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/*
** 2001 September 15
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This file contains code to implement the "sqlite" command line
** utility for accessing SQLite databases.
*/
#if (defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)) && !defined(_CRT_SECURE_NO_WARNINGS)
/* This needs to come before any includes for MSVC compiler */
#define _CRT_SECURE_NO_WARNINGS
#endif

/*
** Optionally #include a user-defined header, whereby compilation options
** may be set prior to where they take effect, but after platform setup. 
** If SQLITE_CUSTOM_INCLUDE=? is defined, its value names the #include
** file. Note that this macro has a like effect on sqlite3.c compilation.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_CUSTOM_INCLUDE
# define INC_STRINGIFY_(f) #f
# define INC_STRINGIFY(f) INC_STRINGIFY_(f)
# include INC_STRINGIFY(SQLITE_CUSTOM_INCLUDE)
#endif

/*
** Determine if we are dealing with WinRT, which provides only a subset of
** the full Win32 API.
*/
#if !defined(SQLITE_OS_WINRT)
# define SQLITE_OS_WINRT 0
#endif

/*
** Warning pragmas copied from msvc.h in the core.
*/
#if defined(_MSC_VER)
#pragma warning(disable : 4054)
#pragma warning(disable : 4055)
#pragma warning(disable : 4100)
#pragma warning(disable : 4127)
#pragma warning(disable : 4130)
#pragma warning(disable : 4152)
#pragma warning(disable : 4189)
#pragma warning(disable : 4206)
#pragma warning(disable : 4210)
#pragma warning(disable : 4232)
#pragma warning(disable : 4244)
#pragma warning(disable : 4305)
#pragma warning(disable : 4306)
#pragma warning(disable : 4702)
#pragma warning(disable : 4706)
#endif /* defined(_MSC_VER) */

/*
** No support for loadable extensions in VxWorks.
*/
#if (defined(__RTP__) || defined(_WRS_KERNEL)) && !SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION
# define SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION 1
#endif

/*
** Enable large-file support for fopen() and friends on unix.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_DISABLE_LFS
# define _LARGE_FILE       1
# ifndef _FILE_OFFSET_BITS
#   define _FILE_OFFSET_BITS 64
# endif
# define _LARGEFILE_SOURCE 1
#endif

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include "sqlite3.h"
typedef sqlite3_int64 i64;
typedef sqlite3_uint64 u64;
typedef unsigned char u8;
#if SQLITE_USER_AUTHENTICATION
# include "sqlite3userauth.h"
#endif
#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdarg.h>

#if !defined(_WIN32) && !defined(WIN32)
# include <signal.h>
# if !defined(__RTP__) && !defined(_WRS_KERNEL)
#  include <pwd.h>
# endif
#endif
#if (!defined(_WIN32) && !defined(WIN32)) || defined(__MINGW32__)
# include <unistd.h>
# include <dirent.h>
# define GETPID getpid
# if defined(__MINGW32__)
#  define DIRENT dirent
#  ifndef S_ISLNK
#   define S_ISLNK(mode) (0)
#  endif
# endif
#else
# define GETPID (int)GetCurrentProcessId
#endif
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>

#if HAVE_READLINE
# include <readline/readline.h>
# include <readline/history.h>
#endif

#if HAVE_EDITLINE
# include <editline/readline.h>
#endif

#if HAVE_EDITLINE || HAVE_READLINE

# define shell_add_history(X) add_history(X)
# define shell_read_history(X) read_history(X)
# define shell_write_history(X) write_history(X)
# define shell_stifle_history(X) stifle_history(X)
# define shell_readline(X) readline(X)

#elif HAVE_LINENOISE

# include "linenoise.h"
# define shell_add_history(X) linenoiseHistoryAdd(X)
# define shell_read_history(X) linenoiseHistoryLoad(X)
# define shell_write_history(X) linenoiseHistorySave(X)
# define shell_stifle_history(X) linenoiseHistorySetMaxLen(X)
# define shell_readline(X) linenoise(X)

#else

# define shell_read_history(X)
# define shell_write_history(X)
# define shell_stifle_history(X)

# define SHELL_USE_LOCAL_GETLINE 1
#endif


#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)
# if SQLITE_OS_WINRT
#  define SQLITE_OMIT_POPEN 1
# else
#  include <io.h>
#  include <fcntl.h>
#  define isatty(h) _isatty(h)
#  ifndef access
#   define access(f,m) _access((f),(m))
#  endif
#  ifndef unlink
#   define unlink _unlink
#  endif
#  ifndef strdup
#   define strdup _strdup
#  endif
#  undef popen
#  define popen _popen
#  undef pclose
#  define pclose _pclose
# endif
#else
 /* Make sure isatty() has a prototype. */
 extern int isatty(int);

# if !defined(__RTP__) && !defined(_WRS_KERNEL)
  /* popen and pclose are not C89 functions and so are
  ** sometimes omitted from the <stdio.h> header */
   extern FILE *popen(const char*,const char*);
   extern int pclose(FILE*);
# else
#  define SQLITE_OMIT_POPEN 1
# endif
#endif

#if defined(_WIN32_WCE)
/* Windows CE (arm-wince-mingw32ce-gcc) does not provide isatty()
 * thus we always assume that we have a console. That can be
 * overridden with the -batch command line option.
 */
#define isatty(x) 1
#endif

/* ctype macros that work with signed characters */
#define IsSpace(X)  isspace((unsigned char)X)
#define IsDigit(X)  isdigit((unsigned char)X)
#define ToLower(X)  (char)tolower((unsigned char)X)

#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)
#if SQLITE_OS_WINRT
#include <intrin.h>
#endif
#include <windows.h>

/* string conversion routines only needed on Win32 */
extern char *sqlite3_win32_unicode_to_utf8(LPCWSTR);
extern char *sqlite3_win32_mbcs_to_utf8_v2(const char *, int);
extern char *sqlite3_win32_utf8_to_mbcs_v2(const char *, int);
extern LPWSTR sqlite3_win32_utf8_to_unicode(const char *zText);
#endif

/* On Windows, we normally run with output mode of TEXT so that \n characters
** are automatically translated into \r\n.  However, this behavior needs
** to be disabled in some cases (ex: when generating CSV output and when
** rendering quoted strings that contain \n characters).  The following
** routines take care of that.
*/
#if (defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)) && !SQLITE_OS_WINRT
static void setBinaryMode(FILE *file, int isOutput){
  if( isOutput ) fflush(file);
  _setmode(_fileno(file), _O_BINARY);
}
static void setTextMode(FILE *file, int isOutput){
  if( isOutput ) fflush(file);
  _setmode(_fileno(file), _O_TEXT);
}
#else
# define setBinaryMode(X,Y)
# define setTextMode(X,Y)
#endif


/* True if the timer is enabled */
static int enableTimer = 0;

/* Return the current wall-clock time */
static sqlite3_int64 timeOfDay(void){
  static sqlite3_vfs *clockVfs = 0;
  sqlite3_int64 t;
  if( clockVfs==0 ) clockVfs = sqlite3_vfs_find(0);
  if( clockVfs==0 ) return 0;  /* Never actually happens */
  if( clockVfs->iVersion>=2 && clockVfs->xCurrentTimeInt64!=0 ){
    clockVfs->xCurrentTimeInt64(clockVfs, &t);
  }else{
    double r;
    clockVfs->xCurrentTime(clockVfs, &r);
    t = (sqlite3_int64)(r*86400000.0);
  }
  return t;
}

#if !defined(_WIN32) && !defined(WIN32) && !defined(__minux)
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/resource.h>

/* VxWorks does not support getrusage() as far as we can determine */
#if defined(_WRS_KERNEL) || defined(__RTP__)
struct rusage {
  struct timeval ru_utime; /* user CPU time used */
  struct timeval ru_stime; /* system CPU time used */
};
#define getrusage(A,B) memset(B,0,sizeof(*B))
#endif

/* Saved resource information for the beginning of an operation */
static struct rusage sBegin;  /* CPU time at start */
static sqlite3_int64 iBegin;  /* Wall-clock time at start */

/*
** Begin timing an operation
*/
static void beginTimer(void){
  if( enableTimer ){
    getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &sBegin);
    iBegin = timeOfDay();
  }
}

/* Return the difference of two time_structs in seconds */
static double timeDiff(struct timeval *pStart, struct timeval *pEnd){
  return (pEnd->tv_usec - pStart->tv_usec)*0.000001 +
         (double)(pEnd->tv_sec - pStart->tv_sec);
}

/*
** Print the timing results.
*/
static void endTimer(void){
  if( enableTimer ){
    sqlite3_int64 iEnd = timeOfDay();
    struct rusage sEnd;
    getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &sEnd);
    printf("Run Time: real %.3f user %f sys %f\n",
       (iEnd - iBegin)*0.001,
       timeDiff(&sBegin.ru_utime, &sEnd.ru_utime),
       timeDiff(&sBegin.ru_stime, &sEnd.ru_stime));
  }
}

#define BEGIN_TIMER beginTimer()
#define END_TIMER endTimer()
#define HAS_TIMER 1

#elif (defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32))

/* Saved resource information for the beginning of an operation */
static HANDLE hProcess;
static FILETIME ftKernelBegin;
static FILETIME ftUserBegin;
static sqlite3_int64 ftWallBegin;
typedef BOOL (WINAPI *GETPROCTIMES)(HANDLE, LPFILETIME, LPFILETIME,
                                    LPFILETIME, LPFILETIME);
static GETPROCTIMES getProcessTimesAddr = NULL;

/*
** Check to see if we have timer support.  Return 1 if necessary
** support found (or found previously).
*/
static int hasTimer(void){
  if( getProcessTimesAddr ){
    return 1;
  } else {
#if !SQLITE_OS_WINRT
    /* GetProcessTimes() isn't supported in WIN95 and some other Windows
    ** versions. See if the version we are running on has it, and if it
    ** does, save off a pointer to it and the current process handle.
    */
    hProcess = GetCurrentProcess();
    if( hProcess ){
      HINSTANCE hinstLib = LoadLibrary(TEXT("Kernel32.dll"));
      if( NULL != hinstLib ){
        getProcessTimesAddr =
            (GETPROCTIMES) GetProcAddress(hinstLib, "GetProcessTimes");
        if( NULL != getProcessTimesAddr ){
          return 1;
        }
        FreeLibrary(hinstLib);
      }
    }
#endif
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** Begin timing an operation
*/
static void beginTimer(void){
  if( enableTimer && getProcessTimesAddr ){
    FILETIME ftCreation, ftExit;
    getProcessTimesAddr(hProcess,&ftCreation,&ftExit,
                        &ftKernelBegin,&ftUserBegin);
    ftWallBegin = timeOfDay();
  }
}

/* Return the difference of two FILETIME structs in seconds */
static double timeDiff(FILETIME *pStart, FILETIME *pEnd){
  sqlite_int64 i64Start = *((sqlite_int64 *) pStart);
  sqlite_int64 i64End = *((sqlite_int64 *) pEnd);
  return (double) ((i64End - i64Start) / 10000000.0);
}

/*
** Print the timing results.
*/
static void endTimer(void){
  if( enableTimer && getProcessTimesAddr){
    FILETIME ftCreation, ftExit, ftKernelEnd, ftUserEnd;
    sqlite3_int64 ftWallEnd = timeOfDay();
    getProcessTimesAddr(hProcess,&ftCreation,&ftExit,&ftKernelEnd,&ftUserEnd);
    printf("Run Time: real %.3f user %f sys %f\n",
       (ftWallEnd - ftWallBegin)*0.001,
       timeDiff(&ftUserBegin, &ftUserEnd),
       timeDiff(&ftKernelBegin, &ftKernelEnd));
  }
}

#define BEGIN_TIMER beginTimer()
#define END_TIMER endTimer()
#define HAS_TIMER hasTimer()

#else
#define BEGIN_TIMER
#define END_TIMER
#define HAS_TIMER 0
#endif

/*
** Used to prevent warnings about unused parameters
*/
#define UNUSED_PARAMETER(x) (void)(x)

/*
** Number of elements in an array
*/
#define ArraySize(X)  (int)(sizeof(X)/sizeof(X[0]))

/*
** If the following flag is set, then command execution stops
** at an error if we are not interactive.
*/
static int bail_on_error = 0;

/*
** Threat stdin as an interactive input if the following variable
** is true.  Otherwise, assume stdin is connected to a file or pipe.
*/
static int stdin_is_interactive = 1;

/*
** On Windows systems we have to know if standard output is a console
** in order to translate UTF-8 into MBCS.  The following variable is
** true if translation is required.
*/
static int stdout_is_console = 1;

/*
** The following is the open SQLite database.  We make a pointer
** to this database a static variable so that it can be accessed
** by the SIGINT handler to interrupt database processing.
*/
static sqlite3 *globalDb = 0;

/*
** True if an interrupt (Control-C) has been received.
*/
static volatile int seenInterrupt = 0;

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
/*
** Out-of-memory simulator variables
*/
static unsigned int oomCounter = 0;    /* Simulate OOM when equals 1 */
static unsigned int oomRepeat = 0;     /* Number of OOMs in a row */
static void*(*defaultMalloc)(int) = 0; /* The low-level malloc routine */
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */

/*
** This is the name of our program. It is set in main(), used
** in a number of other places, mostly for error messages.
*/
static char *Argv0;

/*
** Prompt strings. Initialized in main. Settable with
**   .prompt main continue
*/
static char mainPrompt[20];     /* First line prompt. default: "sqlite> "*/
static char continuePrompt[20]; /* Continuation prompt. default: "   ...> " */

/*
** Render output like fprintf().  Except, if the output is going to the
** console and if this is running on a Windows machine, translate the
** output from UTF-8 into MBCS.
*/
#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)
void utf8_printf(FILE *out, const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  if( stdout_is_console && (out==stdout || out==stderr) ){
    char *z1 = sqlite3_vmprintf(zFormat, ap);
    char *z2 = sqlite3_win32_utf8_to_mbcs_v2(z1, 0);
    sqlite3_free(z1);
    fputs(z2, out);
    sqlite3_free(z2);
  }else{
    vfprintf(out, zFormat, ap);
  }
  va_end(ap);
}
#elif !defined(utf8_printf)
# define utf8_printf fprintf
#endif

