char *zEnd        /* End of the span */
){
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  assert( pList!=0 || db->mallocFailed!=0 );
  if( pList ){
    struct ExprList_item *pItem = &pList->a[pList->nExpr-1];
    assert( pList->nExpr>0 );

    sqlite3DbFree(db, pItem->zSpan);
    pItem->zSpan = sqlite3DbSpanDup(db, zStart, zEnd);

  }
}

/*
** If the expression list pEList contains more than iLimit elements,
** leave an error message in pParse.
*/

Changes to src/malloc.c.

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  zNew = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(db, n+1);
  if( zNew ){
    memcpy(zNew, z, (size_t)n);
    zNew[n] = 0;
  }
  return zNew;
}














/*
** Free any prior content in *pz and replace it with a copy of zNew.
*/
void sqlite3SetString(char **pz, sqlite3 *db, const char *zNew){
  sqlite3DbFree(db, *pz);
  *pz = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, zNew);







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  zNew = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(db, n+1);
  if( zNew ){
    memcpy(zNew, z, (size_t)n);
    zNew[n] = 0;
  }
  return zNew;
}

/*
** The text between zStart and zEnd represents a phrase within a larger
** SQL statement.  Make a copy of this phrase in space obtained form
** sqlite3DbMalloc().  Omit leading and trailing whitespace.
*/
char *sqlite3DbSpanDup(sqlite3 *db, const char *zStart, const char *zEnd){
  int n;
  while( sqlite3Isspace(zStart[0]) ) zStart++;
  n = (int)(zEnd - zStart);
  while( n>0 && sqlite3Isspace(zStart[n-1]) ) n--;
  return sqlite3DbStrNDup(db, zStart, n);
}

/*
** Free any prior content in *pz and replace it with a copy of zNew.
*/
void sqlite3SetString(char **pz, sqlite3 *db, const char *zNew){
  sqlite3DbFree(db, *pz);
  *pz = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, zNew);

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  A.n = (int)(&Y.z[Y.n] - A.z);
}
%type typename {Token}
typename(A) ::= ids(A).
typename(A) ::= typename(A) ids(Y). {A.n=Y.n+(int)(Y.z-A.z);}
signed ::= plus_num.
signed ::= minus_num.




















// "carglist" is a list of additional constraints that come after the
// column name and column type in a CREATE TABLE statement.
//
carglist ::= carglist ccons.
carglist ::= .
ccons ::= CONSTRAINT nm(X).           {pParse->constraintName = X;}

ccons ::= DEFAULT term(X).            {sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,&X);}

ccons ::= DEFAULT LP expr(X) RP.      {sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,&X);}

ccons ::= DEFAULT PLUS term(X).       {sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,&X);}
ccons ::= DEFAULT MINUS(A) term(X).      {
  ExprSpan v;
  v.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_UMINUS, X.pExpr, 0);
  v.zStart = A.z;
  v.zEnd = X.zEnd;
  sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,&v);
}
ccons ::= DEFAULT id(X).              {
  ExprSpan v;
  spanExpr(&v, pParse, TK_STRING, X);
  sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,&v);
}

// In addition to the type name, we also care about the primary key and
// UNIQUE constraints.
//
ccons ::= NULL onconf.
ccons ::= NOT NULL onconf(R).    {sqlite3AddNotNull(pParse, R);}
ccons ::= PRIMARY KEY sortorder(Z) onconf(R) autoinc(I).
                                 {sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(pParse,0,R,I,Z);}
ccons ::= UNIQUE onconf(R).      {sqlite3CreateIndex(pParse,0,0,0,0,R,0,0,0,0,
                                   SQLITE_IDXTYPE_UNIQUE);}
ccons ::= CHECK LP expr(X) RP.   {sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(pParse,X.pExpr);}
ccons ::= REFERENCES nm(T) eidlist_opt(TA) refargs(R).
                                 {sqlite3CreateForeignKey(pParse,0,&T,TA,R);}
ccons ::= defer_subclause(D).    {sqlite3DeferForeignKey(pParse,D);}
ccons ::= COLLATE ids(C).        {sqlite3AddCollateType(pParse, &C);}

// The optional AUTOINCREMENT keyword
%type autoinc {int}
................................................................................
tcons ::= CONSTRAINT nm(X).      {pParse->constraintName = X;}
tcons ::= PRIMARY KEY LP sortlist(X) autoinc(I) RP onconf(R).
                                 {sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(pParse,X,R,I,0);}
tcons ::= UNIQUE LP sortlist(X) RP onconf(R).
                                 {sqlite3CreateIndex(pParse,0,0,0,X,R,0,0,0,0,
                                       SQLITE_IDXTYPE_UNIQUE);}
tcons ::= CHECK LP expr(E) RP onconf.
                                 {sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(pParse,E.pExpr);}
tcons ::= FOREIGN KEY LP eidlist(FA) RP
          REFERENCES nm(T) eidlist_opt(TA) refargs(R) defer_subclause_opt(D). {
    sqlite3CreateForeignKey(pParse, FA, &T, TA, R);
    sqlite3DeferForeignKey(pParse, D);
}
%type defer_subclause_opt {int}
defer_subclause_opt(A) ::= .                    {A = 0;}
................................................................................
//
%type selcollist {ExprList*}
%destructor selcollist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type sclp {ExprList*}
%destructor sclp {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
sclp(A) ::= selcollist(A) COMMA.
sclp(A) ::= .                                {A = 0;}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(A) expr(X) as(Y).     {
   A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, X.pExpr);
   if( Y.n>0 ) sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &Y, 1);
   sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(pParse,A,&X);
}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(A) STAR. {
  Expr *p = sqlite3Expr(pParse->db, TK_ASTERISK, 0);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, p);
}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(A) nm(X) DOT STAR. {
  Expr *pRight = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ASTERISK, 0, 0);
  Expr *pLeft = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &X, 1);
  Expr *pDot = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, pLeft, pRight);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, pDot);
}

// An option "AS <id>" phrase that can follow one of the expressions that
................................................................................
joinop(X) ::= JOIN_KW(A) nm(B) JOIN.
                  {X = sqlite3JoinType(pParse,&A,&B,0); /*X-overwrites-A*/}
joinop(X) ::= JOIN_KW(A) nm(B) nm(C) JOIN.
                  {X = sqlite3JoinType(pParse,&A,&B,&C);/*X-overwrites-A*/}

%type on_opt {Expr*}
%destructor on_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
on_opt(N) ::= ON expr(E).   {N = E.pExpr;}
on_opt(N) ::= .             {N = 0;}

// Note that this block abuses the Token type just a little. If there is
// no "INDEXED BY" clause, the returned token is empty (z==0 && n==0). If
// there is an INDEXED BY clause, then the token is populated as per normal,
// with z pointing to the token data and n containing the number of bytes
// in the token.
................................................................................
//
%type sortlist {ExprList*}
%destructor sortlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

orderby_opt(A) ::= .                          {A = 0;}
orderby_opt(A) ::= ORDER BY sortlist(X).      {A = X;}
sortlist(A) ::= sortlist(A) COMMA expr(Y) sortorder(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A,Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(A,Z);
}
sortlist(A) ::= expr(Y) sortorder(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0,Y.pExpr); /*A-overwrites-Y*/
  sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(A,Z);
}

%type sortorder {int}

sortorder(A) ::= ASC.           {A = SQLITE_SO_ASC;}
sortorder(A) ::= DESC.          {A = SQLITE_SO_DESC;}
................................................................................
%destructor groupby_opt {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
groupby_opt(A) ::= .                      {A = 0;}
groupby_opt(A) ::= GROUP BY nexprlist(X). {A = X;}

%type having_opt {Expr*}
%destructor having_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
having_opt(A) ::= .                {A = 0;}
having_opt(A) ::= HAVING expr(X).  {A = X.pExpr;}

%type limit_opt {Expr*}

// The destructor for limit_opt will never fire in the current grammar.
// The limit_opt non-terminal only occurs at the end of a single production
// rule for SELECT statements.  As soon as the rule that create the 
// limit_opt non-terminal reduces, the SELECT statement rule will also
// reduce.  So there is never a limit_opt non-terminal on the stack 
// except as a transient.  So there is never anything to destroy.
//
//%destructor limit_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
limit_opt(A) ::= .       {A = 0;}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X).
                         {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_LIMIT,X.pExpr,0);}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X) OFFSET expr(Y). 
                         {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_LIMIT,X.pExpr,Y.pExpr);}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X) COMMA expr(Y). 
                         {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_LIMIT,Y.pExpr,X.pExpr);}

/////////////////////////// The DELETE statement /////////////////////////////
//
%ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) DELETE FROM fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) where_opt(W) 
        orderby_opt(O) limit_opt(L). {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
................................................................................
}
%endif

%type where_opt {Expr*}
%destructor where_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

where_opt(A) ::= .                    {A = 0;}
where_opt(A) ::= WHERE expr(X).       {A = X.pExpr;}

////////////////////////// The UPDATE command ////////////////////////////////
//
%ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) UPDATE orconf(R) fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) SET setlist(Y)
        where_opt(W) orderby_opt(O) limit_opt(L).  {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
................................................................................
}
%endif

%type setlist {ExprList*}
%destructor setlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

setlist(A) ::= setlist(A) COMMA nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}
setlist(A) ::= setlist(A) COMMA LP idlist(X) RP EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(pParse, A, X, Y.pExpr);
}
setlist(A) ::= nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, 0, Y.pExpr);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}
setlist(A) ::= LP idlist(X) RP EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(pParse, 0, X, Y.pExpr);
}

////////////////////////// The INSERT command /////////////////////////////////
//
cmd ::= with(W) insert_cmd(R) INTO fullname(X) idlist_opt(F) select(S). {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, W, 1);
  sqlite3Insert(pParse, X, S, F, R);
................................................................................
    {A = sqlite3IdListAppend(pParse->db,A,&Y);}
idlist(A) ::= nm(Y).
    {A = sqlite3IdListAppend(pParse->db,0,&Y); /*A-overwrites-Y*/}

/////////////////////////// Expression Processing /////////////////////////////
//

%type expr {ExprSpan}
%destructor expr {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$.pExpr);}
%type term {ExprSpan}
%destructor term {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$.pExpr);}

%include {
  /* This is a utility routine used to set the ExprSpan.zStart and
  ** ExprSpan.zEnd values of pOut so that the span covers the complete
  ** range of text beginning with pStart and going to the end of pEnd.
  */
  static void spanSet(ExprSpan *pOut, Token *pStart, Token *pEnd){
    pOut->zStart = pStart->z;
    pOut->zEnd = &pEnd->z[pEnd->n];
  }