/*
** Render output like fprintf().  This should not be used on anything that
** includes string formatting (e.g. "%s").
*/
#if !defined(raw_printf)
# define raw_printf fprintf
#endif

/* Indicate out-of-memory and exit. */
static void shell_out_of_memory(void){
  raw_printf(stderr,"Error: out of memory\n");
  exit(1);
}

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
/* This routine is called when a simulated OOM occurs.  It is broken
** out as a separate routine to make it easy to set a breakpoint on
** the OOM
*/
void shellOomFault(void){
  if( oomRepeat>0 ){
    oomRepeat--;
  }else{
    oomCounter--;
  }
}
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
/* This routine is a replacement malloc() that is used to simulate
** Out-Of-Memory (OOM) errors for testing purposes.
*/
static void *oomMalloc(int nByte){
  if( oomCounter ){
    if( oomCounter==1 ){
      shellOomFault();
      return 0;
    }else{
      oomCounter--;
    }
  }
  return defaultMalloc(nByte);
}
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
/* Register the OOM simulator.  This must occur before any memory
** allocations */
static void registerOomSimulator(void){
  sqlite3_mem_methods mem;
  sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_GETMALLOC, &mem);
  defaultMalloc = mem.xMalloc;
  mem.xMalloc = oomMalloc;
  sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_MALLOC, &mem);
}
#endif

/*
** Write I/O traces to the following stream.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_IOTRACE
static FILE *iotrace = 0;
#endif

/*
** This routine works like printf in that its first argument is a
** format string and subsequent arguments are values to be substituted
** in place of % fields.  The result of formatting this string
** is written to iotrace.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_IOTRACE
static void SQLITE_CDECL iotracePrintf(const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  char *z;
  if( iotrace==0 ) return;
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  z = sqlite3_vmprintf(zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  utf8_printf(iotrace, "%s", z);
  sqlite3_free(z);
}
#endif

/*
** Output string zUtf to stream pOut as w characters.  If w is negative,
** then right-justify the text.  W is the width in UTF-8 characters, not
** in bytes.  This is different from the %*.*s specification in printf
** since with %*.*s the width is measured in bytes, not characters.
*/
static void utf8_width_print(FILE *pOut, int w, const char *zUtf){
  int i;
  int n;
  int aw = w<0 ? -w : w;
  for(i=n=0; zUtf[i]; i++){
    if( (zUtf[i]&0xc0)!=0x80 ){
      n++;
      if( n==aw ){
        do{ i++; }while( (zUtf[i]&0xc0)==0x80 );
        break;
      }
    }
  }
  if( n>=aw ){
    utf8_printf(pOut, "%.*s", i, zUtf);
  }else if( w<0 ){
    utf8_printf(pOut, "%*s%s", aw-n, "", zUtf);
  }else{
    utf8_printf(pOut, "%s%*s", zUtf, aw-n, "");
  }
}


/*
** Determines if a string is a number of not.
*/
static int isNumber(const char *z, int *realnum){
  if( *z=='-' || *z=='+' ) z++;
  if( !IsDigit(*z) ){
    return 0;
  }
  z++;
  if( realnum ) *realnum = 0;
  while( IsDigit(*z) ){ z++; }
  if( *z=='.' ){
    z++;
    if( !IsDigit(*z) ) return 0;
    while( IsDigit(*z) ){ z++; }
    if( realnum ) *realnum = 1;
  }
  if( *z=='e' || *z=='E' ){
    z++;
    if( *z=='+' || *z=='-' ) z++;
    if( !IsDigit(*z) ) return 0;
    while( IsDigit(*z) ){ z++; }
    if( realnum ) *realnum = 1;
  }
  return *z==0;
}

/*
** Compute a string length that is limited to what can be stored in
** lower 30 bits of a 32-bit signed integer.
*/
static int strlen30(const char *z){
  const char *z2 = z;
  while( *z2 ){ z2++; }
  return 0x3fffffff & (int)(z2 - z);
}

/*
** Return the length of a string in characters.  Multibyte UTF8 characters
** count as a single character.
*/
static int strlenChar(const char *z){
  int n = 0;
  while( *z ){
    if( (0xc0&*(z++))!=0x80 ) n++;
  }
  return n;
}

/*
** Return true if zFile does not exist or if it is not an ordinary file.
*/
#ifdef _WIN32
# define notNormalFile(X) 0
#else
static int notNormalFile(const char *zFile){
  struct stat x;
  int rc;
  memset(&x, 0, sizeof(x));
  rc = stat(zFile, &x);
  return rc || !S_ISREG(x.st_mode);
}
#endif

/*
** This routine reads a line of text from FILE in, stores
** the text in memory obtained from malloc() and returns a pointer
** to the text.  NULL is returned at end of file, or if malloc()
** fails.
**
** If zLine is not NULL then it is a malloced buffer returned from
** a previous call to this routine that may be reused.
*/
static char *local_getline(char *zLine, FILE *in){
  int nLine = zLine==0 ? 0 : 100;
  int n = 0;

  while( 1 ){
    if( n+100>nLine ){
      nLine = nLine*2 + 100;
      zLine = realloc(zLine, nLine);
      if( zLine==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
    }
    if( fgets(&zLine[n], nLine - n, in)==0 ){
      if( n==0 ){
        free(zLine);
        return 0;
      }
      zLine[n] = 0;
      break;
    }
    while( zLine[n] ) n++;
    if( n>0 && zLine[n-1]=='\n' ){
      n--;
      if( n>0 && zLine[n-1]=='\r' ) n--;
      zLine[n] = 0;
      break;
    }
  }
#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)
  /* For interactive input on Windows systems, translate the
  ** multi-byte characterset characters into UTF-8. */
  if( stdin_is_interactive && in==stdin ){
    char *zTrans = sqlite3_win32_mbcs_to_utf8_v2(zLine, 0);
    if( zTrans ){
      int nTrans = strlen30(zTrans)+1;
      if( nTrans>nLine ){
        zLine = realloc(zLine, nTrans);
        if( zLine==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
      }
      memcpy(zLine, zTrans, nTrans);
      sqlite3_free(zTrans);
    }
  }
#endif /* defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32) */
  return zLine;
}

/*
** Retrieve a single line of input text.
**
** If in==0 then read from standard input and prompt before each line.
** If isContinuation is true, then a continuation prompt is appropriate.
** If isContinuation is zero, then the main prompt should be used.
**
** If zPrior is not NULL then it is a buffer from a prior call to this
** routine that can be reused.
**
** The result is stored in space obtained from malloc() and must either
** be freed by the caller or else passed back into this routine via the
** zPrior argument for reuse.
*/
static char *one_input_line(FILE *in, char *zPrior, int isContinuation){
  char *zPrompt;
  char *zResult;
  if( in!=0 ){
    zResult = local_getline(zPrior, in);
  }else{
    zPrompt = isContinuation ? continuePrompt : mainPrompt;
#if SHELL_USE_LOCAL_GETLINE
    printf("%s", zPrompt);
    fflush(stdout);
    zResult = local_getline(zPrior, stdin);
#else
    free(zPrior);
    zResult = shell_readline(zPrompt);
    if( zResult && *zResult ) shell_add_history(zResult);
#endif
  }
  return zResult;
}


/*
** Return the value of a hexadecimal digit.  Return -1 if the input
** is not a hex digit.
*/
static int hexDigitValue(char c){
  if( c>='0' && c<='9' ) return c - '0';
  if( c>='a' && c<='f' ) return c - 'a' + 10;
  if( c>='A' && c<='F' ) return c - 'A' + 10;
  return -1;
}

/*
** Interpret zArg as an integer value, possibly with suffixes.
*/
static sqlite3_int64 integerValue(const char *zArg){
  sqlite3_int64 v = 0;
  static const struct { char *zSuffix; int iMult; } aMult[] = {
    { "KiB", 1024 },
    { "MiB", 1024*1024 },
    { "GiB", 1024*1024*1024 },
    { "KB",  1000 },
    { "MB",  1000000 },
    { "GB",  1000000000 },
    { "K",   1000 },
    { "M",   1000000 },
    { "G",   1000000000 },
  };
  int i;
  int isNeg = 0;
  if( zArg[0]=='-' ){
    isNeg = 1;
    zArg++;
  }else if( zArg[0]=='+' ){
    zArg++;
  }
  if( zArg[0]=='0' && zArg[1]=='x' ){
    int x;
    zArg += 2;
    while( (x = hexDigitValue(zArg[0]))>=0 ){
      v = (v<<4) + x;
      zArg++;
    }
  }else{
    while( IsDigit(zArg[0]) ){
      v = v*10 + zArg[0] - '0';
      zArg++;
    }
  }
  for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aMult); i++){
    if( sqlite3_stricmp(aMult[i].zSuffix, zArg)==0 ){
      v *= aMult[i].iMult;
      break;
    }
  }
  return isNeg? -v : v;
}

/*
** A variable length string to which one can append text.
*/
typedef struct ShellText ShellText;
struct ShellText {
  char *z;
  int n;
  int nAlloc;
};

/*
** Initialize and destroy a ShellText object
*/
static void initText(ShellText *p){
  memset(p, 0, sizeof(*p));
}
static void freeText(ShellText *p){
  free(p->z);
  initText(p);
}

/* zIn is either a pointer to a NULL-terminated string in memory obtained
** from malloc(), or a NULL pointer. The string pointed to by zAppend is
** added to zIn, and the result returned in memory obtained from malloc().
** zIn, if it was not NULL, is freed.
**
** If the third argument, quote, is not '\0', then it is used as a
** quote character for zAppend.
*/
static void appendText(ShellText *p, char const *zAppend, char quote){
  int len;
  int i;
  int nAppend = strlen30(zAppend);

  len = nAppend+p->n+1;
  if( quote ){
    len += 2;
    for(i=0; i<nAppend; i++){
      if( zAppend[i]==quote ) len++;
    }
  }

  if( p->n+len>=p->nAlloc ){
    p->nAlloc = p->nAlloc*2 + len + 20;
    p->z = realloc(p->z, p->nAlloc);
    if( p->z==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
  }

  if( quote ){
    char *zCsr = p->z+p->n;
    *zCsr++ = quote;
    for(i=0; i<nAppend; i++){
      *zCsr++ = zAppend[i];
      if( zAppend[i]==quote ) *zCsr++ = quote;
    }
    *zCsr++ = quote;
    p->n = (int)(zCsr - p->z);
    *zCsr = '\0';
  }else{
    memcpy(p->z+p->n, zAppend, nAppend);
    p->n += nAppend;
    p->z[p->n] = '\0';
  }
}

/*
** Attempt to determine if identifier zName needs to be quoted, either
** because it contains non-alphanumeric characters, or because it is an
** SQLite keyword.  Be conservative in this estimate:  When in doubt assume
** that quoting is required.
**
** Return '"' if quoting is required.  Return 0 if no quoting is required.
*/
static char quoteChar(const char *zName){
  int i;
  if( !isalpha((unsigned char)zName[0]) && zName[0]!='_' ) return '"';
  for(i=0; zName[i]; i++){
    if( !isalnum((unsigned char)zName[i]) && zName[i]!='_' ) return '"';
  }
  return sqlite3_keyword_check(zName, i) ? '"' : 0;
}

/*
** Construct a fake object name and column list to describe the structure
** of the view, virtual table, or table valued function zSchema.zName.
*/
static char *shellFakeSchema(
  sqlite3 *db,            /* The database connection containing the vtab */
  const char *zSchema,    /* Schema of the database holding the vtab */
  const char *zName       /* The name of the virtual table */
){
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
  char *zSql;
  ShellText s;
  char cQuote;
  char *zDiv = "(";
  int nRow = 0;

  zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA \"%w\".table_info=%Q;",
                         zSchema ? zSchema : "main", zName);
  sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  initText(&s);
  if( zSchema ){
    cQuote = quoteChar(zSchema);
    if( cQuote && sqlite3_stricmp(zSchema,"temp")==0 ) cQuote = 0;
    appendText(&s, zSchema, cQuote);
    appendText(&s, ".", 0);
  }
  cQuote = quoteChar(zName);
  appendText(&s, zName, cQuote);
  while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    const char *zCol = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 1);
    nRow++;
    appendText(&s, zDiv, 0);
    zDiv = ",";
    cQuote = quoteChar(zCol);
    appendText(&s, zCol, cQuote);
  }
  appendText(&s, ")", 0);
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  if( nRow==0 ){
    freeText(&s);
    s.z = 0;
  }
  return s.z;
}

/*
** SQL function:  shell_module_schema(X)
**
** Return a fake schema for the table-valued function or eponymous virtual
** table X.
*/
static void shellModuleSchema(
  sqlite3_context *pCtx,
  int nVal,
  sqlite3_value **apVal
){
  const char *zName = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[0]);
  char *zFake = shellFakeSchema(sqlite3_context_db_handle(pCtx), 0, zName);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(nVal);
  if( zFake ){
    sqlite3_result_text(pCtx, sqlite3_mprintf("/* %s */", zFake),
                        -1, sqlite3_free);
    free(zFake);
  }
}

/*
** SQL function:  shell_add_schema(S,X)
**
** Add the schema name X to the CREATE statement in S and return the result.
** Examples:
**
**    CREATE TABLE t1(x)   ->   CREATE TABLE xyz.t1(x);
**
** Also works on
**
**    CREATE INDEX
**    CREATE UNIQUE INDEX
**    CREATE VIEW
**    CREATE TRIGGER
**    CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE
**
** This UDF is used by the .schema command to insert the schema name of
** attached databases into the middle of the sqlite_schema.sql field.
*/
static void shellAddSchemaName(
  sqlite3_context *pCtx,
  int nVal,
  sqlite3_value **apVal
){
  static const char *aPrefix[] = {
     "TABLE",
     "INDEX",
     "UNIQUE INDEX",
     "VIEW",
     "TRIGGER",
     "VIRTUAL TABLE"
  };
  int i = 0;
  const char *zIn = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[0]);
  const char *zSchema = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[1]);
  const char *zName = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[2]);
  sqlite3 *db = sqlite3_context_db_handle(pCtx);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(nVal);
  if( zIn!=0 && strncmp(zIn, "CREATE ", 7)==0 ){
    for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aPrefix); i++){
      int n = strlen30(aPrefix[i]);
      if( strncmp(zIn+7, aPrefix[i], n)==0 && zIn[n+7]==' ' ){
        char *z = 0;
        char *zFake = 0;
        if( zSchema ){
          char cQuote = quoteChar(zSchema);
          if( cQuote && sqlite3_stricmp(zSchema,"temp")!=0 ){
            z = sqlite3_mprintf("%.*s \"%w\".%s", n+7, zIn, zSchema, zIn+n+8);
          }else{
            z = sqlite3_mprintf("%.*s %s.%s", n+7, zIn, zSchema, zIn+n+8);
          }
        }
        if( zName
         && aPrefix[i][0]=='V'
         && (zFake = shellFakeSchema(db, zSchema, zName))!=0
        ){
          if( z==0 ){
            z = sqlite3_mprintf("%s\n/* %s */", zIn, zFake);
          }else{
            z = sqlite3_mprintf("%z\n/* %s */", z, zFake);
          }
          free(zFake);
        }
        if( z ){
          sqlite3_result_text(pCtx, z, -1, sqlite3_free);
          return;
        }
      }
    }
  }
  sqlite3_result_value(pCtx, apVal[0]);
}

/*
** The source code for several run-time loadable extensions is inserted
** below by the ../tool/mkshellc.tcl script.  Before processing that included
** code, we need to override some macros to make the included program code
** work here in the middle of this regular program.
*/
#define SQLITE_EXTENSION_INIT1
#define SQLITE_EXTENSION_INIT2(X) (void)(X)

#if defined(_WIN32) && defined(_MSC_VER)
INCLUDE test_windirent.h
INCLUDE test_windirent.c
#define dirent DIRENT
#endif
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/shathree.c
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/fileio.c
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/completion.c
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/appendvfs.c
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/memtrace.c
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/uint.c
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/decimal.c
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/ieee754.c
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/series.c
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/regexp.c
#ifdef SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/zipfile.c
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/sqlar.c
#endif
INCLUDE ../ext/expert/sqlite3expert.h
INCLUDE ../ext/expert/sqlite3expert.c

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_DBPAGE_VTAB)
INCLUDE ../ext/misc/dbdata.c
#endif

#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_SESSION)
/*
** State information for a single open session
*/
typedef struct OpenSession OpenSession;
struct OpenSession {
  char *zName;             /* Symbolic name for this session */
  int nFilter;             /* Number of xFilter rejection GLOB patterns */
  char **azFilter;         /* Array of xFilter rejection GLOB patterns */
  sqlite3_session *p;      /* The open session */
};
#endif

typedef struct ExpertInfo ExpertInfo;
struct ExpertInfo {
  sqlite3expert *pExpert;
  int bVerbose;
};

/* A single line in the EQP output */
typedef struct EQPGraphRow EQPGraphRow;
struct EQPGraphRow {
  int iEqpId;           /* ID for this row */
  int iParentId;        /* ID of the parent row */
  EQPGraphRow *pNext;   /* Next row in sequence */
  char zText[1];        /* Text to display for this row */
};

/* All EQP output is collected into an instance of the following */
typedef struct EQPGraph EQPGraph;
struct EQPGraph {
  EQPGraphRow *pRow;    /* Linked list of all rows of the EQP output */
  EQPGraphRow *pLast;   /* Last element of the pRow list */
  char zPrefix[100];    /* Graph prefix */
};

/*
** State information about the database connection is contained in an
** instance of the following structure.
*/
typedef struct ShellState ShellState;
struct ShellState {
  sqlite3 *db;           /* The database */
  u8 autoExplain;        /* Automatically turn on .explain mode */
  u8 autoEQP;            /* Run EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN prior to seach SQL stmt */
  u8 autoEQPtest;        /* autoEQP is in test mode */
  u8 autoEQPtrace;       /* autoEQP is in trace mode */
  u8 scanstatsOn;        /* True to display scan stats before each finalize */
  u8 openMode;           /* SHELL_OPEN_NORMAL, _APPENDVFS, or _ZIPFILE */
  u8 doXdgOpen;          /* Invoke start/open/xdg-open in output_reset() */
  u8 nEqpLevel;          /* Depth of the EQP output graph */
  u8 eTraceType;         /* SHELL_TRACE_* value for type of trace */
  unsigned statsOn;      /* True to display memory stats before each finalize */
  unsigned mEqpLines;    /* Mask of veritical lines in the EQP output graph */
  int outCount;          /* Revert to stdout when reaching zero */
  int cnt;               /* Number of records displayed so far */
  int lineno;            /* Line number of last line read from in */
  int openFlags;         /* Additional flags to open.  (SQLITE_OPEN_NOFOLLOW) */
  FILE *in;              /* Read commands from this stream */
  FILE *out;             /* Write results here */
  FILE *traceOut;        /* Output for sqlite3_trace() */
  int nErr;              /* Number of errors seen */
  int mode;              /* An output mode setting */
  int modePrior;         /* Saved mode */
  int cMode;             /* temporary output mode for the current query */
  int normalMode;        /* Output mode before ".explain on" */
  int writableSchema;    /* True if PRAGMA writable_schema=ON */
  int showHeader;        /* True to show column names in List or Column mode */
  int nCheck;            /* Number of ".check" commands run */
  unsigned nProgress;    /* Number of progress callbacks encountered */
  unsigned mxProgress;   /* Maximum progress callbacks before failing */
  unsigned flgProgress;  /* Flags for the progress callback */
  unsigned shellFlgs;    /* Various flags */
  unsigned priorShFlgs;  /* Saved copy of flags */
  sqlite3_int64 szMax;   /* --maxsize argument to .open */
  char *zDestTable;      /* Name of destination table when MODE_Insert */
  char *zTempFile;       /* Temporary file that might need deleting */
  char zTestcase[30];    /* Name of current test case */
  char colSeparator[20]; /* Column separator character for several modes */
  char rowSeparator[20]; /* Row separator character for MODE_Ascii */
  char colSepPrior[20];  /* Saved column separator */
  char rowSepPrior[20];  /* Saved row separator */
  int *colWidth;         /* Requested width of each column in columnar modes */
  int *actualWidth;      /* Actual width of each column */
  int nWidth;            /* Number of slots in colWidth[] and actualWidth[] */
  char nullValue[20];    /* The text to print when a NULL comes back from
                         ** the database */
  char outfile[FILENAME_MAX]; /* Filename for *out */
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;   /* Current statement if any. */
  FILE *pLog;            /* Write log output here */
  struct AuxDb {         /* Storage space for auxiliary database connections */
    sqlite3 *db;               /* Connection pointer */
    const char *zDbFilename;   /* Filename used to open the connection */
    char *zFreeOnClose;        /* Free this memory allocation on close */
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_SESSION)
    int nSession;              /* Number of active sessions */
    OpenSession aSession[4];   /* Array of sessions.  [0] is in focus. */
#endif
  } aAuxDb[5],           /* Array of all database connections */
    *pAuxDb;             /* Currently active database connection */
  int *aiIndent;         /* Array of indents used in MODE_Explain */
  int nIndent;           /* Size of array aiIndent[] */
  int iIndent;           /* Index of current op in aiIndent[] */
  EQPGraph sGraph;       /* Information for the graphical EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN */
  ExpertInfo expert;        /* Valid if previous command was ".expert OPT..." */
};


/* Allowed values for ShellState.autoEQP
*/
#define AUTOEQP_off      0           /* Automatic EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN is off */
#define AUTOEQP_on       1           /* Automatic EQP is on */
#define AUTOEQP_trigger  2           /* On and also show plans for triggers */
#define AUTOEQP_full     3           /* Show full EXPLAIN */

/* Allowed values for ShellState.openMode
*/
#define SHELL_OPEN_UNSPEC      0      /* No open-mode specified */
#define SHELL_OPEN_NORMAL      1      /* Normal database file */
#define SHELL_OPEN_APPENDVFS   2      /* Use appendvfs */
#define SHELL_OPEN_ZIPFILE     3      /* Use the zipfile virtual table */
#define SHELL_OPEN_READONLY    4      /* Open a normal database read-only */
#define SHELL_OPEN_DESERIALIZE 5      /* Open using sqlite3_deserialize() */
#define SHELL_OPEN_HEXDB       6      /* Use "dbtotxt" output as data source */

/* Allowed values for ShellState.eTraceType
*/
#define SHELL_TRACE_PLAIN      0      /* Show input SQL text */
#define SHELL_TRACE_EXPANDED   1      /* Show expanded SQL text */
#define SHELL_TRACE_NORMALIZED 2      /* Show normalized SQL text */

/* Bits in the ShellState.flgProgress variable */
#define SHELL_PROGRESS_QUIET 0x01  /* Omit announcing every progress callback */
#define SHELL_PROGRESS_RESET 0x02  /* Reset the count when the progres
                                   ** callback limit is reached, and for each
                                   ** top-level SQL statement */
#define SHELL_PROGRESS_ONCE  0x04  /* Cancel the --limit after firing once */

/*
** These are the allowed shellFlgs values
*/
#define SHFLG_Pagecache      0x00000001 /* The --pagecache option is used */
#define SHFLG_Lookaside      0x00000002 /* Lookaside memory is used */
#define SHFLG_Backslash      0x00000004 /* The --backslash option is used */
#define SHFLG_PreserveRowid  0x00000008 /* .dump preserves rowid values */
#define SHFLG_Newlines       0x00000010 /* .dump --newline flag */
#define SHFLG_CountChanges   0x00000020 /* .changes setting */
#define SHFLG_Echo           0x00000040 /* .echo or --echo setting */
#define SHFLG_HeaderSet      0x00000080 /* .header has been used */
#define SHFLG_DumpDataOnly   0x00000100 /* .dump show data only */
#define SHFLG_DumpNoSys      0x00000200 /* .dump omits system tables */

/*
** Macros for testing and setting shellFlgs
*/
#define ShellHasFlag(P,X)    (((P)->shellFlgs & (X))!=0)
#define ShellSetFlag(P,X)    ((P)->shellFlgs|=(X))
#define ShellClearFlag(P,X)  ((P)->shellFlgs&=(~(X)))

/*
** These are the allowed modes.
*/
#define MODE_Line     0  /* One column per line.  Blank line between records */
#define MODE_Column   1  /* One record per line in neat columns */
#define MODE_List     2  /* One record per line with a separator */
#define MODE_Semi     3  /* Same as MODE_List but append ";" to each line */
#define MODE_Html     4  /* Generate an XHTML table */
#define MODE_Insert   5  /* Generate SQL "insert" statements */
#define MODE_Quote    6  /* Quote values as for SQL */
#define MODE_Tcl      7  /* Generate ANSI-C or TCL quoted elements */
#define MODE_Csv      8  /* Quote strings, numbers are plain */
#define MODE_Explain  9  /* Like MODE_Column, but do not truncate data */
#define MODE_Ascii   10  /* Use ASCII unit and record separators (0x1F/0x1E) */
#define MODE_Pretty  11  /* Pretty-print schemas */
#define MODE_EQP     12  /* Converts EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN output into a graph */
#define MODE_Json    13  /* Output JSON */
#define MODE_Markdown 14 /* Markdown formatting */
#define MODE_Table   15  /* MySQL-style table formatting */
#define MODE_Box     16  /* Unicode box-drawing characters */

static const char *modeDescr[] = {
  "line",
  "column",
  "list",
  "semi",
  "html",
  "insert",
  "quote",
  "tcl",
  "csv",
  "explain",
  "ascii",
  "prettyprint",
  "eqp",
  "json",
  "markdown",
  "table",
  "box"
};

/*
** These are the column/row/line separators used by the various
** import/export modes.
*/
#define SEP_Column    "|"
#define SEP_Row       "\n"
#define SEP_Tab       "\t"
#define SEP_Space     " "
#define SEP_Comma     ","
#define SEP_CrLf      "\r\n"
#define SEP_Unit      "\x1F"
#define SEP_Record    "\x1E"

/*
** A callback for the sqlite3_log() interface.
*/
static void shellLog(void *pArg, int iErrCode, const char *zMsg){
  ShellState *p = (ShellState*)pArg;
  if( p->pLog==0 ) return;
  utf8_printf(p->pLog, "(%d) %s\n", iErrCode, zMsg);
  fflush(p->pLog);
}

/*
** SQL function:  shell_putsnl(X)
**
** Write the text X to the screen (or whatever output is being directed)
** adding a newline at the end, and then return X.
*/
static void shellPutsFunc(
  sqlite3_context *pCtx,
  int nVal,
  sqlite3_value **apVal
){
  ShellState *p = (ShellState*)sqlite3_user_data(pCtx);
  (void)nVal;
  utf8_printf(p->out, "%s\n", sqlite3_value_text(apVal[0]));
  sqlite3_result_value(pCtx, apVal[0]);
}