  /* Construct a new Expr object from a single identifier.  Use the
  ** new Expr to populate pOut.  Set the span of pOut to be the identifier
  ** that created the expression.
  */
  static void spanExpr(ExprSpan *pOut, Parse *pParse, int op, Token t){
    Expr *p = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(pParse->db, sizeof(Expr)+t.n+1);
    if( p ){
      memset(p, 0, sizeof(Expr));
      p->op = (u8)op;
      p->flags = EP_Leaf;
      p->iAgg = -1;
      p->u.zToken = (char*)&p[1];
................................................................................
        if( p->u.zToken[0]=='"' ) p->flags |= EP_DblQuoted;
        sqlite3Dequote(p->u.zToken);
      }
#if SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
      p->nHeight = 1;
#endif  
    }
    pOut->pExpr = p;
    pOut->zStart = t.z;
    pOut->zEnd = &t.z[t.n];
  }
}

expr(A) ::= term(A).
expr(A) ::= LP(B) expr(X) RP(E).
            {spanSet(&A,&B,&E); /*A-overwrites-B*/  A.pExpr = X.pExpr;}
expr(A) ::= id(X).          {spanExpr(&A,pParse,TK_ID,X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}
expr(A) ::= JOIN_KW(X).     {spanExpr(&A,pParse,TK_ID,X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}
expr(A) ::= nm(X) DOT nm(Y). {
  Expr *temp1 = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &X, 1);
  Expr *temp2 = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &Y, 1);
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Y); /*A-overwrites-X*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp1, temp2);
}
expr(A) ::= nm(X) DOT nm(Y) DOT nm(Z). {
  Expr *temp1 = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &X, 1);
  Expr *temp2 = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &Y, 1);
  Expr *temp3 = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &Z, 1);
  Expr *temp4 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp2, temp3);
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Z); /*A-overwrites-X*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp1, temp4);
}
term(A) ::= NULL|FLOAT|BLOB(X). {spanExpr(&A,pParse,@X,X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}
term(A) ::= STRING(X).          {spanExpr(&A,pParse,@X,X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}
term(A) ::= INTEGER(X). {
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_INTEGER, &X, 1);
  A.zStart = X.z;
  A.zEnd = X.z + X.n;
}
expr(A) ::= VARIABLE(X).     {
  if( !(X.z[0]=='#' && sqlite3Isdigit(X.z[1])) ){
    u32 n = X.n;
    spanExpr(&A, pParse, TK_VARIABLE, X);
    sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(pParse, A.pExpr, n);
  }else{
    /* When doing a nested parse, one can include terms in an expression
    ** that look like this:   #1 #2 ...  These terms refer to registers
    ** in the virtual machine.  #N is the N-th register. */
    Token t = X; /*A-overwrites-X*/
    assert( t.n>=2 );
    spanSet(&A, &t, &t);
    if( pParse->nested==0 ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "near \"%T\": syntax error", &t);
      A.pExpr = 0;
    }else{
      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_REGISTER, 0, 0);
      if( A.pExpr ) sqlite3GetInt32(&t.z[1], &A.pExpr->iTable);
    }
  }
}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) COLLATE ids(C). {
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(pParse, A.pExpr, &C, 1);
  A.zEnd = &C.z[C.n];
}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
expr(A) ::= CAST(X) LP expr(E) AS typetoken(T) RP(Y). {
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Y); /*A-overwrites-X*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_CAST, &T, 1);
  sqlite3ExprAttachSubtrees(pParse->db, A.pExpr, E.pExpr, 0);
}
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
expr(A) ::= id(X) LP distinct(D) exprlist(Y) RP(E). {
  if( Y && Y->nExpr>pParse->db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG] ){
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "too many arguments on function %T", &X);
  }
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, Y, &X);
  spanSet(&A,&X,&E);
  if( D==SF_Distinct && A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->flags |= EP_Distinct;
  }
}
expr(A) ::= id(X) LP STAR RP(E). {
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, 0, &X);
  spanSet(&A,&X,&E);
}
term(A) ::= CTIME_KW(OP). {
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, 0, &OP);
  spanSet(&A, &OP, &OP);
}

%include {
  /* This routine constructs a binary expression node out of two ExprSpan
  ** objects and uses the result to populate a new ExprSpan object.
  */
  static void spanBinaryExpr(
    Parse *pParse,      /* The parsing context.  Errors accumulate here */
    int op,             /* The binary operation */
    ExprSpan *pLeft,    /* The left operand, and output */
    ExprSpan *pRight    /* The right operand */
  ){
    pLeft->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, pLeft->pExpr, pRight->pExpr);
    pLeft->zEnd = pRight->zEnd;
  }

  /* If doNot is true, then add a TK_NOT Expr-node wrapper around the
  ** outside of *ppExpr.
  */
  static void exprNot(Parse *pParse, int doNot, ExprSpan *pSpan){
    if( doNot ){
      pSpan->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, pSpan->pExpr, 0);
    }
  }
}

expr(A) ::= LP(L) nexprlist(X) COMMA expr(Y) RP(R). {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, X, Y.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_VECTOR, 0, 0);
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->x.pList = pList;
    spanSet(&A, &L, &R);
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pList);
  }
}

expr(A) ::= expr(A) AND(OP) expr(Y).    {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) OR(OP) expr(Y).     {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) LT|GT|GE|LE(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) EQ|NE(OP) expr(Y).  {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) BITAND|BITOR|LSHIFT|RSHIFT(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) PLUS|MINUS(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) STAR|SLASH|REM(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) CONCAT(OP) expr(Y). {spanBinaryExpr(pParse,@OP,&A,&Y);}
%type likeop {Token}
likeop(A) ::= LIKE_KW|MATCH(A).
likeop(A) ::= NOT LIKE_KW|MATCH(X). {A=X; A.n|=0x80000000; /*A-overwrite-X*/}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) likeop(OP) expr(Y).  [LIKE_KW]  {
  ExprList *pList;
  int bNot = OP.n & 0x80000000;
  OP.n &= 0x7fffffff;
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, A.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, pList, &OP);
  exprNot(pParse, bNot, &A);
  A.zEnd = Y.zEnd;
  if( A.pExpr ) A.pExpr->flags |= EP_InfixFunc;
}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) likeop(OP) expr(Y) ESCAPE expr(E).  [LIKE_KW]  {
  ExprList *pList;
  int bNot = OP.n & 0x80000000;
  OP.n &= 0x7fffffff;
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, A.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, E.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, pList, &OP);
  exprNot(pParse, bNot, &A);
  A.zEnd = E.zEnd;
  if( A.pExpr ) A.pExpr->flags |= EP_InfixFunc;
}

%include {
  /* Construct an expression node for a unary postfix operator
  */
  static void spanUnaryPostfix(
    Parse *pParse,         /* Parsing context to record errors */
    int op,                /* The operator */
    ExprSpan *pOperand,    /* The operand, and output */
    Token *pPostOp         /* The operand token for setting the span */
  ){
    pOperand->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, pOperand->pExpr, 0);
    pOperand->zEnd = &pPostOp->z[pPostOp->n];
  }                           
}

expr(A) ::= expr(A) ISNULL|NOTNULL(E).   {spanUnaryPostfix(pParse,@E,&A,&E);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) NOT NULL(E). {spanUnaryPostfix(pParse,TK_NOTNULL,&A,&E);}

%include {
  /* A routine to convert a binary TK_IS or TK_ISNOT expression into a
  ** unary TK_ISNULL or TK_NOTNULL expression. */
  static void binaryToUnaryIfNull(Parse *pParse, Expr *pY, Expr *pA, int op){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
    if( pA && pY && pY->op==TK_NULL ){
................................................................................
//    expr1 IS expr2
//    expr1 IS NOT expr2
//
// If expr2 is NULL then code as TK_ISNULL or TK_NOTNULL.  If expr2
// is any other expression, code as TK_IS or TK_ISNOT.
// 
expr(A) ::= expr(A) IS expr(Y).     {
  spanBinaryExpr(pParse,TK_IS,&A,&Y);
  binaryToUnaryIfNull(pParse, Y.pExpr, A.pExpr, TK_ISNULL);
}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) IS NOT expr(Y). {
  spanBinaryExpr(pParse,TK_ISNOT,&A,&Y);
  binaryToUnaryIfNull(pParse, Y.pExpr, A.pExpr, TK_NOTNULL);
}

%include {
  /* Construct an expression node for a unary prefix operator
  */
  static void spanUnaryPrefix(
    ExprSpan *pOut,        /* Write the new expression node here */
    Parse *pParse,         /* Parsing context to record errors */
    int op,                /* The operator */
    ExprSpan *pOperand,    /* The operand */
    Token *pPreOp         /* The operand token for setting the span */
  ){
    pOut->zStart = pPreOp->z;
    pOut->pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, op, pOperand->pExpr, 0);
    pOut->zEnd = pOperand->zEnd;
  }
}



expr(A) ::= NOT(B) expr(X).  
              {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,@B,&X,&B);/*A-overwrites-B*/}
expr(A) ::= BITNOT(B) expr(X).
              {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,@B,&X,&B);/*A-overwrites-B*/}
expr(A) ::= MINUS(B) expr(X). [BITNOT]
              {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,TK_UMINUS,&X,&B);/*A-overwrites-B*/}

expr(A) ::= PLUS(B) expr(X). [BITNOT]
              {spanUnaryPrefix(&A,pParse,TK_UPLUS,&X,&B);/*A-overwrites-B*/}


%type between_op {int}
between_op(A) ::= BETWEEN.     {A = 0;}
between_op(A) ::= NOT BETWEEN. {A = 1;}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) between_op(N) expr(X) AND expr(Y). [BETWEEN] {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, X.pExpr);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, Y.pExpr);
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_BETWEEN, A.pExpr, 0);
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->x.pList = pList;
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pList);
  } 
  exprNot(pParse, N, &A);
  A.zEnd = Y.zEnd;
}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  %type in_op {int}
  in_op(A) ::= IN.      {A = 0;}
  in_op(A) ::= NOT IN.  {A = 1;}
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) LP exprlist(Y) RP(E). [IN] {
    if( Y==0 ){
      /* Expressions of the form
      **
      **      expr1 IN ()
      **      expr1 NOT IN ()
      **
      ** simplify to constants 0 (false) and 1 (true), respectively,
      ** regardless of the value of expr1.
      */
      sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, A.pExpr);
      A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_INTEGER,&sqlite3IntTokens[N],1);
    }else if( Y->nExpr==1 ){
      /* Expressions of the form:
      **
      **      expr1 IN (?1)
      **      expr1 NOT IN (?2)
      **
      ** with exactly one value on the RHS can be simplified to something
................................................................................
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
      /* pRHS cannot be NULL because a malloc error would have been detected
      ** before now and control would have never reached this point */
      if( ALWAYS(pRHS) ){
        pRHS->flags &= ~EP_Collate;
        pRHS->flags |= EP_Generic;
      }
      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, N ? TK_NE : TK_EQ, A.pExpr, pRHS);
    }else{
      A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A.pExpr, 0);
      if( A.pExpr ){
        A.pExpr->x.pList = Y;
        sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
      }else{
        sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
      }
      exprNot(pParse, N, &A);
    }
    A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= LP(B) select(X) RP(E). {
    spanSet(&A,&B,&E); /*A-overwrites-B*/
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_SELECT, 0, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A.pExpr, X);
  }
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) LP select(Y) RP(E).  [IN] {
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A.pExpr, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A.pExpr, Y);
    exprNot(pParse, N, &A);
    A.zEnd = &E.z[E.n];