/*
** SQL function:   edit(VALUE)
**                 edit(VALUE,EDITOR)
**
** These steps:
**
**     (1) Write VALUE into a temporary file.
**     (2) Run program EDITOR on that temporary file.
**     (3) Read the temporary file back and return its content as the result.
**     (4) Delete the temporary file
**
** If the EDITOR argument is omitted, use the value in the VISUAL
** environment variable.  If still there is no EDITOR, through an error.
**
** Also throw an error if the EDITOR program returns a non-zero exit code.
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM
static void editFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  const char *zEditor;
  char *zTempFile = 0;
  sqlite3 *db;
  char *zCmd = 0;
  int bBin;
  int rc;
  int hasCRNL = 0;
  FILE *f = 0;
  sqlite3_int64 sz;
  sqlite3_int64 x;
  unsigned char *p = 0;

  if( argc==2 ){
    zEditor = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[1]);
  }else{
    zEditor = getenv("VISUAL");
  }
  if( zEditor==0 ){
    sqlite3_result_error(context, "no editor for edit()", -1);
    return;
  }
  if( sqlite3_value_type(argv[0])==SQLITE_NULL ){
    sqlite3_result_error(context, "NULL input to edit()", -1);
    return;
  }
  db = sqlite3_context_db_handle(context);
  zTempFile = 0;
  sqlite3_file_control(db, 0, SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME, &zTempFile);
  if( zTempFile==0 ){
    sqlite3_uint64 r = 0;
    sqlite3_randomness(sizeof(r), &r);
    zTempFile = sqlite3_mprintf("temp%llx", r);
    if( zTempFile==0 ){
      sqlite3_result_error_nomem(context);
      return;
    }
  }
  bBin = sqlite3_value_type(argv[0])==SQLITE_BLOB;
  /* When writing the file to be edited, do \n to \r\n conversions on systems
  ** that want \r\n line endings */
  f = fopen(zTempFile, bBin ? "wb" : "w");
  if( f==0 ){
    sqlite3_result_error(context, "edit() cannot open temp file", -1);
    goto edit_func_end;
  }
  sz = sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[0]);
  if( bBin ){
    x = fwrite(sqlite3_value_blob(argv[0]), 1, (size_t)sz, f);
  }else{
    const char *z = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
    /* Remember whether or not the value originally contained \r\n */
    if( z && strstr(z,"\r\n")!=0 ) hasCRNL = 1;
    x = fwrite(sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]), 1, (size_t)sz, f);
  }
  fclose(f);
  f = 0;
  if( x!=sz ){
    sqlite3_result_error(context, "edit() could not write the whole file", -1);
    goto edit_func_end;
  }
  zCmd = sqlite3_mprintf("%s \"%s\"", zEditor, zTempFile);
  if( zCmd==0 ){
    sqlite3_result_error_nomem(context);
    goto edit_func_end;
  }
  rc = system(zCmd);
  sqlite3_free(zCmd);
  if( rc ){
    sqlite3_result_error(context, "EDITOR returned non-zero", -1);
    goto edit_func_end;
  }
  f = fopen(zTempFile, "rb");
  if( f==0 ){
    sqlite3_result_error(context,
      "edit() cannot reopen temp file after edit", -1);
    goto edit_func_end;
  }
  fseek(f, 0, SEEK_END);
  sz = ftell(f);
  rewind(f);
  p = sqlite3_malloc64( sz+1 );
  if( p==0 ){
    sqlite3_result_error_nomem(context);
    goto edit_func_end;
  }
  x = fread(p, 1, (size_t)sz, f);
  fclose(f);
  f = 0;
  if( x!=sz ){
    sqlite3_result_error(context, "could not read back the whole file", -1);
    goto edit_func_end;
  }
  if( bBin ){
    sqlite3_result_blob64(context, p, sz, sqlite3_free);
  }else{
    sqlite3_int64 i, j;
    if( hasCRNL ){
      /* If the original contains \r\n then do no conversions back to \n */
      j = sz;
    }else{
      /* If the file did not originally contain \r\n then convert any new
      ** \r\n back into \n */
      for(i=j=0; i<sz; i++){
        if( p[i]=='\r' && p[i+1]=='\n' ) i++;
        p[j++] = p[i];
      }
      sz = j;
      p[sz] = 0;
    } 
    sqlite3_result_text64(context, (const char*)p, sz,
                          sqlite3_free, SQLITE_UTF8);
  }
  p = 0;

edit_func_end:
  if( f ) fclose(f);
  unlink(zTempFile);
  sqlite3_free(zTempFile);
  sqlite3_free(p);
}
#endif /* SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM */

/*
** Save or restore the current output mode
*/
static void outputModePush(ShellState *p){
  p->modePrior = p->mode;
  p->priorShFlgs = p->shellFlgs;
  memcpy(p->colSepPrior, p->colSeparator, sizeof(p->colSeparator));
  memcpy(p->rowSepPrior, p->rowSeparator, sizeof(p->rowSeparator));
}
static void outputModePop(ShellState *p){
  p->mode = p->modePrior;
  p->shellFlgs = p->priorShFlgs;
  memcpy(p->colSeparator, p->colSepPrior, sizeof(p->colSeparator));
  memcpy(p->rowSeparator, p->rowSepPrior, sizeof(p->rowSeparator));
}

/*
** Output the given string as a hex-encoded blob (eg. X'1234' )
*/
static void output_hex_blob(FILE *out, const void *pBlob, int nBlob){
  int i;
  char *zBlob = (char *)pBlob;
  raw_printf(out,"X'");
  for(i=0; i<nBlob; i++){ raw_printf(out,"%02x",zBlob[i]&0xff); }
  raw_printf(out,"'");
}

/*
** Find a string that is not found anywhere in z[].  Return a pointer
** to that string.
**
** Try to use zA and zB first.  If both of those are already found in z[]
** then make up some string and store it in the buffer zBuf.
*/
static const char *unused_string(
  const char *z,                    /* Result must not appear anywhere in z */
  const char *zA, const char *zB,   /* Try these first */
  char *zBuf                        /* Space to store a generated string */
){
  unsigned i = 0;
  if( strstr(z, zA)==0 ) return zA;
  if( strstr(z, zB)==0 ) return zB;
  do{
    sqlite3_snprintf(20,zBuf,"(%s%u)", zA, i++);
  }while( strstr(z,zBuf)!=0 );
  return zBuf;
}

/*
** Output the given string as a quoted string using SQL quoting conventions.
**
** See also: output_quoted_escaped_string()
*/
static void output_quoted_string(FILE *out, const char *z){
  int i;
  char c;
  setBinaryMode(out, 1);
  for(i=0; (c = z[i])!=0 && c!='\''; i++){}
  if( c==0 ){
    utf8_printf(out,"'%s'",z);
  }else{
    raw_printf(out, "'");
    while( *z ){
      for(i=0; (c = z[i])!=0 && c!='\''; i++){}
      if( c=='\'' ) i++;
      if( i ){
        utf8_printf(out, "%.*s", i, z);
        z += i;
      }
      if( c=='\'' ){
        raw_printf(out, "'");
        continue;
      }
      if( c==0 ){
        break;
      }
      z++;
    }
    raw_printf(out, "'");
  }
  setTextMode(out, 1);
}

/*
** Output the given string as a quoted string using SQL quoting conventions.
** Additionallly , escape the "\n" and "\r" characters so that they do not
** get corrupted by end-of-line translation facilities in some operating
** systems.
**
** This is like output_quoted_string() but with the addition of the \r\n
** escape mechanism.
*/
static void output_quoted_escaped_string(FILE *out, const char *z){
  int i;
  char c;
  setBinaryMode(out, 1);
  for(i=0; (c = z[i])!=0 && c!='\'' && c!='\n' && c!='\r'; i++){}
  if( c==0 ){
    utf8_printf(out,"'%s'",z);
  }else{
    const char *zNL = 0;
    const char *zCR = 0;
    int nNL = 0;
    int nCR = 0;
    char zBuf1[20], zBuf2[20];
    for(i=0; z[i]; i++){
      if( z[i]=='\n' ) nNL++;
      if( z[i]=='\r' ) nCR++;
    }
    if( nNL ){
      raw_printf(out, "replace(");
      zNL = unused_string(z, "\\n", "\\012", zBuf1);
    }
    if( nCR ){
      raw_printf(out, "replace(");
      zCR = unused_string(z, "\\r", "\\015", zBuf2);
    }
    raw_printf(out, "'");
    while( *z ){
      for(i=0; (c = z[i])!=0 && c!='\n' && c!='\r' && c!='\''; i++){}
      if( c=='\'' ) i++;
      if( i ){
        utf8_printf(out, "%.*s", i, z);
        z += i;
      }
      if( c=='\'' ){
        raw_printf(out, "'");
        continue;
      }
      if( c==0 ){
        break;
      }
      z++;
      if( c=='\n' ){
        raw_printf(out, "%s", zNL);
        continue;
      }
      raw_printf(out, "%s", zCR);
    }
    raw_printf(out, "'");
    if( nCR ){
      raw_printf(out, ",'%s',char(13))", zCR);
    }
    if( nNL ){
      raw_printf(out, ",'%s',char(10))", zNL);
    }
  }
  setTextMode(out, 1);
}

/*
** Output the given string as a quoted according to C or TCL quoting rules.
*/
static void output_c_string(FILE *out, const char *z){
  unsigned int c;
  fputc('"', out);
  while( (c = *(z++))!=0 ){
    if( c=='\\' ){
      fputc(c, out);
      fputc(c, out);
    }else if( c=='"' ){
      fputc('\\', out);
      fputc('"', out);
    }else if( c=='\t' ){
      fputc('\\', out);
      fputc('t', out);
    }else if( c=='\n' ){
      fputc('\\', out);
      fputc('n', out);
    }else if( c=='\r' ){
      fputc('\\', out);
      fputc('r', out);
    }else if( !isprint(c&0xff) ){
      raw_printf(out, "\\%03o", c&0xff);
    }else{
      fputc(c, out);
    }
  }
  fputc('"', out);
}

/*
** Output the given string as a quoted according to JSON quoting rules.
*/
static void output_json_string(FILE *out, const char *z, int n){
  unsigned int c;
  if( n<0 ) n = (int)strlen(z);
  fputc('"', out);
  while( n-- ){
    c = *(z++);
    if( c=='\\' || c=='"' ){
      fputc('\\', out);
      fputc(c, out);
    }else if( c<=0x1f ){
      fputc('\\', out);
      if( c=='\b' ){
        fputc('b', out);
      }else if( c=='\f' ){
        fputc('f', out);
      }else if( c=='\n' ){
        fputc('n', out);
      }else if( c=='\r' ){
        fputc('r', out);
      }else if( c=='\t' ){
        fputc('t', out);
      }else{
         raw_printf(out, "u%04x",c);
      }
    }else{
      fputc(c, out);
    }
  }
  fputc('"', out);
}

/*
** Output the given string with characters that are special to
** HTML escaped.
*/
static void output_html_string(FILE *out, const char *z){
  int i;
  if( z==0 ) z = "";
  while( *z ){
    for(i=0;   z[i]
            && z[i]!='<'
            && z[i]!='&'
            && z[i]!='>'
            && z[i]!='\"'
            && z[i]!='\'';
        i++){}
    if( i>0 ){
      utf8_printf(out,"%.*s",i,z);
    }
    if( z[i]=='<' ){
      raw_printf(out,"&lt;");
    }else if( z[i]=='&' ){
      raw_printf(out,"&amp;");
    }else if( z[i]=='>' ){
      raw_printf(out,"&gt;");
    }else if( z[i]=='\"' ){
      raw_printf(out,"&quot;");
    }else if( z[i]=='\'' ){
      raw_printf(out,"&#39;");
    }else{
      break;
    }
    z += i + 1;
  }
}

/*
** If a field contains any character identified by a 1 in the following
** array, then the string must be quoted for CSV.
*/
static const char needCsvQuote[] = {
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,   1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,   1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
  1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1,   0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,   0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,   0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,   0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,   0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,   0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1,
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,   1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,   1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,   1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,   1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,   1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,   1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,   1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,   1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,
};

/*
** Output a single term of CSV.  Actually, p->colSeparator is used for
** the separator, which may or may not be a comma.  p->nullValue is
** the null value.  Strings are quoted if necessary.  The separator
** is only issued if bSep is true.
*/
static void output_csv(ShellState *p, const char *z, int bSep){
  FILE *out = p->out;
  if( z==0 ){
    utf8_printf(out,"%s",p->nullValue);
  }else{
    int i;
    int nSep = strlen30(p->colSeparator);
    for(i=0; z[i]; i++){
      if( needCsvQuote[((unsigned char*)z)[i]]
         || (z[i]==p->colSeparator[0] &&
             (nSep==1 || memcmp(z, p->colSeparator, nSep)==0)) ){
        i = 0;
        break;
      }
    }
    if( i==0 ){
      char *zQuoted = sqlite3_mprintf("\"%w\"", z);
      utf8_printf(out, "%s", zQuoted);
      sqlite3_free(zQuoted);
    }else{
      utf8_printf(out, "%s", z);
    }
  }
  if( bSep ){
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->colSeparator);
  }
}

/*
** This routine runs when the user presses Ctrl-C
*/
static void interrupt_handler(int NotUsed){
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(NotUsed);
  seenInterrupt++;
  if( seenInterrupt>2 ) exit(1);
  if( globalDb ) sqlite3_interrupt(globalDb);
}

#if (defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)) && !defined(_WIN32_WCE)
/*
** This routine runs for console events (e.g. Ctrl-C) on Win32
*/
static BOOL WINAPI ConsoleCtrlHandler(
  DWORD dwCtrlType /* One of the CTRL_*_EVENT constants */
){
  if( dwCtrlType==CTRL_C_EVENT ){
    interrupt_handler(0);
    return TRUE;
  }
  return FALSE;
}
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTHORIZATION
/*
** When the ".auth ON" is set, the following authorizer callback is
** invoked.  It always returns SQLITE_OK.
*/
static int shellAuth(
  void *pClientData,
  int op,
  const char *zA1,
  const char *zA2,
  const char *zA3,
  const char *zA4
){
  ShellState *p = (ShellState*)pClientData;
  static const char *azAction[] = { 0,
     "CREATE_INDEX",         "CREATE_TABLE",         "CREATE_TEMP_INDEX",
     "CREATE_TEMP_TABLE",    "CREATE_TEMP_TRIGGER",  "CREATE_TEMP_VIEW",
     "CREATE_TRIGGER",       "CREATE_VIEW",          "DELETE",
     "DROP_INDEX",           "DROP_TABLE",           "DROP_TEMP_INDEX",
     "DROP_TEMP_TABLE",      "DROP_TEMP_TRIGGER",    "DROP_TEMP_VIEW",
     "DROP_TRIGGER",         "DROP_VIEW",            "INSERT",
     "PRAGMA",               "READ",                 "SELECT",
     "TRANSACTION",          "UPDATE",               "ATTACH",
     "DETACH",               "ALTER_TABLE",          "REINDEX",
     "ANALYZE",              "CREATE_VTABLE",        "DROP_VTABLE",
     "FUNCTION",             "SAVEPOINT",            "RECURSIVE"
  };
  int i;
  const char *az[4];
  az[0] = zA1;
  az[1] = zA2;
  az[2] = zA3;
  az[3] = zA4;
  utf8_printf(p->out, "authorizer: %s", azAction[op]);
  for(i=0; i<4; i++){
    raw_printf(p->out, " ");
    if( az[i] ){
      output_c_string(p->out, az[i]);
    }else{
      raw_printf(p->out, "NULL");
    }
  }
  raw_printf(p->out, "\n");
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
#endif