  }
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) nm(Y) dbnm(Z) paren_exprlist(E). [IN] {
    SrcList *pSrc = sqlite3SrcListAppend(pParse->db, 0,&Y,&Z);
    Select *pSelect = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, 0,pSrc,0,0,0,0,0,0);
    if( E )  sqlite3SrcListFuncArgs(pParse, pSelect ? pSrc : 0, E);
    A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A.pExpr, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A.pExpr, pSelect);
    exprNot(pParse, N, &A);
    A.zEnd = Z.z ? &Z.z[Z.n] : &Y.z[Y.n];
  }
  expr(A) ::= EXISTS(B) LP select(Y) RP(E). {
    Expr *p;
    spanSet(&A,&B,&E); /*A-overwrites-B*/
    p = A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_EXISTS, 0, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, p, Y);
  }
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

/* CASE expressions */
expr(A) ::= CASE(C) case_operand(X) case_exprlist(Y) case_else(Z) END(E). {
  spanSet(&A,&C,&E);  /*A-overwrites-C*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_CASE, X, 0);
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->x.pList = Z ? sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,Y,Z) : Y;
    sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A.pExpr);
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, Z);
  }
}
%type case_exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor case_exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_exprlist(A) ::= case_exprlist(A) WHEN expr(Y) THEN expr(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Y.pExpr);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Z.pExpr);
}
case_exprlist(A) ::= WHEN expr(Y) THEN expr(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y.pExpr);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Z.pExpr);
}
%type case_else {Expr*}
%destructor case_else {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_else(A) ::=  ELSE expr(X).         {A = X.pExpr;}
case_else(A) ::=  .                     {A = 0;} 
%type case_operand {Expr*}
%destructor case_operand {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_operand(A) ::= expr(X).            {A = X.pExpr; /*A-overwrites-X*/} 
case_operand(A) ::= .                   {A = 0;} 

%type exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type nexprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor nexprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

exprlist(A) ::= nexprlist(A).
exprlist(A) ::= .                            {A = 0;}
nexprlist(A) ::= nexprlist(A) COMMA expr(Y).
    {A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A,Y.pExpr);}
nexprlist(A) ::= expr(Y).
    {A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0,Y.pExpr); /*A-overwrites-Y*/}

%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/* A paren_exprlist is an optional expression list contained inside
** of parenthesis */
%type paren_exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor paren_exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
paren_exprlist(A) ::= .   {A = 0;}
................................................................................

foreach_clause ::= .
foreach_clause ::= FOR EACH ROW.

%type when_clause {Expr*}
%destructor when_clause {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
when_clause(A) ::= .             { A = 0; }
when_clause(A) ::= WHEN expr(X). { A = X.pExpr; }

%type trigger_cmd_list {TriggerStep*}
%destructor trigger_cmd_list {sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(pParse->db, $$);}
trigger_cmd_list(A) ::= trigger_cmd_list(A) trigger_cmd(X) SEMI. {
  assert( A!=0 );
  A->pLast->pNext = X;
  A->pLast = X;
................................................................................



%type trigger_cmd {TriggerStep*}
%destructor trigger_cmd {sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(pParse->db, $$);}
// UPDATE 
trigger_cmd(A) ::=
   UPDATE orconf(R) trnm(X) tridxby SET setlist(Y) where_opt(Z).  
   {A = sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(pParse->db, &X, Y, Z, R);}

// INSERT

trigger_cmd(A) ::= insert_cmd(R) INTO trnm(X) idlist_opt(F) select(S).
   {A = sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(pParse->db, &X, F, S, R);/*A-overwrites-R*/}

// DELETE
trigger_cmd(A) ::= DELETE FROM trnm(X) tridxby where_opt(Y).
   {A = sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(pParse->db, &X, Y);}

// SELECT
trigger_cmd(A) ::= select(X).
   {A = sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(pParse->db, X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}

// The special RAISE expression that may occur in trigger programs
expr(A) ::= RAISE(X) LP IGNORE RP(Y).  {
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Y);  /*A-overwrites-X*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_RAISE, 0, 0); 
  if( A.pExpr ){
    A.pExpr->affinity = OE_Ignore;
  }
}
expr(A) ::= RAISE(X) LP raisetype(T) COMMA nm(Z) RP(Y).  {
  spanSet(&A,&X,&Y);  /*A-overwrites-X*/
  A.pExpr = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_RAISE, &Z, 1); 
  if( A.pExpr ) {
    A.pExpr->affinity = (char)T;
  }
}
%endif  !SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER

%type raisetype {int}
raisetype(A) ::= ROLLBACK.  {A = OE_Rollback;}
raisetype(A) ::= ABORT.     {A = OE_Abort;}
................................................................................
  sqlite3DropTrigger(pParse,X,NOERR);
}
%endif  !SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER

//////////////////////// ATTACH DATABASE file AS name /////////////////////////
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_ATTACH
cmd ::= ATTACH database_kw_opt expr(F) AS expr(D) key_opt(K). {
  sqlite3Attach(pParse, F.pExpr, D.pExpr, K);
}
cmd ::= DETACH database_kw_opt expr(D). {
  sqlite3Detach(pParse, D.pExpr);
}

%type key_opt {Expr*}
%destructor key_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
key_opt(A) ::= .                     { A = 0; }
key_opt(A) ::= KEY expr(X).          { A = X.pExpr; }

database_kw_opt ::= DATABASE.
database_kw_opt ::= .
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_ATTACH

////////////////////////// REINDEX collation //////////////////////////////////
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_REINDEX







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  A.n = (int)(&Y.z[Y.n] - A.z);
}
%type typename {Token}
typename(A) ::= ids(A).
typename(A) ::= typename(A) ids(Y). {A.n=Y.n+(int)(Y.z-A.z);}
signed ::= plus_num.
signed ::= minus_num.

// The scanpt non-terminal takes a value which is a pointer to the
// input text just past the last token that has been shifted into
// the parser.  By surrounding some phrase in the grammar with two
// scanpt non-terminals, we can capture the input text for that phrase.
// For example:
//
//      something ::= .... scanpt(A) phrase scanpt(Z).
//
// The text that is parsed as "phrase" is a string starting at A
// and containing (int)(Z-A) characters.  There might be some extra
// whitespace on either end of the text, but that can be removed in
// post-processing, if needed.
//
%type scanpt {const char*}
scanpt(A) ::= . {
  assert( yyLookahead!=YYNOCODE );
  A = yyLookaheadToken.z;
}

// "carglist" is a list of additional constraints that come after the
// column name and column type in a CREATE TABLE statement.
//
carglist ::= carglist ccons.
carglist ::= .
ccons ::= CONSTRAINT nm(X).           {pParse->constraintName = X;}
ccons ::= DEFAULT scanpt(A) term(X) scanpt(Z).
                            {sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,X,A,Z);}
ccons ::= DEFAULT LP(A) expr(X) RP(Z).
                            {sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,X,A.z+1,Z.z);}
ccons ::= DEFAULT PLUS(A) term(X) scanpt(Z).
                            {sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,X,A.z,Z);}
ccons ::= DEFAULT MINUS(A) term(X) scanpt(Z).      {

  Expr *p = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_UMINUS, X, 0);


  sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,p,A.z,Z);
}
ccons ::= DEFAULT scanpt id(X).       {

  Expr *p = tokenExpr(pParse, TK_STRING, X);
  sqlite3AddDefaultValue(pParse,p,X.z,X.z+X.n);
}

// In addition to the type name, we also care about the primary key and
// UNIQUE constraints.
//
ccons ::= NULL onconf.
ccons ::= NOT NULL onconf(R).    {sqlite3AddNotNull(pParse, R);}
ccons ::= PRIMARY KEY sortorder(Z) onconf(R) autoinc(I).
                                 {sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(pParse,0,R,I,Z);}
ccons ::= UNIQUE onconf(R).      {sqlite3CreateIndex(pParse,0,0,0,0,R,0,0,0,0,
                                   SQLITE_IDXTYPE_UNIQUE);}
ccons ::= CHECK LP expr(X) RP.   {sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(pParse,X);}
ccons ::= REFERENCES nm(T) eidlist_opt(TA) refargs(R).
                                 {sqlite3CreateForeignKey(pParse,0,&T,TA,R);}
ccons ::= defer_subclause(D).    {sqlite3DeferForeignKey(pParse,D);}
ccons ::= COLLATE ids(C).        {sqlite3AddCollateType(pParse, &C);}

// The optional AUTOINCREMENT keyword
%type autoinc {int}
................................................................................
tcons ::= CONSTRAINT nm(X).      {pParse->constraintName = X;}
tcons ::= PRIMARY KEY LP sortlist(X) autoinc(I) RP onconf(R).
                                 {sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(pParse,X,R,I,0);}
tcons ::= UNIQUE LP sortlist(X) RP onconf(R).
                                 {sqlite3CreateIndex(pParse,0,0,0,X,R,0,0,0,0,
                                       SQLITE_IDXTYPE_UNIQUE);}
tcons ::= CHECK LP expr(E) RP onconf.
                                 {sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(pParse,E);}
tcons ::= FOREIGN KEY LP eidlist(FA) RP
          REFERENCES nm(T) eidlist_opt(TA) refargs(R) defer_subclause_opt(D). {
    sqlite3CreateForeignKey(pParse, FA, &T, TA, R);
    sqlite3DeferForeignKey(pParse, D);
}
%type defer_subclause_opt {int}
defer_subclause_opt(A) ::= .                    {A = 0;}
................................................................................
//
%type selcollist {ExprList*}
%destructor selcollist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type sclp {ExprList*}
%destructor sclp {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
sclp(A) ::= selcollist(A) COMMA.
sclp(A) ::= .                                {A = 0;}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(A) scanpt(B) expr(X) scanpt(Z) as(Y).     {
   A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, X);
   if( Y.n>0 ) sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &Y, 1);
   sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(pParse,A,B,Z);
}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(A) scanpt STAR. {
  Expr *p = sqlite3Expr(pParse->db, TK_ASTERISK, 0);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, p);
}
selcollist(A) ::= sclp(A) scanpt nm(X) DOT STAR. {
  Expr *pRight = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_ASTERISK, 0, 0);
  Expr *pLeft = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &X, 1);
  Expr *pDot = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, pLeft, pRight);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, pDot);
}