/*
** Print a schema statement.  Part of MODE_Semi and MODE_Pretty output.
**
** This routine converts some CREATE TABLE statements for shadow tables
** in FTS3/4/5 into CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS statements.
*/
static void printSchemaLine(FILE *out, const char *z, const char *zTail){
  if( z==0 ) return;
  if( zTail==0 ) return;
  if( sqlite3_strglob("CREATE TABLE ['\"]*", z)==0 ){
    utf8_printf(out, "CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS %s%s", z+13, zTail);
  }else{
    utf8_printf(out, "%s%s", z, zTail);
  }
}
static void printSchemaLineN(FILE *out, char *z, int n, const char *zTail){
  char c = z[n];
  z[n] = 0;
  printSchemaLine(out, z, zTail);
  z[n] = c;
}

/*
** Return true if string z[] has nothing but whitespace and comments to the
** end of the first line.
*/
static int wsToEol(const char *z){
  int i;
  for(i=0; z[i]; i++){
    if( z[i]=='\n' ) return 1;
    if( IsSpace(z[i]) ) continue;
    if( z[i]=='-' && z[i+1]=='-' ) return 1;
    return 0;
  }
  return 1;
}

/*
** Add a new entry to the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN data
*/
static void eqp_append(ShellState *p, int iEqpId, int p2, const char *zText){
  EQPGraphRow *pNew;
  int nText = strlen30(zText);
  if( p->autoEQPtest ){
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%d,%d,%s\n", iEqpId, p2, zText);
  }
  pNew = sqlite3_malloc64( sizeof(*pNew) + nText );
  if( pNew==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
  pNew->iEqpId = iEqpId;
  pNew->iParentId = p2;
  memcpy(pNew->zText, zText, nText+1);
  pNew->pNext = 0;
  if( p->sGraph.pLast ){
    p->sGraph.pLast->pNext = pNew;
  }else{
    p->sGraph.pRow = pNew;
  }
  p->sGraph.pLast = pNew;
}

/*
** Free and reset the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN data that has been collected
** in p->sGraph.
*/
static void eqp_reset(ShellState *p){
  EQPGraphRow *pRow, *pNext;
  for(pRow = p->sGraph.pRow; pRow; pRow = pNext){
    pNext = pRow->pNext;
    sqlite3_free(pRow);
  }
  memset(&p->sGraph, 0, sizeof(p->sGraph));
}

/* Return the next EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN line with iEqpId that occurs after
** pOld, or return the first such line if pOld is NULL
*/
static EQPGraphRow *eqp_next_row(ShellState *p, int iEqpId, EQPGraphRow *pOld){
  EQPGraphRow *pRow = pOld ? pOld->pNext : p->sGraph.pRow;
  while( pRow && pRow->iParentId!=iEqpId ) pRow = pRow->pNext;
  return pRow;
}

/* Render a single level of the graph that has iEqpId as its parent.  Called
** recursively to render sublevels.
*/
static void eqp_render_level(ShellState *p, int iEqpId){
  EQPGraphRow *pRow, *pNext;
  int n = strlen30(p->sGraph.zPrefix);
  char *z;
  for(pRow = eqp_next_row(p, iEqpId, 0); pRow; pRow = pNext){
    pNext = eqp_next_row(p, iEqpId, pRow);
    z = pRow->zText;
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%s%s%s\n", p->sGraph.zPrefix,
                pNext ? "|--" : "`--", z);
    if( n<(int)sizeof(p->sGraph.zPrefix)-7 ){
      memcpy(&p->sGraph.zPrefix[n], pNext ? "|  " : "   ", 4);
      eqp_render_level(p, pRow->iEqpId);
      p->sGraph.zPrefix[n] = 0;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Display and reset the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN data
*/
static void eqp_render(ShellState *p){
  EQPGraphRow *pRow = p->sGraph.pRow;
  if( pRow ){
    if( pRow->zText[0]=='-' ){
      if( pRow->pNext==0 ){
        eqp_reset(p);
        return;
      }
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%s\n", pRow->zText+3);
      p->sGraph.pRow = pRow->pNext;
      sqlite3_free(pRow);
    }else{
      utf8_printf(p->out, "QUERY PLAN\n");
    }
    p->sGraph.zPrefix[0] = 0;
    eqp_render_level(p, 0);
    eqp_reset(p);
  }
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
/*
** Progress handler callback.
*/
static int progress_handler(void *pClientData) {
  ShellState *p = (ShellState*)pClientData;
  p->nProgress++;
  if( p->nProgress>=p->mxProgress && p->mxProgress>0 ){
    raw_printf(p->out, "Progress limit reached (%u)\n", p->nProgress);
    if( p->flgProgress & SHELL_PROGRESS_RESET ) p->nProgress = 0;
    if( p->flgProgress & SHELL_PROGRESS_ONCE ) p->mxProgress = 0;
    return 1;
  }
  if( (p->flgProgress & SHELL_PROGRESS_QUIET)==0 ){
    raw_printf(p->out, "Progress %u\n", p->nProgress);
  }
  return 0;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK */

/*
** Print N dashes
*/
static void print_dashes(FILE *out, int N){
  const char zDash[] = "--------------------------------------------------";
  const int nDash = sizeof(zDash) - 1;
  while( N>nDash ){
    fputs(zDash, out);
    N -= nDash;
  }
  raw_printf(out, "%.*s", N, zDash);
}

/*
** Print a markdown or table-style row separator using ascii-art
*/
static void print_row_separator(
  ShellState *p,
  int nArg,
  const char *zSep
){
  int i;
  if( nArg>0 ){
    fputs(zSep, p->out);
    print_dashes(p->out, p->actualWidth[0]+2);
    for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
      fputs(zSep, p->out);
      print_dashes(p->out, p->actualWidth[i]+2);
    }
    fputs(zSep, p->out);
  }
  fputs("\n", p->out);
}

/*
** This is the callback routine that the shell
** invokes for each row of a query result.
*/
static int shell_callback(
  void *pArg,
  int nArg,        /* Number of result columns */
  char **azArg,    /* Text of each result column */
  char **azCol,    /* Column names */
  int *aiType      /* Column types.  Might be NULL */
){
  int i;
  ShellState *p = (ShellState*)pArg;

  if( azArg==0 ) return 0;
  switch( p->cMode ){
    case MODE_Line: {
      int w = 5;
      if( azArg==0 ) break;
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        int len = strlen30(azCol[i] ? azCol[i] : "");
        if( len>w ) w = len;
      }
      if( p->cnt++>0 ) utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->rowSeparator);
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        utf8_printf(p->out,"%*s = %s%s", w, azCol[i],
                azArg[i] ? azArg[i] : p->nullValue, p->rowSeparator);
      }
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Explain: {
      static const int aExplainWidth[] = {4, 13, 4, 4, 4, 13, 2, 13};
      if( nArg>ArraySize(aExplainWidth) ){
        nArg = ArraySize(aExplainWidth);
      }
      if( p->cnt++==0 ){
        for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
          int w = aExplainWidth[i];
          utf8_width_print(p->out, w, azCol[i]);
          fputs(i==nArg-1 ? "\n" : "  ", p->out);
        }
        for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
          int w = aExplainWidth[i];
          print_dashes(p->out, w);
          fputs(i==nArg-1 ? "\n" : "  ", p->out);
        }
      }
      if( azArg==0 ) break;
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        int w = aExplainWidth[i];
        if( i==nArg-1 ) w = 0;
        if( azArg[i] && strlenChar(azArg[i])>w ){
          w = strlenChar(azArg[i]);
        }
        if( i==1 && p->aiIndent && p->pStmt ){
          if( p->iIndent<p->nIndent ){
            utf8_printf(p->out, "%*.s", p->aiIndent[p->iIndent], "");
          }
          p->iIndent++;
        }
        utf8_width_print(p->out, w, azArg[i] ? azArg[i] : p->nullValue);
        fputs(i==nArg-1 ? "\n" : "  ", p->out);
      }
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Semi: {   /* .schema and .fullschema output */
      printSchemaLine(p->out, azArg[0], ";\n");
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Pretty: {  /* .schema and .fullschema with --indent */
      char *z;
      int j;
      int nParen = 0;
      char cEnd = 0;
      char c;
      int nLine = 0;
      assert( nArg==1 );
      if( azArg[0]==0 ) break;
      if( sqlite3_strlike("CREATE VIEW%", azArg[0], 0)==0
       || sqlite3_strlike("CREATE TRIG%", azArg[0], 0)==0
      ){
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%s;\n", azArg[0]);
        break;
      }
      z = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", azArg[0]);
      j = 0;
      for(i=0; IsSpace(z[i]); i++){}
      for(; (c = z[i])!=0; i++){
        if( IsSpace(c) ){
          if( z[j-1]=='\r' ) z[j-1] = '\n';
          if( IsSpace(z[j-1]) || z[j-1]=='(' ) continue;
        }else if( (c=='(' || c==')') && j>0 && IsSpace(z[j-1]) ){
          j--;
        }
        z[j++] = c;
      }
      while( j>0 && IsSpace(z[j-1]) ){ j--; }
      z[j] = 0;
      if( strlen30(z)>=79 ){
        for(i=j=0; (c = z[i])!=0; i++){ /* Copy from z[i] back to z[j] */
          if( c==cEnd ){
            cEnd = 0;
          }else if( c=='"' || c=='\'' || c=='`' ){
            cEnd = c;
          }else if( c=='[' ){
            cEnd = ']';
          }else if( c=='-' && z[i+1]=='-' ){
            cEnd = '\n';
          }else if( c=='(' ){
            nParen++;
          }else if( c==')' ){
            nParen--;
            if( nLine>0 && nParen==0 && j>0 ){
              printSchemaLineN(p->out, z, j, "\n");
              j = 0;
            }
          }
          z[j++] = c;
          if( nParen==1 && cEnd==0
           && (c=='(' || c=='\n' || (c==',' && !wsToEol(z+i+1)))
          ){
            if( c=='\n' ) j--;
            printSchemaLineN(p->out, z, j, "\n  ");
            j = 0;
            nLine++;
            while( IsSpace(z[i+1]) ){ i++; }
          }
        }
        z[j] = 0;
      }
      printSchemaLine(p->out, z, ";\n");
      sqlite3_free(z);
      break;
    }
    case MODE_List: {
      if( p->cnt++==0 && p->showHeader ){
        for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
          utf8_printf(p->out,"%s%s",azCol[i],
                  i==nArg-1 ? p->rowSeparator : p->colSeparator);
        }
      }
      if( azArg==0 ) break;
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        char *z = azArg[i];
        if( z==0 ) z = p->nullValue;
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", z);
        if( i<nArg-1 ){
          utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->colSeparator);
        }else{
          utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->rowSeparator);
        }
      }
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Html: {
      if( p->cnt++==0 && p->showHeader ){
        raw_printf(p->out,"<TR>");
        for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
          raw_printf(p->out,"<TH>");
          output_html_string(p->out, azCol[i]);
          raw_printf(p->out,"</TH>\n");
        }
        raw_printf(p->out,"</TR>\n");
      }
      if( azArg==0 ) break;
      raw_printf(p->out,"<TR>");
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        raw_printf(p->out,"<TD>");
        output_html_string(p->out, azArg[i] ? azArg[i] : p->nullValue);
        raw_printf(p->out,"</TD>\n");
      }
      raw_printf(p->out,"</TR>\n");
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Tcl: {
      if( p->cnt++==0 && p->showHeader ){
        for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
          output_c_string(p->out,azCol[i] ? azCol[i] : "");
          if(i<nArg-1) utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->colSeparator);
        }
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->rowSeparator);
      }
      if( azArg==0 ) break;
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        output_c_string(p->out, azArg[i] ? azArg[i] : p->nullValue);
        if(i<nArg-1) utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->colSeparator);
      }
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->rowSeparator);
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Csv: {
      setBinaryMode(p->out, 1);
      if( p->cnt++==0 && p->showHeader ){
        for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
          output_csv(p, azCol[i] ? azCol[i] : "", i<nArg-1);
        }
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->rowSeparator);
      }
      if( nArg>0 ){
        for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
          output_csv(p, azArg[i], i<nArg-1);
        }
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->rowSeparator);
      }
      setTextMode(p->out, 1);
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Insert: {
      if( azArg==0 ) break;
      utf8_printf(p->out,"INSERT INTO %s",p->zDestTable);
      if( p->showHeader ){
        raw_printf(p->out,"(");
        for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
          if( i>0 ) raw_printf(p->out, ",");
          if( quoteChar(azCol[i]) ){
            char *z = sqlite3_mprintf("\"%w\"", azCol[i]);
            utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", z);
            sqlite3_free(z);
          }else{
            raw_printf(p->out, "%s", azCol[i]);
          }
        }
        raw_printf(p->out,")");
      }
      p->cnt++;
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        raw_printf(p->out, i>0 ? "," : " VALUES(");
        if( (azArg[i]==0) || (aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_NULL) ){
          utf8_printf(p->out,"NULL");
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_TEXT ){
          if( ShellHasFlag(p, SHFLG_Newlines) ){
            output_quoted_string(p->out, azArg[i]);
          }else{
            output_quoted_escaped_string(p->out, azArg[i]);
          }
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_INTEGER ){
          utf8_printf(p->out,"%s", azArg[i]);
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_FLOAT ){
          char z[50];
          double r = sqlite3_column_double(p->pStmt, i);
          sqlite3_uint64 ur;
          memcpy(&ur,&r,sizeof(r));
          if( ur==0x7ff0000000000000LL ){
            raw_printf(p->out, "1e999");
          }else if( ur==0xfff0000000000000LL ){
            raw_printf(p->out, "-1e999");
          }else{
            sqlite3_snprintf(50,z,"%!.20g", r);
            raw_printf(p->out, "%s", z);
          }
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_BLOB && p->pStmt ){
          const void *pBlob = sqlite3_column_blob(p->pStmt, i);
          int nBlob = sqlite3_column_bytes(p->pStmt, i);
          output_hex_blob(p->out, pBlob, nBlob);
        }else if( isNumber(azArg[i], 0) ){
          utf8_printf(p->out,"%s", azArg[i]);
        }else if( ShellHasFlag(p, SHFLG_Newlines) ){
          output_quoted_string(p->out, azArg[i]);
        }else{
          output_quoted_escaped_string(p->out, azArg[i]);
        }
      }
      raw_printf(p->out,");\n");
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Json: {
      if( azArg==0 ) break;
      if( p->cnt==0 ){
        fputs("[{", p->out);
      }else{
        fputs(",\n{", p->out);
      }
      p->cnt++;
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        output_json_string(p->out, azCol[i], -1);
        putc(':', p->out);
        if( (azArg[i]==0) || (aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_NULL) ){
          fputs("null",p->out);
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_FLOAT ){
          char z[50];
          double r = sqlite3_column_double(p->pStmt, i);
          sqlite3_uint64 ur;
          memcpy(&ur,&r,sizeof(r));
          if( ur==0x7ff0000000000000LL ){
            raw_printf(p->out, "1e999");
          }else if( ur==0xfff0000000000000LL ){
            raw_printf(p->out, "-1e999");
          }else{
            sqlite3_snprintf(50,z,"%!.20g", r);
            raw_printf(p->out, "%s", z);
          }
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_BLOB && p->pStmt ){
          const void *pBlob = sqlite3_column_blob(p->pStmt, i);
          int nBlob = sqlite3_column_bytes(p->pStmt, i);
          output_json_string(p->out, pBlob, nBlob);
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_TEXT ){
          output_json_string(p->out, azArg[i], -1);
        }else{
          utf8_printf(p->out,"%s", azArg[i]);
        }
        if( i<nArg-1 ){
          putc(',', p->out);
        }
      }
      putc('}', p->out);
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Quote: {
      if( azArg==0 ) break;
      if( p->cnt==0 && p->showHeader ){
        for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
          if( i>0 ) fputs(p->colSeparator, p->out);
          output_quoted_string(p->out, azCol[i]);
        }
        fputs(p->rowSeparator, p->out);
      }
      p->cnt++;
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        if( i>0 ) fputs(p->colSeparator, p->out);
        if( (azArg[i]==0) || (aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_NULL) ){
          utf8_printf(p->out,"NULL");
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_TEXT ){
          output_quoted_string(p->out, azArg[i]);
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_INTEGER ){
          utf8_printf(p->out,"%s", azArg[i]);
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_FLOAT ){
          char z[50];
          double r = sqlite3_column_double(p->pStmt, i);
          sqlite3_snprintf(50,z,"%!.20g", r);
          raw_printf(p->out, "%s", z);
        }else if( aiType && aiType[i]==SQLITE_BLOB && p->pStmt ){
          const void *pBlob = sqlite3_column_blob(p->pStmt, i);
          int nBlob = sqlite3_column_bytes(p->pStmt, i);
          output_hex_blob(p->out, pBlob, nBlob);
        }else if( isNumber(azArg[i], 0) ){
          utf8_printf(p->out,"%s", azArg[i]);
        }else{
          output_quoted_string(p->out, azArg[i]);
        }
      }
      fputs(p->rowSeparator, p->out);
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Ascii: {
      if( p->cnt++==0 && p->showHeader ){
        for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
          if( i>0 ) utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->colSeparator);
          utf8_printf(p->out,"%s",azCol[i] ? azCol[i] : "");
        }
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->rowSeparator);
      }
      if( azArg==0 ) break;
      for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
        if( i>0 ) utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->colSeparator);
        utf8_printf(p->out,"%s",azArg[i] ? azArg[i] : p->nullValue);
      }
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->rowSeparator);
      break;
    }
    case MODE_EQP: {
      eqp_append(p, atoi(azArg[0]), atoi(azArg[1]), azArg[3]);
      break;
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** This is the callback routine that the SQLite library
** invokes for each row of a query result.
*/
static int callback(void *pArg, int nArg, char **azArg, char **azCol){
  /* since we don't have type info, call the shell_callback with a NULL value */
  return shell_callback(pArg, nArg, azArg, azCol, NULL);
}

/*
** This is the callback routine from sqlite3_exec() that appends all
** output onto the end of a ShellText object.
*/
static int captureOutputCallback(void *pArg, int nArg, char **azArg, char **az){
  ShellText *p = (ShellText*)pArg;
  int i;
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(az);
  if( azArg==0 ) return 0;
  if( p->n ) appendText(p, "|", 0);
  for(i=0; i<nArg; i++){
    if( i ) appendText(p, ",", 0);
    if( azArg[i] ) appendText(p, azArg[i], 0);
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** Generate an appropriate SELFTEST table in the main database.
*/
static void createSelftestTable(ShellState *p){
  char *zErrMsg = 0;
  sqlite3_exec(p->db,
    "SAVEPOINT selftest_init;\n"
    "CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS selftest(\n"
    "  tno INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,\n"   /* Test number */
    "  op TEXT,\n"                   /* Operator:  memo run */
    "  cmd TEXT,\n"                  /* Command text */
    "  ans TEXT\n"                   /* Desired answer */
    ");"
    "CREATE TEMP TABLE [_shell$self](op,cmd,ans);\n"
    "INSERT INTO [_shell$self](rowid,op,cmd)\n"
    "  VALUES(coalesce((SELECT (max(tno)+100)/10 FROM selftest),10),\n"
    "         'memo','Tests generated by --init');\n"
    "INSERT INTO [_shell$self]\n"
    "  SELECT 'run',\n"
    "    'SELECT hex(sha3_query(''SELECT type,name,tbl_name,sql "
                                 "FROM sqlite_schema ORDER BY 2'',224))',\n"
    "    hex(sha3_query('SELECT type,name,tbl_name,sql "
                          "FROM sqlite_schema ORDER BY 2',224));\n"
    "INSERT INTO [_shell$self]\n"
    "  SELECT 'run',"
    "    'SELECT hex(sha3_query(''SELECT * FROM \"' ||"
    "        printf('%w',name) || '\" NOT INDEXED'',224))',\n"
    "    hex(sha3_query(printf('SELECT * FROM \"%w\" NOT INDEXED',name),224))\n"
    "  FROM (\n"
    "    SELECT name FROM sqlite_schema\n"
    "     WHERE type='table'\n"
    "       AND name<>'selftest'\n"
    "       AND coalesce(rootpage,0)>0\n"
    "  )\n"
    " ORDER BY name;\n"
    "INSERT INTO [_shell$self]\n"
    "  VALUES('run','PRAGMA integrity_check','ok');\n"
    "INSERT INTO selftest(tno,op,cmd,ans)"
    "  SELECT rowid*10,op,cmd,ans FROM [_shell$self];\n"
    "DROP TABLE [_shell$self];"
    ,0,0,&zErrMsg);
  if( zErrMsg ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "SELFTEST initialization failure: %s\n", zErrMsg);
    sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
  }
  sqlite3_exec(p->db, "RELEASE selftest_init",0,0,0);
}


/*
** Set the destination table field of the ShellState structure to
** the name of the table given.  Escape any quote characters in the
** table name.
*/
static void set_table_name(ShellState *p, const char *zName){
  int i, n;
  char cQuote;
  char *z;

  if( p->zDestTable ){
    free(p->zDestTable);
    p->zDestTable = 0;
  }
  if( zName==0 ) return;
  cQuote = quoteChar(zName);
  n = strlen30(zName);
  if( cQuote ) n += n+2;
  z = p->zDestTable = malloc( n+1 );
  if( z==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
  n = 0;
  if( cQuote ) z[n++] = cQuote;
  for(i=0; zName[i]; i++){
    z[n++] = zName[i];
    if( zName[i]==cQuote ) z[n++] = cQuote;
  }
  if( cQuote ) z[n++] = cQuote;
  z[n] = 0;
}


/*
** Execute a query statement that will generate SQL output.  Print
** the result columns, comma-separated, on a line and then add a
** semicolon terminator to the end of that line.
**
** If the number of columns is 1 and that column contains text "--"
** then write the semicolon on a separate line.  That way, if a
** "--" comment occurs at the end of the statement, the comment
** won't consume the semicolon terminator.
*/
static int run_table_dump_query(
  ShellState *p,           /* Query context */
  const char *zSelect      /* SELECT statement to extract content */
){
  sqlite3_stmt *pSelect;
  int rc;
  int nResult;
  int i;
  const char *z;
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSelect, -1, &pSelect, 0);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK || !pSelect ){
    utf8_printf(p->out, "/**** ERROR: (%d) %s *****/\n", rc,
                sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
    if( (rc&0xff)!=SQLITE_CORRUPT ) p->nErr++;
    return rc;
  }
  rc = sqlite3_step(pSelect);
  nResult = sqlite3_column_count(pSelect);
  while( rc==SQLITE_ROW ){
    z = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pSelect, 0);
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", z);
    for(i=1; i<nResult; i++){
      utf8_printf(p->out, ",%s", sqlite3_column_text(pSelect, i));
    }
    if( z==0 ) z = "";
    while( z[0] && (z[0]!='-' || z[1]!='-') ) z++;
    if( z[0] ){
      raw_printf(p->out, "\n;\n");
    }else{
      raw_printf(p->out, ";\n");
    }
    rc = sqlite3_step(pSelect);
  }
  rc = sqlite3_finalize(pSelect);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    utf8_printf(p->out, "/**** ERROR: (%d) %s *****/\n", rc,
                sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
    if( (rc&0xff)!=SQLITE_CORRUPT ) p->nErr++;
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Allocate space and save off current error string.
*/
static char *save_err_msg(
  sqlite3 *db            /* Database to query */
){
  int nErrMsg = 1+strlen30(sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  char *zErrMsg = sqlite3_malloc64(nErrMsg);
  if( zErrMsg ){
    memcpy(zErrMsg, sqlite3_errmsg(db), nErrMsg);
  }
  return zErrMsg;
}

#ifdef __linux__
/*
** Attempt to display I/O stats on Linux using /proc/PID/io
*/
static void displayLinuxIoStats(FILE *out){
  FILE *in;
  char z[200];
  sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(z), z, "/proc/%d/io", getpid());
  in = fopen(z, "rb");
  if( in==0 ) return;
  while( fgets(z, sizeof(z), in)!=0 ){
    static const struct {
      const char *zPattern;
      const char *zDesc;
    } aTrans[] = {
      { "rchar: ",                  "Bytes received by read():" },
      { "wchar: ",                  "Bytes sent to write():"    },
      { "syscr: ",                  "Read() system calls:"      },
      { "syscw: ",                  "Write() system calls:"     },
      { "read_bytes: ",             "Bytes read from storage:"  },
      { "write_bytes: ",            "Bytes written to storage:" },
      { "cancelled_write_bytes: ",  "Cancelled write bytes:"    },
    };
    int i;
    for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aTrans); i++){
      int n = strlen30(aTrans[i].zPattern);
      if( strncmp(aTrans[i].zPattern, z, n)==0 ){
        utf8_printf(out, "%-36s %s", aTrans[i].zDesc, &z[n]);
        break;
      }
    }
  }
  fclose(in);
}
#endif

/*
** Display a single line of status using 64-bit values.
*/
static void displayStatLine(
  ShellState *p,            /* The shell context */
  char *zLabel,             /* Label for this one line */
  char *zFormat,            /* Format for the result */
  int iStatusCtrl,          /* Which status to display */
  int bReset                /* True to reset the stats */
){
  sqlite3_int64 iCur = -1;
  sqlite3_int64 iHiwtr = -1;
  int i, nPercent;
  char zLine[200];
  sqlite3_status64(iStatusCtrl, &iCur, &iHiwtr, bReset);
  for(i=0, nPercent=0; zFormat[i]; i++){
    if( zFormat[i]=='%' ) nPercent++;
  }
  if( nPercent>1 ){
    sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zLine), zLine, zFormat, iCur, iHiwtr);
  }else{
    sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zLine), zLine, zFormat, iHiwtr);
  }
  raw_printf(p->out, "%-36s %s\n", zLabel, zLine);
}

/*
** Display memory stats.
*/
static int display_stats(
  sqlite3 *db,                /* Database to query */
  ShellState *pArg,           /* Pointer to ShellState */
  int bReset                  /* True to reset the stats */
){
  int iCur;
  int iHiwtr;
  FILE *out;
  if( pArg==0 || pArg->out==0 ) return 0;
  out = pArg->out;

  if( pArg->pStmt && pArg->statsOn==2 ){
    int nCol, i, x;
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = pArg->pStmt;
    char z[100];
    nCol = sqlite3_column_count(pStmt);
    raw_printf(out, "%-36s %d\n", "Number of output columns:", nCol);
    for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(z),z,"Column %d %nname:", i, &x);
      utf8_printf(out, "%-36s %s\n", z, sqlite3_column_name(pStmt,i));
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DECLTYPE
      sqlite3_snprintf(30, z+x, "declared type:");
      utf8_printf(out, "%-36s %s\n", z, sqlite3_column_decltype(pStmt, i));
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_COLUMN_METADATA
      sqlite3_snprintf(30, z+x, "database name:");
      utf8_printf(out, "%-36s %s\n", z, sqlite3_column_database_name(pStmt,i));
      sqlite3_snprintf(30, z+x, "table name:");
      utf8_printf(out, "%-36s %s\n", z, sqlite3_column_table_name(pStmt,i));
      sqlite3_snprintf(30, z+x, "origin name:");
      utf8_printf(out, "%-36s %s\n", z, sqlite3_column_origin_name(pStmt,i));
#endif
    }
  }

  if( pArg->statsOn==3 ){
    if( pArg->pStmt ){
      iCur = sqlite3_stmt_status(pArg->pStmt, SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_VM_STEP, bReset);
      raw_printf(pArg->out, "VM-steps: %d\n", iCur);
    }
    return 0;
  }