// An option "AS <id>" phrase that can follow one of the expressions that
................................................................................
joinop(X) ::= JOIN_KW(A) nm(B) JOIN.
                  {X = sqlite3JoinType(pParse,&A,&B,0); /*X-overwrites-A*/}
joinop(X) ::= JOIN_KW(A) nm(B) nm(C) JOIN.
                  {X = sqlite3JoinType(pParse,&A,&B,&C);/*X-overwrites-A*/}

%type on_opt {Expr*}
%destructor on_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
on_opt(N) ::= ON expr(E).   {N = E;}
on_opt(N) ::= .             {N = 0;}

// Note that this block abuses the Token type just a little. If there is
// no "INDEXED BY" clause, the returned token is empty (z==0 && n==0). If
// there is an INDEXED BY clause, then the token is populated as per normal,
// with z pointing to the token data and n containing the number of bytes
// in the token.
................................................................................
//
%type sortlist {ExprList*}
%destructor sortlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

orderby_opt(A) ::= .                          {A = 0;}
orderby_opt(A) ::= ORDER BY sortlist(X).      {A = X;}
sortlist(A) ::= sortlist(A) COMMA expr(Y) sortorder(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A,Y);
  sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(A,Z);
}
sortlist(A) ::= expr(Y) sortorder(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0,Y); /*A-overwrites-Y*/
  sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(A,Z);
}

%type sortorder {int}

sortorder(A) ::= ASC.           {A = SQLITE_SO_ASC;}
sortorder(A) ::= DESC.          {A = SQLITE_SO_DESC;}
................................................................................
%destructor groupby_opt {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
groupby_opt(A) ::= .                      {A = 0;}
groupby_opt(A) ::= GROUP BY nexprlist(X). {A = X;}

%type having_opt {Expr*}
%destructor having_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
having_opt(A) ::= .                {A = 0;}
having_opt(A) ::= HAVING expr(X).  {A = X;}

%type limit_opt {Expr*}

// The destructor for limit_opt will never fire in the current grammar.
// The limit_opt non-terminal only occurs at the end of a single production
// rule for SELECT statements.  As soon as the rule that create the 
// limit_opt non-terminal reduces, the SELECT statement rule will also
// reduce.  So there is never a limit_opt non-terminal on the stack 
// except as a transient.  So there is never anything to destroy.
//
//%destructor limit_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
limit_opt(A) ::= .       {A = 0;}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X).
                         {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_LIMIT,X,0);}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X) OFFSET expr(Y). 
                         {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_LIMIT,X,Y);}
limit_opt(A) ::= LIMIT expr(X) COMMA expr(Y). 
                         {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_LIMIT,Y,X);}

/////////////////////////// The DELETE statement /////////////////////////////
//
%ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) DELETE FROM fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) where_opt(W) 
        orderby_opt(O) limit_opt(L). {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
................................................................................
}
%endif

%type where_opt {Expr*}
%destructor where_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

where_opt(A) ::= .                    {A = 0;}
where_opt(A) ::= WHERE expr(X).       {A = X;}

////////////////////////// The UPDATE command ////////////////////////////////
//
%ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_UPDATE_DELETE_LIMIT
cmd ::= with(C) UPDATE orconf(R) fullname(X) indexed_opt(I) SET setlist(Y)
        where_opt(W) orderby_opt(O) limit_opt(L).  {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, C, 1);
................................................................................
}
%endif

%type setlist {ExprList*}
%destructor setlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

setlist(A) ::= setlist(A) COMMA nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, A, Y);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}
setlist(A) ::= setlist(A) COMMA LP idlist(X) RP EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(pParse, A, X, Y);
}
setlist(A) ::= nm(X) EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, 0, Y);
  sqlite3ExprListSetName(pParse, A, &X, 1);
}
setlist(A) ::= LP idlist(X) RP EQ expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(pParse, 0, X, Y);
}

////////////////////////// The INSERT command /////////////////////////////////
//
cmd ::= with(W) insert_cmd(R) INTO fullname(X) idlist_opt(F) select(S). {
  sqlite3WithPush(pParse, W, 1);
  sqlite3Insert(pParse, X, S, F, R);
................................................................................
    {A = sqlite3IdListAppend(pParse->db,A,&Y);}
idlist(A) ::= nm(Y).
    {A = sqlite3IdListAppend(pParse->db,0,&Y); /*A-overwrites-Y*/}

/////////////////////////// Expression Processing /////////////////////////////
//

%type expr {Expr*}
%destructor expr {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type term {Expr*}
%destructor term {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

%include {









  /* Construct a new Expr object from a single identifier.  Use the
  ** new Expr to populate pOut.  Set the span of pOut to be the identifier
  ** that created the expression.
  */
  static Expr *tokenExpr(Parse *pParse, int op, Token t){
    Expr *p = sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(pParse->db, sizeof(Expr)+t.n+1);
    if( p ){
      memset(p, 0, sizeof(Expr));
      p->op = (u8)op;
      p->flags = EP_Leaf;
      p->iAgg = -1;
      p->u.zToken = (char*)&p[1];
................................................................................
        if( p->u.zToken[0]=='"' ) p->flags |= EP_DblQuoted;
        sqlite3Dequote(p->u.zToken);
      }
#if SQLITE_MAX_EXPR_DEPTH>0
      p->nHeight = 1;
#endif  
    }
    return p;


  }
}

expr(A) ::= term(A).
expr(A) ::= LP expr(X) RP. {A = X;}

expr(A) ::= id(X).          {A=tokenExpr(pParse,TK_ID,X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}
expr(A) ::= JOIN_KW(X).     {A=tokenExpr(pParse,TK_ID,X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}
expr(A) ::= nm(X) DOT nm(Y). {
  Expr *temp1 = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &X, 1);
  Expr *temp2 = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &Y, 1);

  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp1, temp2);
}
expr(A) ::= nm(X) DOT nm(Y) DOT nm(Z). {
  Expr *temp1 = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &X, 1);
  Expr *temp2 = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &Y, 1);
  Expr *temp3 = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_ID, &Z, 1);
  Expr *temp4 = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp2, temp3);

  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_DOT, temp1, temp4);
}
term(A) ::= NULL|FLOAT|BLOB(X). {A=tokenExpr(pParse,@X,X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}
term(A) ::= STRING(X).          {A=tokenExpr(pParse,@X,X); /*A-overwrites-X*/}
term(A) ::= INTEGER(X). {
  A = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_INTEGER, &X, 1);


}
expr(A) ::= VARIABLE(X).     {
  if( !(X.z[0]=='#' && sqlite3Isdigit(X.z[1])) ){
    u32 n = X.n;
    A = tokenExpr(pParse, TK_VARIABLE, X);
    sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(pParse, A, n);
  }else{
    /* When doing a nested parse, one can include terms in an expression
    ** that look like this:   #1 #2 ...  These terms refer to registers
    ** in the virtual machine.  #N is the N-th register. */
    Token t = X; /*A-overwrites-X*/
    assert( t.n>=2 );

    if( pParse->nested==0 ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "near \"%T\": syntax error", &t);
      A = 0;
    }else{
      A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_REGISTER, 0, 0);
      if( A ) sqlite3GetInt32(&t.z[1], &A->iTable);
    }
  }
}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) COLLATE ids(C). {
  A = sqlite3ExprAddCollateToken(pParse, A, &C, 1);

}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
expr(A) ::= CAST LP expr(E) AS typetoken(T) RP. {

  A = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_CAST, &T, 1);
  sqlite3ExprAttachSubtrees(pParse->db, A, E, 0);
}
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
expr(A) ::= id(X) LP distinct(D) exprlist(Y) RP. {
  if( Y && Y->nExpr>pParse->db->aLimit[SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG] ){
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "too many arguments on function %T", &X);
  }
  A = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, Y, &X);

  if( D==SF_Distinct && A ){
    A->flags |= EP_Distinct;
  }
}
expr(A) ::= id(X) LP STAR RP. {
  A = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, 0, &X);

}
term(A) ::= CTIME_KW(OP). {
  A = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, 0, &OP);

}

























expr(A) ::= LP nexprlist(X) COMMA expr(Y) RP. {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, X, Y);
  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_VECTOR, 0, 0);
  if( A ){
    A->x.pList = pList;

  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pList);
  }
}

expr(A) ::= expr(A) AND(OP) expr(Y).    {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) OR(OP) expr(Y).     {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) LT|GT|GE|LE(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) EQ|NE(OP) expr(Y).  {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) BITAND|BITOR|LSHIFT|RSHIFT(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) PLUS|MINUS(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) STAR|SLASH|REM(OP) expr(Y).
                                        {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) CONCAT(OP) expr(Y). {A=sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@OP,A,Y);}
%type likeop {Token}
likeop(A) ::= LIKE_KW|MATCH(A).
likeop(A) ::= NOT LIKE_KW|MATCH(X). {A=X; A.n|=0x80000000; /*A-overwrite-X*/}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) likeop(OP) expr(Y).  [LIKE_KW]  {
  ExprList *pList;
  int bNot = OP.n & 0x80000000;
  OP.n &= 0x7fffffff;
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, A);
  A = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, pList, &OP);
  if( bNot ) A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, A, 0);

  if( A ) A->flags |= EP_InfixFunc;
}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) likeop(OP) expr(Y) ESCAPE expr(E).  [LIKE_KW]  {
  ExprList *pList;
  int bNot = OP.n & 0x80000000;
  OP.n &= 0x7fffffff;
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, A);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, E);
  A = sqlite3ExprFunction(pParse, pList, &OP);
  if( bNot ) A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, A, 0);

  if( A ) A->flags |= EP_InfixFunc;
}















expr(A) ::= expr(A) ISNULL|NOTNULL(E).   {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,@E,A,0);}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) NOT NULL.    {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_NOTNULL,A,0);}