  displayStatLine(pArg, "Memory Used:",
     "%lld (max %lld) bytes", SQLITE_STATUS_MEMORY_USED, bReset);
  displayStatLine(pArg, "Number of Outstanding Allocations:",
     "%lld (max %lld)", SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_COUNT, bReset);
  if( pArg->shellFlgs & SHFLG_Pagecache ){
    displayStatLine(pArg, "Number of Pcache Pages Used:",
       "%lld (max %lld) pages", SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_USED, bReset);
  }
  displayStatLine(pArg, "Number of Pcache Overflow Bytes:",
     "%lld (max %lld) bytes", SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_OVERFLOW, bReset);
  displayStatLine(pArg, "Largest Allocation:",
     "%lld bytes", SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_SIZE, bReset);
  displayStatLine(pArg, "Largest Pcache Allocation:",
     "%lld bytes", SQLITE_STATUS_PAGECACHE_SIZE, bReset);
#ifdef YYTRACKMAXSTACKDEPTH
  displayStatLine(pArg, "Deepest Parser Stack:",
     "%lld (max %lld)", SQLITE_STATUS_PARSER_STACK, bReset);
#endif

  if( db ){
    if( pArg->shellFlgs & SHFLG_Lookaside ){
      iHiwtr = iCur = -1;
      sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_USED,
                        &iCur, &iHiwtr, bReset);
      raw_printf(pArg->out,
              "Lookaside Slots Used:                %d (max %d)\n",
              iCur, iHiwtr);
      sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_HIT,
                        &iCur, &iHiwtr, bReset);
      raw_printf(pArg->out, "Successful lookaside attempts:       %d\n",
              iHiwtr);
      sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_MISS_SIZE,
                        &iCur, &iHiwtr, bReset);
      raw_printf(pArg->out, "Lookaside failures due to size:      %d\n",
              iHiwtr);
      sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_LOOKASIDE_MISS_FULL,
                        &iCur, &iHiwtr, bReset);
      raw_printf(pArg->out, "Lookaside failures due to OOM:       %d\n",
              iHiwtr);
    }
    iHiwtr = iCur = -1;
    sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_USED, &iCur, &iHiwtr, bReset);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Pager Heap Usage:                    %d bytes\n",
            iCur);
    iHiwtr = iCur = -1;
    sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_HIT, &iCur, &iHiwtr, 1);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Page cache hits:                     %d\n", iCur);
    iHiwtr = iCur = -1;
    sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_MISS, &iCur, &iHiwtr, 1);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Page cache misses:                   %d\n", iCur);
    iHiwtr = iCur = -1;
    sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_WRITE, &iCur, &iHiwtr, 1);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Page cache writes:                   %d\n", iCur);
    iHiwtr = iCur = -1;
    sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_CACHE_SPILL, &iCur, &iHiwtr, 1);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Page cache spills:                   %d\n", iCur);
    iHiwtr = iCur = -1;
    sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_SCHEMA_USED, &iCur, &iHiwtr, bReset);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Schema Heap Usage:                   %d bytes\n",
            iCur);
    iHiwtr = iCur = -1;
    sqlite3_db_status(db, SQLITE_DBSTATUS_STMT_USED, &iCur, &iHiwtr, bReset);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Statement Heap/Lookaside Usage:      %d bytes\n",
            iCur);
  }

  if( pArg->pStmt ){
    iCur = sqlite3_stmt_status(pArg->pStmt, SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_FULLSCAN_STEP,
                               bReset);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Fullscan Steps:                      %d\n", iCur);
    iCur = sqlite3_stmt_status(pArg->pStmt, SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_SORT, bReset);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Sort Operations:                     %d\n", iCur);
    iCur = sqlite3_stmt_status(pArg->pStmt, SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_AUTOINDEX,bReset);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Autoindex Inserts:                   %d\n", iCur);
    iCur = sqlite3_stmt_status(pArg->pStmt, SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_VM_STEP, bReset);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Virtual Machine Steps:               %d\n", iCur);
    iCur = sqlite3_stmt_status(pArg->pStmt, SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_REPREPARE,bReset);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Reprepare operations:                %d\n", iCur);
    iCur = sqlite3_stmt_status(pArg->pStmt, SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_RUN, bReset);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Number of times run:                 %d\n", iCur);
    iCur = sqlite3_stmt_status(pArg->pStmt, SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_MEMUSED, bReset);
    raw_printf(pArg->out, "Memory used by prepared stmt:        %d\n", iCur);
  }

#ifdef __linux__
  displayLinuxIoStats(pArg->out);
#endif

  /* Do not remove this machine readable comment: extra-stats-output-here */

  return 0;
}

/*
** Display scan stats.
*/
static void display_scanstats(
  sqlite3 *db,                    /* Database to query */
  ShellState *pArg                /* Pointer to ShellState */
){
#ifndef SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(db);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(pArg);
#else
  int i, k, n, mx;
  raw_printf(pArg->out, "-------- scanstats --------\n");
  mx = 0;
  for(k=0; k<=mx; k++){
    double rEstLoop = 1.0;
    for(i=n=0; 1; i++){
      sqlite3_stmt *p = pArg->pStmt;
      sqlite3_int64 nLoop, nVisit;
      double rEst;
      int iSid;
      const char *zExplain;
      if( sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus(p, i, SQLITE_SCANSTAT_NLOOP, (void*)&nLoop) ){
        break;
      }
      sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus(p, i, SQLITE_SCANSTAT_SELECTID, (void*)&iSid);
      if( iSid>mx ) mx = iSid;
      if( iSid!=k ) continue;
      if( n==0 ){
        rEstLoop = (double)nLoop;
        if( k>0 ) raw_printf(pArg->out, "-------- subquery %d -------\n", k);
      }
      n++;
      sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus(p, i, SQLITE_SCANSTAT_NVISIT, (void*)&nVisit);
      sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus(p, i, SQLITE_SCANSTAT_EST, (void*)&rEst);
      sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus(p, i, SQLITE_SCANSTAT_EXPLAIN, (void*)&zExplain);
      utf8_printf(pArg->out, "Loop %2d: %s\n", n, zExplain);
      rEstLoop *= rEst;
      raw_printf(pArg->out,
          "         nLoop=%-8lld nRow=%-8lld estRow=%-8lld estRow/Loop=%-8g\n",
          nLoop, nVisit, (sqlite3_int64)(rEstLoop+0.5), rEst
      );
    }
  }
  raw_printf(pArg->out, "---------------------------\n");
#endif
}

/*
** Parameter azArray points to a zero-terminated array of strings. zStr
** points to a single nul-terminated string. Return non-zero if zStr
** is equal, according to strcmp(), to any of the strings in the array.
** Otherwise, return zero.
*/
static int str_in_array(const char *zStr, const char **azArray){
  int i;
  for(i=0; azArray[i]; i++){
    if( 0==strcmp(zStr, azArray[i]) ) return 1;
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** If compiled statement pSql appears to be an EXPLAIN statement, allocate
** and populate the ShellState.aiIndent[] array with the number of
** spaces each opcode should be indented before it is output.
**
** The indenting rules are:
**
**     * For each "Next", "Prev", "VNext" or "VPrev" instruction, indent
**       all opcodes that occur between the p2 jump destination and the opcode
**       itself by 2 spaces.
**
**     * For each "Goto", if the jump destination is earlier in the program
**       and ends on one of:
**          Yield  SeekGt  SeekLt  RowSetRead  Rewind
**       or if the P1 parameter is one instead of zero,
**       then indent all opcodes between the earlier instruction
**       and "Goto" by 2 spaces.
*/
static void explain_data_prepare(ShellState *p, sqlite3_stmt *pSql){
  const char *zSql;               /* The text of the SQL statement */
  const char *z;                  /* Used to check if this is an EXPLAIN */
  int *abYield = 0;               /* True if op is an OP_Yield */
  int nAlloc = 0;                 /* Allocated size of p->aiIndent[], abYield */
  int iOp;                        /* Index of operation in p->aiIndent[] */

  const char *azNext[] = { "Next", "Prev", "VPrev", "VNext", "SorterNext", 0 };
  const char *azYield[] = { "Yield", "SeekLT", "SeekGT", "RowSetRead",
                            "Rewind", 0 };
  const char *azGoto[] = { "Goto", 0 };

  /* Try to figure out if this is really an EXPLAIN statement. If this
  ** cannot be verified, return early.  */
  if( sqlite3_column_count(pSql)!=8 ){
    p->cMode = p->mode;
    return;
  }
  zSql = sqlite3_sql(pSql);
  if( zSql==0 ) return;
  for(z=zSql; *z==' ' || *z=='\t' || *z=='\n' || *z=='\f' || *z=='\r'; z++);
  if( sqlite3_strnicmp(z, "explain", 7) ){
    p->cMode = p->mode;
    return;
  }

  for(iOp=0; SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pSql); iOp++){
    int i;
    int iAddr = sqlite3_column_int(pSql, 0);
    const char *zOp = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 1);

    /* Set p2 to the P2 field of the current opcode. Then, assuming that
    ** p2 is an instruction address, set variable p2op to the index of that
    ** instruction in the aiIndent[] array. p2 and p2op may be different if
    ** the current instruction is part of a sub-program generated by an
    ** SQL trigger or foreign key.  */
    int p2 = sqlite3_column_int(pSql, 3);
    int p2op = (p2 + (iOp-iAddr));

    /* Grow the p->aiIndent array as required */
    if( iOp>=nAlloc ){
      if( iOp==0 ){
        /* Do further verfication that this is explain output.  Abort if
        ** it is not */
        static const char *explainCols[] = {
           "addr", "opcode", "p1", "p2", "p3", "p4", "p5", "comment" };
        int jj;
        for(jj=0; jj<ArraySize(explainCols); jj++){
          if( strcmp(sqlite3_column_name(pSql,jj),explainCols[jj])!=0 ){
            p->cMode = p->mode;
            sqlite3_reset(pSql);
            return;
          }
        }
      }
      nAlloc += 100;
      p->aiIndent = (int*)sqlite3_realloc64(p->aiIndent, nAlloc*sizeof(int));
      if( p->aiIndent==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
      abYield = (int*)sqlite3_realloc64(abYield, nAlloc*sizeof(int));
      if( abYield==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
    }
    abYield[iOp] = str_in_array(zOp, azYield);
    p->aiIndent[iOp] = 0;
    p->nIndent = iOp+1;

    if( str_in_array(zOp, azNext) ){
      for(i=p2op; i<iOp; i++) p->aiIndent[i] += 2;
    }
    if( str_in_array(zOp, azGoto) && p2op<p->nIndent
     && (abYield[p2op] || sqlite3_column_int(pSql, 2))
    ){
      for(i=p2op; i<iOp; i++) p->aiIndent[i] += 2;
    }
  }

  p->iIndent = 0;
  sqlite3_free(abYield);
  sqlite3_reset(pSql);
}

/*
** Free the array allocated by explain_data_prepare().
*/
static void explain_data_delete(ShellState *p){
  sqlite3_free(p->aiIndent);
  p->aiIndent = 0;
  p->nIndent = 0;
  p->iIndent = 0;
}

/*
** Disable and restore .wheretrace and .selecttrace settings.
*/
static unsigned int savedSelectTrace;
static unsigned int savedWhereTrace;
static void disable_debug_trace_modes(void){
  unsigned int zero = 0;
  sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_TRACEFLAGS, 0, &savedSelectTrace);
  sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_TRACEFLAGS, 1, &zero);
  sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_TRACEFLAGS, 2, &savedWhereTrace);
  sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_TRACEFLAGS, 3, &zero);
}
static void restore_debug_trace_modes(void){
  sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_TRACEFLAGS, 1, &savedSelectTrace);
  sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_TRACEFLAGS, 3, &savedWhereTrace);
}

/* Create the TEMP table used to store parameter bindings */
static void bind_table_init(ShellState *p){
  int wrSchema = 0;
  int defensiveMode = 0;
  sqlite3_db_config(p->db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DEFENSIVE, -1, &defensiveMode);
  sqlite3_db_config(p->db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DEFENSIVE, 0, 0);
  sqlite3_db_config(p->db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_WRITABLE_SCHEMA, -1, &wrSchema);
  sqlite3_db_config(p->db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_WRITABLE_SCHEMA, 1, 0);
  sqlite3_exec(p->db,
    "CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS temp.sqlite_parameters(\n"
    "  key TEXT PRIMARY KEY,\n"
    "  value\n"
    ") WITHOUT ROWID;",
    0, 0, 0);
  sqlite3_db_config(p->db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_WRITABLE_SCHEMA, wrSchema, 0);
  sqlite3_db_config(p->db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DEFENSIVE, defensiveMode, 0);
}

/*
** Bind parameters on a prepared statement.
**
** Parameter bindings are taken from a TEMP table of the form:
**
**    CREATE TEMP TABLE sqlite_parameters(key TEXT PRIMARY KEY, value)
**    WITHOUT ROWID;
**
** No bindings occur if this table does not exist.  The name of the table
** begins with "sqlite_" so that it will not collide with ordinary application
** tables.  The table must be in the TEMP schema.
*/
static void bind_prepared_stmt(ShellState *pArg, sqlite3_stmt *pStmt){
  int nVar;
  int i;
  int rc;
  sqlite3_stmt *pQ = 0;

  nVar = sqlite3_bind_parameter_count(pStmt);
  if( nVar==0 ) return;  /* Nothing to do */
  if( sqlite3_table_column_metadata(pArg->db, "TEMP", "sqlite_parameters",
                                    "key", 0, 0, 0, 0, 0)!=SQLITE_OK ){
    return; /* Parameter table does not exist */
  }
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(pArg->db,
          "SELECT value FROM temp.sqlite_parameters"
          " WHERE key=?1", -1, &pQ, 0);
  if( rc || pQ==0 ) return;
  for(i=1; i<=nVar; i++){
    char zNum[30];
    const char *zVar = sqlite3_bind_parameter_name(pStmt, i);
    if( zVar==0 ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zNum),zNum,"?%d",i);
      zVar = zNum;
    }
    sqlite3_bind_text(pQ, 1, zVar, -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
    if( sqlite3_step(pQ)==SQLITE_ROW ){
      sqlite3_bind_value(pStmt, i, sqlite3_column_value(pQ, 0));
    }else{
      sqlite3_bind_null(pStmt, i);
    }
    sqlite3_reset(pQ);
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pQ);
}