%include {
  /* A routine to convert a binary TK_IS or TK_ISNOT expression into a
  ** unary TK_ISNULL or TK_NOTNULL expression. */
  static void binaryToUnaryIfNull(Parse *pParse, Expr *pY, Expr *pA, int op){
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
    if( pA && pY && pY->op==TK_NULL ){
................................................................................
//    expr1 IS expr2
//    expr1 IS NOT expr2
//
// If expr2 is NULL then code as TK_ISNULL or TK_NOTNULL.  If expr2
// is any other expression, code as TK_IS or TK_ISNOT.
// 
expr(A) ::= expr(A) IS expr(Y).     {
  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_IS,A,Y);
  binaryToUnaryIfNull(pParse, Y, A, TK_ISNULL);
}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) IS NOT expr(Y). {
  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse,TK_ISNOT,A,Y);
  binaryToUnaryIfNull(pParse, Y, A, TK_NOTNULL);
}



















expr(A) ::= NOT(B) expr(X).  
              {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, @B, X, 0);/*A-overwrites-B*/}
expr(A) ::= BITNOT(B) expr(X).
              {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, @B, X, 0);/*A-overwrites-B*/}
expr(A) ::= MINUS expr(X). [BITNOT]

              {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_UMINUS, X, 0);}
expr(A) ::= PLUS expr(X). [BITNOT]

              {A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_UPLUS, X, 0);}

%type between_op {int}
between_op(A) ::= BETWEEN.     {A = 0;}
between_op(A) ::= NOT BETWEEN. {A = 1;}
expr(A) ::= expr(A) between_op(N) expr(X) AND expr(Y). [BETWEEN] {
  ExprList *pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, X);
  pList = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,pList, Y);
  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_BETWEEN, A, 0);
  if( A ){
    A->x.pList = pList;
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pList);
  } 
  if( N ) A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, A, 0);

}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  %type in_op {int}
  in_op(A) ::= IN.      {A = 0;}
  in_op(A) ::= NOT IN.  {A = 1;}
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) LP exprlist(Y) RP. [IN] {
    if( Y==0 ){
      /* Expressions of the form
      **
      **      expr1 IN ()
      **      expr1 NOT IN ()
      **
      ** simplify to constants 0 (false) and 1 (true), respectively,
      ** regardless of the value of expr1.
      */
      sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, A);
      A = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_INTEGER,&sqlite3IntTokens[N],1);
    }else if( Y->nExpr==1 ){
      /* Expressions of the form:
      **
      **      expr1 IN (?1)
      **      expr1 NOT IN (?2)
      **
      ** with exactly one value on the RHS can be simplified to something
................................................................................
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
      /* pRHS cannot be NULL because a malloc error would have been detected
      ** before now and control would have never reached this point */
      if( ALWAYS(pRHS) ){
        pRHS->flags &= ~EP_Collate;
        pRHS->flags |= EP_Generic;
      }
      A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, N ? TK_NE : TK_EQ, A, pRHS);
    }else{
      A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A, 0);
      if( A ){
        A->x.pList = Y;
        sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A);
      }else{
        sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
      }
      if( N ) A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, A, 0);
    }

  }
  expr(A) ::= LP select(X) RP. {

    A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_SELECT, 0, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A, X);
  }
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) LP select(Y) RP.  [IN] {
    A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A, Y);


    if( N ) A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, A, 0);
  }
  expr(A) ::= expr(A) in_op(N) nm(Y) dbnm(Z) paren_exprlist(E). [IN] {
    SrcList *pSrc = sqlite3SrcListAppend(pParse->db, 0,&Y,&Z);
    Select *pSelect = sqlite3SelectNew(pParse, 0,pSrc,0,0,0,0,0,0);
    if( E )  sqlite3SrcListFuncArgs(pParse, pSelect ? pSrc : 0, E);
    A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_IN, A, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, A, pSelect);
    if( N ) A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_NOT, A, 0);

  }
  expr(A) ::= EXISTS LP select(Y) RP. {
    Expr *p;

    p = A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_EXISTS, 0, 0);
    sqlite3PExprAddSelect(pParse, p, Y);
  }
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY

/* CASE expressions */
expr(A) ::= CASE case_operand(X) case_exprlist(Y) case_else(Z) END. {

  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_CASE, X, 0);
  if( A ){
    A->x.pList = Z ? sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,Y,Z) : Y;
    sqlite3ExprSetHeightAndFlags(pParse, A);
  }else{
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, Y);
    sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, Z);
  }
}
%type case_exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor case_exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_exprlist(A) ::= case_exprlist(A) WHEN expr(Y) THEN expr(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Y);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Z);
}
case_exprlist(A) ::= WHEN expr(Y) THEN expr(Z). {
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0, Y);
  A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A, Z);
}
%type case_else {Expr*}
%destructor case_else {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_else(A) ::=  ELSE expr(X).         {A = X;}
case_else(A) ::=  .                     {A = 0;} 
%type case_operand {Expr*}
%destructor case_operand {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
case_operand(A) ::= expr(X).            {A = X; /*A-overwrites-X*/} 
case_operand(A) ::= .                   {A = 0;} 

%type exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
%type nexprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor nexprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}

exprlist(A) ::= nexprlist(A).
exprlist(A) ::= .                            {A = 0;}
nexprlist(A) ::= nexprlist(A) COMMA expr(Y).
    {A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,A,Y);}
nexprlist(A) ::= expr(Y).
    {A = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse,0,Y); /*A-overwrites-Y*/}

%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
/* A paren_exprlist is an optional expression list contained inside
** of parenthesis */
%type paren_exprlist {ExprList*}
%destructor paren_exprlist {sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
paren_exprlist(A) ::= .   {A = 0;}
................................................................................

foreach_clause ::= .
foreach_clause ::= FOR EACH ROW.

%type when_clause {Expr*}
%destructor when_clause {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
when_clause(A) ::= .             { A = 0; }
when_clause(A) ::= WHEN expr(X). { A = X; }

%type trigger_cmd_list {TriggerStep*}
%destructor trigger_cmd_list {sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(pParse->db, $$);}
trigger_cmd_list(A) ::= trigger_cmd_list(A) trigger_cmd(X) SEMI. {
  assert( A!=0 );
  A->pLast->pNext = X;
  A->pLast = X;
................................................................................



%type trigger_cmd {TriggerStep*}
%destructor trigger_cmd {sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(pParse->db, $$);}
// UPDATE 
trigger_cmd(A) ::=
   UPDATE(B) orconf(R) trnm(X) tridxby SET setlist(Y) where_opt(Z) scanpt(E).  
   {A = sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(pParse->db, &X, Y, Z, R, B.z, E);}

// INSERT
trigger_cmd(A) ::= scanpt(B) insert_cmd(R) INTO
                      trnm(X) idlist_opt(F) select(S) scanpt(Z).
   {A = sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(pParse->db,&X,F,S,R,B,Z);/*A-overwrites-R*/}

// DELETE
trigger_cmd(A) ::= DELETE(B) FROM trnm(X) tridxby where_opt(Y) scanpt(E).
   {A = sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(pParse->db, &X, Y, B.z, E);}

// SELECT
trigger_cmd(A) ::= scanpt(B) select(X) scanpt(E).
   {A = sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(pParse->db, X, B, E); /*A-overwrites-X*/}

// The special RAISE expression that may occur in trigger programs
expr(A) ::= RAISE LP IGNORE RP.  {

  A = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_RAISE, 0, 0); 
  if( A ){
    A->affinity = OE_Ignore;
  }
}
expr(A) ::= RAISE LP raisetype(T) COMMA nm(Z) RP.  {

  A = sqlite3ExprAlloc(pParse->db, TK_RAISE, &Z, 1); 
  if( A ) {
    A->affinity = (char)T;
  }
}
%endif  !SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER

%type raisetype {int}
raisetype(A) ::= ROLLBACK.  {A = OE_Rollback;}
raisetype(A) ::= ABORT.     {A = OE_Abort;}
................................................................................
  sqlite3DropTrigger(pParse,X,NOERR);
}
%endif  !SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER

//////////////////////// ATTACH DATABASE file AS name /////////////////////////
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_ATTACH
cmd ::= ATTACH database_kw_opt expr(F) AS expr(D) key_opt(K). {
  sqlite3Attach(pParse, F, D, K);
}
cmd ::= DETACH database_kw_opt expr(D). {
  sqlite3Detach(pParse, D);
}

%type key_opt {Expr*}
%destructor key_opt {sqlite3ExprDelete(pParse->db, $$);}
key_opt(A) ::= .                     { A = 0; }
key_opt(A) ::= KEY expr(X).          { A = X; }

database_kw_opt ::= DATABASE.
database_kw_opt ::= .
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_ATTACH

////////////////////////// REINDEX collation //////////////////////////////////
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_REINDEX

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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typedef struct Bitvec Bitvec;
typedef struct CollSeq CollSeq;
typedef struct Column Column;
typedef struct Db Db;
typedef struct Schema Schema;
typedef struct Expr Expr;
typedef struct ExprList ExprList;
typedef struct ExprSpan ExprSpan;
typedef struct FKey FKey;
typedef struct FuncDestructor FuncDestructor;
typedef struct FuncDef FuncDef;
typedef struct FuncDefHash FuncDefHash;
typedef struct IdList IdList;
typedef struct Index Index;
typedef struct IndexSample IndexSample;
................................................................................
        u16 iAlias;           /* Index into Parse.aAlias[] for zName */
      } x;
      int iConstExprReg;      /* Register in which Expr value is cached */
    } u;
  } a[1];                  /* One slot for each expression in the list */
};

/*
** An instance of this structure is used by the parser to record both
** the parse tree for an expression and the span of input text for an
** expression.
*/
struct ExprSpan {
  Expr *pExpr;          /* The expression parse tree */
  const char *zStart;   /* First character of input text */
  const char *zEnd;     /* One character past the end of input text */
};

/*
** An instance of this structure can hold a simple list of identifiers,
** such as the list "a,b,c" in the following statements:
**
**      INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) VALUES ...;
**      CREATE INDEX idx ON t(a,b,c);
**      CREATE TRIGGER trig BEFORE UPDATE ON t(a,b,c) ...;
................................................................................
  u8 orconf;           /* OE_Rollback etc. */
  Trigger *pTrig;      /* The trigger that this step is a part of */
  Select *pSelect;     /* SELECT statement or RHS of INSERT INTO SELECT ... */
  char *zTarget;       /* Target table for DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT */
  Expr *pWhere;        /* The WHERE clause for DELETE or UPDATE steps */
  ExprList *pExprList; /* SET clause for UPDATE. */
  IdList *pIdList;     /* Column names for INSERT */

  TriggerStep *pNext;  /* Next in the link-list */
  TriggerStep *pLast;  /* Last element in link-list. Valid for 1st elem only */
};

/*
** The following structure contains information used by the sqliteFix...
** routines as they walk the parse tree to make database references
................................................................................
void *sqlite3Malloc(u64);
void *sqlite3MallocZero(u64);
void *sqlite3DbMallocZero(sqlite3*, u64);
void *sqlite3DbMallocRaw(sqlite3*, u64);
void *sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(sqlite3*, u64);
char *sqlite3DbStrDup(sqlite3*,const char*);
char *sqlite3DbStrNDup(sqlite3*,const char*, u64);

void *sqlite3Realloc(void*, u64);
void *sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(sqlite3 *, void *, u64);
void *sqlite3DbRealloc(sqlite3 *, void *, u64);
void sqlite3DbFree(sqlite3*, void*);
void sqlite3DbFreeNN(sqlite3*, void*);
int sqlite3MallocSize(void*);
int sqlite3DbMallocSize(sqlite3*, void*);
................................................................................
Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*);
void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*, u32);
void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3*, Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(Parse*,ExprList*,IdList*,Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetName(Parse*,ExprList*,Token*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(Parse*,ExprList*,ExprSpan*);
void sqlite3ExprListDelete(sqlite3*, ExprList*);
u32 sqlite3ExprListFlags(const ExprList*);
int sqlite3Init(sqlite3*, char**);
int sqlite3InitCallback(void*, int, char**, char**);
void sqlite3Pragma(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,int);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
Module *sqlite3PragmaVtabRegister(sqlite3*,const char *zName);
................................................................................
#else
# define sqlite3ColumnPropertiesFromName(T,C) /* no-op */
#endif
void sqlite3AddColumn(Parse*,Token*,Token*);
void sqlite3AddNotNull(Parse*, int);
void sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(Parse*, Expr*);
void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse*,ExprSpan*);
void sqlite3AddCollateType(Parse*, Token*);
void sqlite3EndTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,u8,Select*);
int sqlite3ParseUri(const char*,const char*,unsigned int*,
                    sqlite3_vfs**,char**,char **);
Btree *sqlite3DbNameToBtree(sqlite3*,const char*);

#ifdef SQLITE_UNTESTABLE
................................................................................
  Trigger *sqlite3TriggersExist(Parse *, Table*, int, ExprList*, int *pMask);
  Trigger *sqlite3TriggerList(Parse *, Table *);
  void sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(Parse*, Trigger *, int, ExprList*, int, Table *,
                            int, int, int);
  void sqlite3CodeRowTriggerDirect(Parse *, Trigger *, Table *, int, int, int);
  void sqliteViewTriggers(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int, ExprList*);
  void sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(sqlite3*, TriggerStep*);
  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(sqlite3*,Select*);

  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(sqlite3*,Token*, IdList*,
                                        Select*,u8);
  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(sqlite3*,Token*,ExprList*, Expr*, u8);

  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(sqlite3*,Token*, Expr*);

  void sqlite3DeleteTrigger(sqlite3*, Trigger*);
  void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
  u32 sqlite3TriggerColmask(Parse*,Trigger*,ExprList*,int,int,Table*,int);
# define sqlite3ParseToplevel(p) ((p)->pToplevel ? (p)->pToplevel : (p))
# define sqlite3IsToplevel(p) ((p)->pToplevel==0)
#else
# define sqlite3TriggersExist(B,C,D,E,F) 0







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>







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typedef struct Bitvec Bitvec;
typedef struct CollSeq CollSeq;
typedef struct Column Column;
typedef struct Db Db;
typedef struct Schema Schema;
typedef struct Expr Expr;
typedef struct ExprList ExprList;

typedef struct FKey FKey;
typedef struct FuncDestructor FuncDestructor;
typedef struct FuncDef FuncDef;
typedef struct FuncDefHash FuncDefHash;
typedef struct IdList IdList;
typedef struct Index Index;
typedef struct IndexSample IndexSample;
................................................................................
        u16 iAlias;           /* Index into Parse.aAlias[] for zName */
      } x;
      int iConstExprReg;      /* Register in which Expr value is cached */
    } u;
  } a[1];                  /* One slot for each expression in the list */
};












/*
** An instance of this structure can hold a simple list of identifiers,
** such as the list "a,b,c" in the following statements:
**
**      INSERT INTO t(a,b,c) VALUES ...;
**      CREATE INDEX idx ON t(a,b,c);
**      CREATE TRIGGER trig BEFORE UPDATE ON t(a,b,c) ...;
................................................................................
  u8 orconf;           /* OE_Rollback etc. */
  Trigger *pTrig;      /* The trigger that this step is a part of */
  Select *pSelect;     /* SELECT statement or RHS of INSERT INTO SELECT ... */
  char *zTarget;       /* Target table for DELETE, UPDATE, INSERT */
  Expr *pWhere;        /* The WHERE clause for DELETE or UPDATE steps */
  ExprList *pExprList; /* SET clause for UPDATE. */
  IdList *pIdList;     /* Column names for INSERT */
  char *zSpan;         /* Original SQL text of this command */
  TriggerStep *pNext;  /* Next in the link-list */
  TriggerStep *pLast;  /* Last element in link-list. Valid for 1st elem only */
};

/*
** The following structure contains information used by the sqliteFix...
** routines as they walk the parse tree to make database references
................................................................................
void *sqlite3Malloc(u64);
void *sqlite3MallocZero(u64);
void *sqlite3DbMallocZero(sqlite3*, u64);
void *sqlite3DbMallocRaw(sqlite3*, u64);
void *sqlite3DbMallocRawNN(sqlite3*, u64);
char *sqlite3DbStrDup(sqlite3*,const char*);
char *sqlite3DbStrNDup(sqlite3*,const char*, u64);
char *sqlite3DbSpanDup(sqlite3*,const char*,const char*);
void *sqlite3Realloc(void*, u64);
void *sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(sqlite3 *, void *, u64);
void *sqlite3DbRealloc(sqlite3 *, void *, u64);
void sqlite3DbFree(sqlite3*, void*);
void sqlite3DbFreeNN(sqlite3*, void*);
int sqlite3MallocSize(void*);
int sqlite3DbMallocSize(sqlite3*, void*);
................................................................................
Expr *sqlite3ExprFunction(Parse*,ExprList*, Token*);
void sqlite3ExprAssignVarNumber(Parse*, Expr*, u32);
void sqlite3ExprDelete(sqlite3*, Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppend(Parse*,ExprList*,Expr*);
ExprList *sqlite3ExprListAppendVector(Parse*,ExprList*,IdList*,Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSortOrder(ExprList*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetName(Parse*,ExprList*,Token*,int);
void sqlite3ExprListSetSpan(Parse*,ExprList*,const char*,const char*);
void sqlite3ExprListDelete(sqlite3*, ExprList*);
u32 sqlite3ExprListFlags(const ExprList*);
int sqlite3Init(sqlite3*, char**);
int sqlite3InitCallback(void*, int, char**, char**);
void sqlite3Pragma(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,int);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
Module *sqlite3PragmaVtabRegister(sqlite3*,const char *zName);
................................................................................
#else
# define sqlite3ColumnPropertiesFromName(T,C) /* no-op */
#endif
void sqlite3AddColumn(Parse*,Token*,Token*);
void sqlite3AddNotNull(Parse*, int);
void sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(Parse*, Expr*);
void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse*,Expr*,const char*,const char*);
void sqlite3AddCollateType(Parse*, Token*);
void sqlite3EndTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,u8,Select*);
int sqlite3ParseUri(const char*,const char*,unsigned int*,
                    sqlite3_vfs**,char**,char **);
Btree *sqlite3DbNameToBtree(sqlite3*,const char*);

#ifdef SQLITE_UNTESTABLE
................................................................................
  Trigger *sqlite3TriggersExist(Parse *, Table*, int, ExprList*, int *pMask);
  Trigger *sqlite3TriggerList(Parse *, Table *);
  void sqlite3CodeRowTrigger(Parse*, Trigger *, int, ExprList*, int, Table *,
                            int, int, int);
  void sqlite3CodeRowTriggerDirect(Parse *, Trigger *, Table *, int, int, int);
  void sqliteViewTriggers(Parse*, Table*, Expr*, int, ExprList*);
  void sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(sqlite3*, TriggerStep*);
  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(sqlite3*,Select*,
                                        const char*,const char*);
  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(sqlite3*,Token*, IdList*,
                                        Select*,u8,const char*,const char*);
  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(sqlite3*,Token*,ExprList*, Expr*, u8,
                                        const char*,const char*);
  TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(sqlite3*,Token*, Expr*,
                                        const char*,const char*);
  void sqlite3DeleteTrigger(sqlite3*, Trigger*);
  void sqlite3UnlinkAndDeleteTrigger(sqlite3*,int,const char*);
  u32 sqlite3TriggerColmask(Parse*,Trigger*,ExprList*,int,int,Table*,int);
# define sqlite3ParseToplevel(p) ((p)->pToplevel ? (p)->pToplevel : (p))
# define sqlite3IsToplevel(p) ((p)->pToplevel==0)
#else
# define sqlite3TriggersExist(B,C,D,E,F) 0

Changes to src/trigger.c.

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    TriggerStep * pTmp = pTriggerStep;
    pTriggerStep = pTriggerStep->pNext;

    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pTmp->pWhere);
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pTmp->pExprList);
    sqlite3SelectDelete(db, pTmp->pSelect);
    sqlite3IdListDelete(db, pTmp->pIdList);


    sqlite3DbFree(db, pTmp);
  }
}

/*
** Given table pTab, return a list of all the triggers attached to 
................................................................................

triggerfinish_cleanup:
  sqlite3DeleteTrigger(db, pTrig);
  assert( !pParse->pNewTrigger );
  sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(db, pStepList);
}












/*
** Turn a SELECT statement (that the pSelect parameter points to) into
** a trigger step.  Return a pointer to a TriggerStep structure.
**
** The parser calls this routine when it finds a SELECT statement in
** body of a TRIGGER.  
*/
TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(sqlite3 *db, Select *pSelect){





  TriggerStep *pTriggerStep = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(TriggerStep));
  if( pTriggerStep==0 ) {
    sqlite3SelectDelete(db, pSelect);
    return 0;
  }
  pTriggerStep->op = TK_SELECT;
  pTriggerStep->pSelect = pSelect;
  pTriggerStep->orconf = OE_Default;

  return pTriggerStep;
}

/*
** Allocate space to hold a new trigger step.  The allocated space
** holds both the TriggerStep object and the TriggerStep.target.z string.
**
** If an OOM error occurs, NULL is returned and db->mallocFailed is set.
*/
static TriggerStep *triggerStepAllocate(
  sqlite3 *db,                /* Database connection */
  u8 op,                      /* Trigger opcode */
  Token *pName                /* The target name */


){
  TriggerStep *pTriggerStep;

  pTriggerStep = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(TriggerStep) + pName->n + 1);
  if( pTriggerStep ){
    char *z = (char*)&pTriggerStep[1];
    memcpy(z, pName->z, pName->n);
    sqlite3Dequote(z);
    pTriggerStep->zTarget = z;
    pTriggerStep->op = op;

  }
  return pTriggerStep;
}

/*
** Build a trigger step out of an INSERT statement.  Return a pointer
** to the new trigger step.
................................................................................
** body of a trigger.
*/
TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(
  sqlite3 *db,        /* The database connection */
  Token *pTableName,  /* Name of the table into which we insert */
  IdList *pColumn,    /* List of columns in pTableName to insert into */
  Select *pSelect,    /* A SELECT statement that supplies values */
  u8 orconf           /* The conflict algorithm (OE_Abort, OE_Replace, etc.) */


){
  TriggerStep *pTriggerStep;

  assert(pSelect != 0 || db->mallocFailed);

  pTriggerStep = triggerStepAllocate(db, TK_INSERT, pTableName);
  if( pTriggerStep ){
    pTriggerStep->pSelect = sqlite3SelectDup(db, pSelect, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
    pTriggerStep->pIdList = pColumn;
    pTriggerStep->orconf = orconf;
  }else{
    sqlite3IdListDelete(db, pColumn);
  }
................................................................................
** sees an UPDATE statement inside the body of a CREATE TRIGGER.
*/
TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(
  sqlite3 *db,         /* The database connection */
  Token *pTableName,   /* Name of the table to be updated */
  ExprList *pEList,    /* The SET clause: list of column and new values */
  Expr *pWhere,        /* The WHERE clause */
  u8 orconf            /* The conflict algorithm. (OE_Abort, OE_Ignore, etc) */


){
  TriggerStep *pTriggerStep;

  pTriggerStep = triggerStepAllocate(db, TK_UPDATE, pTableName);
  if( pTriggerStep ){
    pTriggerStep->pExprList = sqlite3ExprListDup(db, pEList, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
    pTriggerStep->pWhere = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pWhere, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
    pTriggerStep->orconf = orconf;
  }
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pEList);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pWhere);
................................................................................
** Construct a trigger step that implements a DELETE statement and return
** a pointer to that trigger step.  The parser calls this routine when it
** sees a DELETE statement inside the body of a CREATE TRIGGER.
*/
TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database connection */
  Token *pTableName,      /* The table from which rows are deleted */
  Expr *pWhere            /* The WHERE clause */


){
  TriggerStep *pTriggerStep;

  pTriggerStep = triggerStepAllocate(db, TK_DELETE, pTableName);
  if( pTriggerStep ){
    pTriggerStep->pWhere = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pWhere, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
    pTriggerStep->orconf = OE_Default;
  }
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pWhere);
  return pTriggerStep;
}
................................................................................
    **   END;
    **
    **   INSERT INTO t1 ... ;            -- insert into t2 uses REPLACE policy
    **   INSERT OR IGNORE INTO t1 ... ;  -- insert into t2 uses IGNORE policy
    */
    pParse->eOrconf = (orconf==OE_Default)?pStep->orconf:(u8)orconf;
    assert( pParse->okConstFactor==0 );









    switch( pStep->op ){
      case TK_UPDATE: {
        sqlite3Update(pParse, 
          targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
          sqlite3ExprListDup(db, pStep->pExprList, 0), 
          sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStep->pWhere, 0), 
................................................................................
      (pTrigger->tr_tm==TRIGGER_BEFORE ? "BEFORE" : "AFTER"),
        (pTrigger->op==TK_UPDATE ? "UPDATE" : ""),
        (pTrigger->op==TK_INSERT ? "INSERT" : ""),
        (pTrigger->op==TK_DELETE ? "DELETE" : ""),
      pTab->zName
    ));
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE

    sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, -1, 
      sqlite3MPrintf(db, "-- TRIGGER %s", pTrigger->zName), P4_DYNAMIC
    );

#endif

    /* If one was specified, code the WHEN clause. If it evaluates to false
    ** (or NULL) the sub-vdbe is immediately halted by jumping to the 
    ** OP_Halt inserted at the end of the program.  */
    if( pTrigger->pWhen ){
      pWhen = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pTrigger->pWhen, 0);







>







 







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    TriggerStep * pTmp = pTriggerStep;
    pTriggerStep = pTriggerStep->pNext;

    sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pTmp->pWhere);
    sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pTmp->pExprList);
    sqlite3SelectDelete(db, pTmp->pSelect);
    sqlite3IdListDelete(db, pTmp->pIdList);
    sqlite3DbFree(db, pTmp->zSpan);

    sqlite3DbFree(db, pTmp);
  }
}

/*
** Given table pTab, return a list of all the triggers attached to 
................................................................................

triggerfinish_cleanup:
  sqlite3DeleteTrigger(db, pTrig);
  assert( !pParse->pNewTrigger );
  sqlite3DeleteTriggerStep(db, pStepList);
}

/*
** Duplicate a range of text from an SQL statement, then convert all
** whitespace characters into ordinary space characters.
*/
static char *triggerSpanDup(sqlite3 *db, const char *zStart, const char *zEnd){
  char *z = sqlite3DbSpanDup(db, zStart, zEnd);
  int i;
  if( z ) for(i=0; z[i]; i++) if( sqlite3Isspace(z[i]) ) z[i] = ' ';
  return z;
}    

/*
** Turn a SELECT statement (that the pSelect parameter points to) into
** a trigger step.  Return a pointer to a TriggerStep structure.
**
** The parser calls this routine when it finds a SELECT statement in
** body of a TRIGGER.  
*/
TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerSelectStep(
  sqlite3 *db,                /* Database connection */
  Select *pSelect,            /* The SELECT statement */
  const char *zStart,         /* Start of SQL text */
  const char *zEnd            /* End of SQL text */
){
  TriggerStep *pTriggerStep = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(TriggerStep));
  if( pTriggerStep==0 ) {
    sqlite3SelectDelete(db, pSelect);
    return 0;
  }
  pTriggerStep->op = TK_SELECT;
  pTriggerStep->pSelect = pSelect;
  pTriggerStep->orconf = OE_Default;
  pTriggerStep->zSpan = triggerSpanDup(db, zStart, zEnd);
  return pTriggerStep;
}

/*
** Allocate space to hold a new trigger step.  The allocated space
** holds both the TriggerStep object and the TriggerStep.target.z string.
**
** If an OOM error occurs, NULL is returned and db->mallocFailed is set.
*/
static TriggerStep *triggerStepAllocate(
  sqlite3 *db,                /* Database connection */
  u8 op,                      /* Trigger opcode */
  Token *pName,               /* The target name */
  const char *zStart,         /* Start of SQL text */
  const char *zEnd            /* End of SQL text */
){
  TriggerStep *pTriggerStep;

  pTriggerStep = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(TriggerStep) + pName->n + 1);
  if( pTriggerStep ){
    char *z = (char*)&pTriggerStep[1];
    memcpy(z, pName->z, pName->n);
    sqlite3Dequote(z);
    pTriggerStep->zTarget = z;
    pTriggerStep->op = op;
    pTriggerStep->zSpan = triggerSpanDup(db, zStart, zEnd);
  }
  return pTriggerStep;
}

/*
** Build a trigger step out of an INSERT statement.  Return a pointer
** to the new trigger step.
................................................................................
** body of a trigger.
*/
TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerInsertStep(
  sqlite3 *db,        /* The database connection */
  Token *pTableName,  /* Name of the table into which we insert */
  IdList *pColumn,    /* List of columns in pTableName to insert into */
  Select *pSelect,    /* A SELECT statement that supplies values */
  u8 orconf,          /* The conflict algorithm (OE_Abort, OE_Replace, etc.) */
  const char *zStart, /* Start of SQL text */
  const char *zEnd    /* End of SQL text */
){
  TriggerStep *pTriggerStep;

  assert(pSelect != 0 || db->mallocFailed);

  pTriggerStep = triggerStepAllocate(db, TK_INSERT, pTableName, zStart, zEnd);
  if( pTriggerStep ){
    pTriggerStep->pSelect = sqlite3SelectDup(db, pSelect, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
    pTriggerStep->pIdList = pColumn;
    pTriggerStep->orconf = orconf;
  }else{
    sqlite3IdListDelete(db, pColumn);
  }
................................................................................
** sees an UPDATE statement inside the body of a CREATE TRIGGER.
*/
TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerUpdateStep(
  sqlite3 *db,         /* The database connection */
  Token *pTableName,   /* Name of the table to be updated */
  ExprList *pEList,    /* The SET clause: list of column and new values */
  Expr *pWhere,        /* The WHERE clause */
  u8 orconf,           /* The conflict algorithm. (OE_Abort, OE_Ignore, etc) */
  const char *zStart,  /* Start of SQL text */
  const char *zEnd     /* End of SQL text */
){
  TriggerStep *pTriggerStep;

  pTriggerStep = triggerStepAllocate(db, TK_UPDATE, pTableName, zStart, zEnd);
  if( pTriggerStep ){
    pTriggerStep->pExprList = sqlite3ExprListDup(db, pEList, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
    pTriggerStep->pWhere = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pWhere, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
    pTriggerStep->orconf = orconf;
  }
  sqlite3ExprListDelete(db, pEList);
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pWhere);
................................................................................
** Construct a trigger step that implements a DELETE statement and return
** a pointer to that trigger step.  The parser calls this routine when it
** sees a DELETE statement inside the body of a CREATE TRIGGER.
*/
TriggerStep *sqlite3TriggerDeleteStep(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* Database connection */
  Token *pTableName,      /* The table from which rows are deleted */
  Expr *pWhere,           /* The WHERE clause */
  const char *zStart,     /* Start of SQL text */
  const char *zEnd        /* End of SQL text */
){
  TriggerStep *pTriggerStep;

  pTriggerStep = triggerStepAllocate(db, TK_DELETE, pTableName, zStart, zEnd);
  if( pTriggerStep ){
    pTriggerStep->pWhere = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pWhere, EXPRDUP_REDUCE);
    pTriggerStep->orconf = OE_Default;
  }
  sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pWhere);
  return pTriggerStep;
}
................................................................................
    **   END;
    **
    **   INSERT INTO t1 ... ;            -- insert into t2 uses REPLACE policy
    **   INSERT OR IGNORE INTO t1 ... ;  -- insert into t2 uses IGNORE policy
    */
    pParse->eOrconf = (orconf==OE_Default)?pStep->orconf:(u8)orconf;
    assert( pParse->okConstFactor==0 );

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
    if( pStep->zSpan ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Trace, 0x7fffffff, 1, 0,
                        sqlite3MPrintf(db, "-- %s", pStep->zSpan),
                        P4_DYNAMIC);
    }
#endif

    switch( pStep->op ){
      case TK_UPDATE: {
        sqlite3Update(pParse, 
          targetSrcList(pParse, pStep),
          sqlite3ExprListDup(db, pStep->pExprList, 0), 
          sqlite3ExprDup(db, pStep->pWhere, 0), 
................................................................................
      (pTrigger->tr_tm==TRIGGER_BEFORE ? "BEFORE" : "AFTER"),
        (pTrigger->op==TK_UPDATE ? "UPDATE" : ""),
        (pTrigger->op==TK_INSERT ? "INSERT" : ""),
        (pTrigger->op==TK_DELETE ? "DELETE" : ""),
      pTab->zName
    ));
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
    if( pTrigger->zName ){
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, -1, 
        sqlite3MPrintf(db, "-- TRIGGER %s", pTrigger->zName), P4_DYNAMIC
      );
    }
#endif

    /* If one was specified, code the WHEN clause. If it evaluates to false
    ** (or NULL) the sub-vdbe is immediately halted by jumping to the 
    ** OP_Halt inserted at the end of the program.  */
    if( pTrigger->pWhen ){
      pWhen = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pTrigger->pWhen, 0);

Changes to src/vdbe.c.

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....
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7101
  }

  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p3, pOut);
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pOut);
  break;
}









/* Opcode: Init P1 P2 P3 P4 *
** Synopsis: Start at P2
**
** Programs contain a single instance of this opcode as the very first
** opcode.
**
** If tracing is enabled (by the sqlite3_trace()) interface, then
................................................................................
**
** Increment the value of P1 so that OP_Once opcodes will jump the
** first time they are evaluated for this run.
**
** If P3 is not zero, then it is an address to jump to if an SQLITE_CORRUPT
** error is encountered.
*/

case OP_Init: {          /* jump */
  char *zTrace;
  int i;

  /* If the P4 argument is not NULL, then it must be an SQL comment string.
  ** The "--" string is broken up to prevent false-positives with srcck1.c.
  **
................................................................................
  ** This assert() provides evidence for:
  ** EVIDENCE-OF: R-50676-09860 The callback can compute the same text that
  ** would have been returned by the legacy sqlite3_trace() interface by
  ** using the X argument when X begins with "--" and invoking
  ** sqlite3_expanded_sql(P) otherwise.
  */
  assert( pOp->p4.z==0 || strncmp(pOp->p4.z, "-" "- ", 3)==0 );

  assert( pOp==p->aOp );  /* Always instruction 0 */


#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
  if( (db->mTrace & (SQLITE_TRACE_STMT|SQLITE_TRACE_LEGACY))!=0
   && !p->doingRerun
   && (zTrace = (pOp->p4.z ? pOp->p4.z : p->zSql))!=0
  ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DEPRECATED
................................................................................
  ){
    sqlite3DebugPrintf("SQL-trace: %s\n", zTrace);
  }
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE */
  assert( pOp->p2>0 );
  if( pOp->p1>=sqlite3GlobalConfig.iOnceResetThreshold ){

    for(i=1; i<p->nOp; i++){
      if( p->aOp[i].opcode==OP_Once ) p->aOp[i].p1 = 0;
    }
    pOp->p1 = 0;
  }
  pOp->p1++;
  p->aCounter[SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_RUN]++;







<
>
>
>
>
>
>
>







 







>







 







>
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>







 







>







7012
7013
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7019
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7028
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  }

  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p3, pOut);
  UPDATE_MAX_BLOBSIZE(pOut);
  break;
}


/* Opcode: Trace P1 P2 * P4 *
**
** Write P4 on the statement trace output if statement tracing is
** enabled.
**
** Operand P1 must be 0x7fffffff and P2 must positive.
*/
/* Opcode: Init P1 P2 P3 P4 *
** Synopsis: Start at P2
**
** Programs contain a single instance of this opcode as the very first
** opcode.
**
** If tracing is enabled (by the sqlite3_trace()) interface, then
................................................................................
**
** Increment the value of P1 so that OP_Once opcodes will jump the
** first time they are evaluated for this run.
**
** If P3 is not zero, then it is an address to jump to if an SQLITE_CORRUPT
** error is encountered.
*/
case OP_Trace:
case OP_Init: {          /* jump */
  char *zTrace;
  int i;

  /* If the P4 argument is not NULL, then it must be an SQL comment string.
  ** The "--" string is broken up to prevent false-positives with srcck1.c.
  **
................................................................................
  ** This assert() provides evidence for:
  ** EVIDENCE-OF: R-50676-09860 The callback can compute the same text that
  ** would have been returned by the legacy sqlite3_trace() interface by
  ** using the X argument when X begins with "--" and invoking
  ** sqlite3_expanded_sql(P) otherwise.
  */
  assert( pOp->p4.z==0 || strncmp(pOp->p4.z, "-" "- ", 3)==0 );

  /* OP_Init is always instruction 0 */
  assert( pOp==p->aOp || pOp->opcode==OP_Trace );

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
  if( (db->mTrace & (SQLITE_TRACE_STMT|SQLITE_TRACE_LEGACY))!=0
   && !p->doingRerun
   && (zTrace = (pOp->p4.z ? pOp->p4.z : p->zSql))!=0
  ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DEPRECATED
................................................................................
  ){
    sqlite3DebugPrintf("SQL-trace: %s\n", zTrace);
  }
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE */
  assert( pOp->p2>0 );
  if( pOp->p1>=sqlite3GlobalConfig.iOnceResetThreshold ){
    if( pOp->opcode==OP_Trace ) break;
    for(i=1; i<p->nOp; i++){
      if( p->aOp[i].opcode==OP_Once ) p->aOp[i].p1 = 0;
    }
    pOp->p1 = 0;
  }
  pOp->p1++;
  p->aCounter[SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_RUN]++;

Changes to test/capi2.test.

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  set rc [catch {
      sqlite3_prepare $DB {select bogus from sqlite_master;;;x;} -1 TAIL
  } msg]
  lappend rc $msg $TAIL
} {1 {(1) no such column: bogus} {;;x;}}
do_test capi2-3.6 {
  set rc [catch {
      sqlite3_prepare $DB {select 5/0} -1 TAIL
  } VM]
  lappend rc $TAIL
} {0 {}}
do_test capi2-3.7 {
  list [sqlite3_step $VM] \
       [sqlite3_column_count $VM] \
       [get_row_values $VM] \







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  set rc [catch {
      sqlite3_prepare $DB {select bogus from sqlite_master;;;x;} -1 TAIL
  } msg]
  lappend rc $msg $TAIL
} {1 {(1) no such column: bogus} {;;x;}}
do_test capi2-3.6 {
  set rc [catch {
      sqlite3_prepare $DB {select 5/0;} -1 TAIL
  } VM]
  lappend rc $TAIL
} {0 {}}
do_test capi2-3.7 {
  list [sqlite3_step $VM] \
       [sqlite3_column_count $VM] \
       [get_row_values $VM] \

Changes to test/fkey1.test.

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# would have been the parent of the new row being inserted. Causing an
# FK violation.
#
do_catchsql_test fkey1-5.2 {
  INSERT OR REPLACE INTO t11 VALUES (2, 3);
} {1 {FOREIGN KEY constraint failed}}















# A similar test to the above.
do_execsql_test fkey1-5.3 {
  CREATE TABLE Foo (
    Id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, 
    ParentId INTEGER REFERENCES Foo(Id) ON DELETE CASCADE, C1
  );
  INSERT OR REPLACE INTO Foo(Id, ParentId, C1) VALUES (1, null, 'A');







>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>







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# would have been the parent of the new row being inserted. Causing an
# FK violation.
#
do_catchsql_test fkey1-5.2 {
  INSERT OR REPLACE INTO t11 VALUES (2, 3);
} {1 {FOREIGN KEY constraint failed}}

# Make sure sqlite3_trace() output works with triggers used to implement
# FK constraints
#
proc sqltrace {txt} {
  global traceoutput
  lappend traceoutput $txt
}
do_test fkey1-5.2.1 {
  unset -nocomplain traceoutput
  db trace sqltrace
  catch {db eval {INSERT OR REPLACE INTO t11 VALUES(2,3);}}
  set traceoutput
} {{INSERT OR REPLACE INTO t11 VALUES(2,3);} {INSERT OR REPLACE INTO t11 VALUES(2,3);} {INSERT OR REPLACE INTO t11 VALUES(2,3);}}

# A similar test to the above.
do_execsql_test fkey1-5.3 {
  CREATE TABLE Foo (
    Id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, 
    ParentId INTEGER REFERENCES Foo(Id) ON DELETE CASCADE, C1
  );
  INSERT OR REPLACE INTO Foo(Id, ParentId, C1) VALUES (1, null, 'A');

Changes to test/trace.test.

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    proc trace_proc cmd {
      lappend ::TRACE_OUT [string trim $cmd]
    }
    db eval {
      UPDATE t1 SET a=a+1;
    }
    set TRACE_OUT
  } {{UPDATE t1 SET a=a+1;} {-- TRIGGER r1t1} {-- TRIGGER r1t2} {-- TRIGGER r1t1} {-- TRIGGER r1t2} {-- TRIGGER r1t1} {-- TRIGGER r1t2}}
}

# With 3.6.21, we add the ability to expand host parameters in the trace
# output.  Test this feature.
#
do_test trace-6.1 {
  set ::t6int [expr {3+3}]







|







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    proc trace_proc cmd {
      lappend ::TRACE_OUT [string trim $cmd]
    }
    db eval {
      UPDATE t1 SET a=a+1;
    }
    set TRACE_OUT
  } {{UPDATE t1 SET a=a+1;} {-- TRIGGER r1t1} {-- UPDATE t2 SET a=new.a WHERE rowid=new.rowid} {-- TRIGGER r1t2} {-- SELECT 'hello'} {-- TRIGGER r1t1} {-- UPDATE t2 SET a=new.a WHERE rowid=new.rowid} {-- TRIGGER r1t2} {-- SELECT 'hello'} {-- TRIGGER r1t1} {-- UPDATE t2 SET a=new.a WHERE rowid=new.rowid} {-- TRIGGER r1t2} {-- SELECT 'hello'}}
}

# With 3.6.21, we add the ability to expand host parameters in the trace
# output.  Test this feature.
#
do_test trace-6.1 {
  set ::t6int [expr {3+3}]