/*
** UTF8 box-drawing characters.  Imagine box lines like this:
**
**           1
**           |
**       4 --+-- 2
**           |
**           3
**
** Each box characters has between 2 and 4 of the lines leading from
** the center.  The characters are here identified by the numbers of
** their corresponding lines.
*/
#define BOX_24   "\342\224\200"  /* U+2500 --- */
#define BOX_13   "\342\224\202"  /* U+2502  |  */
#define BOX_23   "\342\224\214"  /* U+250c  ,- */
#define BOX_34   "\342\224\220"  /* U+2510 -,  */
#define BOX_12   "\342\224\224"  /* U+2514  '- */
#define BOX_14   "\342\224\230"  /* U+2518 -'  */
#define BOX_123  "\342\224\234"  /* U+251c  |- */
#define BOX_134  "\342\224\244"  /* U+2524 -|  */
#define BOX_234  "\342\224\254"  /* U+252c -,- */
#define BOX_124  "\342\224\264"  /* U+2534 -'- */
#define BOX_1234 "\342\224\274"  /* U+253c -|- */

/* Draw horizontal line N characters long using unicode box
** characters
*/
static void print_box_line(FILE *out, int N){
  const char zDash[] = 
      BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24
      BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24 BOX_24;
  const int nDash = sizeof(zDash) - 1;
  N *= 3;
  while( N>nDash ){
    utf8_printf(out, zDash);
    N -= nDash;
  }
  utf8_printf(out, "%.*s", N, zDash);
}

/*
** Draw a horizontal separator for a MODE_Box table.
*/
static void print_box_row_separator(
  ShellState *p,
  int nArg,
  const char *zSep1,
  const char *zSep2,
  const char *zSep3
){
  int i;
  if( nArg>0 ){
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", zSep1);
    print_box_line(p->out, p->actualWidth[0]+2);
    for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", zSep2);
      print_box_line(p->out, p->actualWidth[i]+2);
    }
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", zSep3);
  }
  fputs("\n", p->out);
}



/*
** Run a prepared statement and output the result in one of the
** table-oriented formats: MODE_Column, MODE_Markdown, MODE_Table,
** or MODE_Box.
**
** This is different from ordinary exec_prepared_stmt() in that
** it has to run the entire query and gather the results into memory
** first, in order to determine column widths, before providing
** any output.
*/
static void exec_prepared_stmt_columnar(
  ShellState *p,                        /* Pointer to ShellState */
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt                   /* Statment to run */
){
  sqlite3_int64 nRow = 0;
  int nColumn = 0;
  char **azData = 0;
  sqlite3_int64 nAlloc = 0;
  const char *z;
  int rc;
  sqlite3_int64 i, nData;
  int j, nTotal, w, n;
  const char *colSep = 0;
  const char *rowSep = 0;

  rc = sqlite3_step(pStmt);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_ROW ) return;
  nColumn = sqlite3_column_count(pStmt);
  nAlloc = nColumn*4;
  if( nAlloc<=0 ) nAlloc = 1;
  azData = sqlite3_malloc64( nAlloc*sizeof(char*) );
  if( azData==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
  for(i=0; i<nColumn; i++){
    azData[i] = strdup(sqlite3_column_name(pStmt,i));
  }
  do{
    if( (nRow+2)*nColumn >= nAlloc ){
      nAlloc *= 2;
      azData = sqlite3_realloc64(azData, nAlloc*sizeof(char*));
      if( azData==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
    }
    nRow++;
    for(i=0; i<nColumn; i++){
      z = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,i);
      azData[nRow*nColumn + i] = z ? strdup(z) : 0;
    }
  }while( (rc = sqlite3_step(pStmt))==SQLITE_ROW );
  if( nColumn>p->nWidth ){
    p->colWidth = realloc(p->colWidth, nColumn*2*sizeof(int));
    if( p->colWidth==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
    for(i=p->nWidth; i<nColumn; i++) p->colWidth[i] = 0;
    p->nWidth = nColumn;
    p->actualWidth = &p->colWidth[nColumn];
  }
  memset(p->actualWidth, 0, nColumn*sizeof(int));
  for(i=0; i<nColumn; i++){
    w = p->colWidth[i];
    if( w<0 ) w = -w;
    p->actualWidth[i] = w;
  }
  nTotal = nColumn*(nRow+1);
  for(i=0; i<nTotal; i++){
    z = azData[i];
    if( z==0 ) z = p->nullValue;
    n = strlenChar(z);
    j = i%nColumn;
    if( n>p->actualWidth[j] ) p->actualWidth[j] = n;
  }
  if( seenInterrupt ) goto columnar_end;
  if( nColumn==0 ) goto columnar_end;
  switch( p->cMode ){
    case MODE_Column: {
      colSep = "  ";
      rowSep = "\n";
      if( p->showHeader ){
        for(i=0; i<nColumn; i++){
          w = p->actualWidth[i];
          if( p->colWidth[i]<0 ) w = -w;
          utf8_width_print(p->out, w, azData[i]);
          fputs(i==nColumn-1?"\n":"  ", p->out);
        }
        for(i=0; i<nColumn; i++){
          print_dashes(p->out, p->actualWidth[i]);
          fputs(i==nColumn-1?"\n":"  ", p->out);
        }
      }
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Table: {
      colSep = " | ";
      rowSep = " |\n";
      print_row_separator(p, nColumn, "+");
      fputs("| ", p->out);
      for(i=0; i<nColumn; i++){
        w = p->actualWidth[i];
        n = strlenChar(azData[i]);
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%*s%s%*s", (w-n)/2, "", azData[i], (w-n+1)/2, "");
        fputs(i==nColumn-1?" |\n":" | ", p->out);
      }
      print_row_separator(p, nColumn, "+");
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Markdown: {
      colSep = " | ";
      rowSep = " |\n";
      fputs("| ", p->out);
      for(i=0; i<nColumn; i++){
        w = p->actualWidth[i];
        n = strlenChar(azData[i]);
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%*s%s%*s", (w-n)/2, "", azData[i], (w-n+1)/2, "");
        fputs(i==nColumn-1?" |\n":" | ", p->out);
      }
      print_row_separator(p, nColumn, "|");
      break;
    }
    case MODE_Box: {
      colSep = " " BOX_13 " ";
      rowSep = " " BOX_13 "\n";
      print_box_row_separator(p, nColumn, BOX_23, BOX_234, BOX_34);
      utf8_printf(p->out, BOX_13 " ");
      for(i=0; i<nColumn; i++){
        w = p->actualWidth[i];
        n = strlenChar(azData[i]);
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%*s%s%*s%s",
            (w-n)/2, "", azData[i], (w-n+1)/2, "",
            i==nColumn-1?" "BOX_13"\n":" "BOX_13" ");
      }
      print_box_row_separator(p, nColumn, BOX_123, BOX_1234, BOX_134);
      break;
    }
  }
  for(i=nColumn, j=0; i<nTotal; i++, j++){
    if( j==0 && p->cMode!=MODE_Column ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", p->cMode==MODE_Box?BOX_13" ":"| ");
    }
    z = azData[i];
    if( z==0 ) z = p->nullValue;
    w = p->actualWidth[j];
    if( p->colWidth[j]<0 ) w = -w;
    utf8_width_print(p->out, w, z);
    if( j==nColumn-1 ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", rowSep);
      j = -1;
      if( seenInterrupt ) goto columnar_end;
    }else{
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", colSep);
    }
  }
  if( p->cMode==MODE_Table ){
    print_row_separator(p, nColumn, "+");
  }else if( p->cMode==MODE_Box ){
    print_box_row_separator(p, nColumn, BOX_12, BOX_124, BOX_14);
  }
columnar_end:
  if( seenInterrupt ){
    utf8_printf(p->out, "Interrupt\n");
  }
  nData = (nRow+1)*nColumn;
  for(i=0; i<nData; i++) free(azData[i]);
  sqlite3_free(azData);
}

/*
** Run a prepared statement
*/
static void exec_prepared_stmt(
  ShellState *pArg,                                /* Pointer to ShellState */
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt                              /* Statment to run */
){
  int rc;

  if( pArg->cMode==MODE_Column
   || pArg->cMode==MODE_Table
   || pArg->cMode==MODE_Box
   || pArg->cMode==MODE_Markdown
  ){
    exec_prepared_stmt_columnar(pArg, pStmt);
    return;
  }

  /* perform the first step.  this will tell us if we
  ** have a result set or not and how wide it is.
  */
  rc = sqlite3_step(pStmt);
  /* if we have a result set... */
  if( SQLITE_ROW == rc ){
    /* allocate space for col name ptr, value ptr, and type */
    int nCol = sqlite3_column_count(pStmt);
    void *pData = sqlite3_malloc64(3*nCol*sizeof(const char*) + 1);
    if( !pData ){
      rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }else{
      char **azCols = (char **)pData;      /* Names of result columns */
      char **azVals = &azCols[nCol];       /* Results */
      int *aiTypes = (int *)&azVals[nCol]; /* Result types */
      int i, x;
      assert(sizeof(int) <= sizeof(char *));
      /* save off ptrs to column names */
      for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
        azCols[i] = (char *)sqlite3_column_name(pStmt, i);
      }
      do{
        /* extract the data and data types */
        for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
          aiTypes[i] = x = sqlite3_column_type(pStmt, i);
          if( x==SQLITE_BLOB && pArg && pArg->cMode==MODE_Insert ){
            azVals[i] = "";
          }else{
            azVals[i] = (char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, i);
          }
          if( !azVals[i] && (aiTypes[i]!=SQLITE_NULL) ){
            rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
            break; /* from for */
          }
        } /* end for */

        /* if data and types extracted successfully... */
        if( SQLITE_ROW == rc ){
          /* call the supplied callback with the result row data */
          if( shell_callback(pArg, nCol, azVals, azCols, aiTypes) ){
            rc = SQLITE_ABORT;
          }else{
            rc = sqlite3_step(pStmt);
          }
        }
      } while( SQLITE_ROW == rc );
      sqlite3_free(pData);
      if( pArg->cMode==MODE_Json ){
        fputs("]\n", pArg->out);
      }
    }
  }
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
/*
** This function is called to process SQL if the previous shell command
** was ".expert". It passes the SQL in the second argument directly to
** the sqlite3expert object.
**
** If successful, SQLITE_OK is returned. Otherwise, an SQLite error
** code. In this case, (*pzErr) may be set to point to a buffer containing
** an English language error message. It is the responsibility of the
** caller to eventually free this buffer using sqlite3_free().
*/
static int expertHandleSQL(
  ShellState *pState, 
  const char *zSql, 
  char **pzErr
){
  assert( pState->expert.pExpert );
  assert( pzErr==0 || *pzErr==0 );
  return sqlite3_expert_sql(pState->expert.pExpert, zSql, pzErr);
}

/*
** This function is called either to silently clean up the object
** created by the ".expert" command (if bCancel==1), or to generate a 
** report from it and then clean it up (if bCancel==0).
**
** If successful, SQLITE_OK is returned. Otherwise, an SQLite error
** code. In this case, (*pzErr) may be set to point to a buffer containing
** an English language error message. It is the responsibility of the
** caller to eventually free this buffer using sqlite3_free().
*/
static int expertFinish(
  ShellState *pState,
  int bCancel,
  char **pzErr
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  sqlite3expert *p = pState->expert.pExpert;
  assert( p );
  assert( bCancel || pzErr==0 || *pzErr==0 );
  if( bCancel==0 ){
    FILE *out = pState->out;
    int bVerbose = pState->expert.bVerbose;

    rc = sqlite3_expert_analyze(p, pzErr);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      int nQuery = sqlite3_expert_count(p);
      int i;

      if( bVerbose ){
        const char *zCand = sqlite3_expert_report(p,0,EXPERT_REPORT_CANDIDATES);
        raw_printf(out, "-- Candidates -----------------------------\n");
        raw_printf(out, "%s\n", zCand);
      }
      for(i=0; i<nQuery; i++){
        const char *zSql = sqlite3_expert_report(p, i, EXPERT_REPORT_SQL);
        const char *zIdx = sqlite3_expert_report(p, i, EXPERT_REPORT_INDEXES);
        const char *zEQP = sqlite3_expert_report(p, i, EXPERT_REPORT_PLAN);
        if( zIdx==0 ) zIdx = "(no new indexes)\n";
        if( bVerbose ){
          raw_printf(out, "-- Query %d --------------------------------\n",i+1);
          raw_printf(out, "%s\n\n", zSql);
        }
        raw_printf(out, "%s\n", zIdx);
        raw_printf(out, "%s\n", zEQP);
      }
    }
  }
  sqlite3_expert_destroy(p);
  pState->expert.pExpert = 0;
  return rc;
}

/*
** Implementation of ".expert" dot command.
*/
static int expertDotCommand(
  ShellState *pState,             /* Current shell tool state */
  char **azArg,                   /* Array of arguments passed to dot command */
  int nArg                        /* Number of entries in azArg[] */
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  char *zErr = 0;
  int i;
  int iSample = 0;

  assert( pState->expert.pExpert==0 );
  memset(&pState->expert, 0, sizeof(ExpertInfo));

  for(i=1; rc==SQLITE_OK && i<nArg; i++){
    char *z = azArg[i];
    int n;
    if( z[0]=='-' && z[1]=='-' ) z++;
    n = strlen30(z);
    if( n>=2 && 0==strncmp(z, "-verbose", n) ){
      pState->expert.bVerbose = 1;
    }
    else if( n>=2 && 0==strncmp(z, "-sample", n) ){
      if( i==(nArg-1) ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "option requires an argument: %s\n", z);
        rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
      }else{
        iSample = (int)integerValue(azArg[++i]);
        if( iSample<0 || iSample>100 ){
          raw_printf(stderr, "value out of range: %s\n", azArg[i]);
          rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
        }
      }
    }
    else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "unknown option: %s\n", z);
      rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
    }
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    pState->expert.pExpert = sqlite3_expert_new(pState->db, &zErr);
    if( pState->expert.pExpert==0 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "sqlite3_expert_new: %s\n", zErr);
      rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
    }else{
      sqlite3_expert_config(
          pState->expert.pExpert, EXPERT_CONFIG_SAMPLE, iSample
      );
    }
  }

  return rc;
}
#endif /* ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE */

/*
** Execute a statement or set of statements.  Print
** any result rows/columns depending on the current mode
** set via the supplied callback.
**
** This is very similar to SQLite's built-in sqlite3_exec()
** function except it takes a slightly different callback
** and callback data argument.
*/
static int shell_exec(
  ShellState *pArg,                         /* Pointer to ShellState */
  const char *zSql,                         /* SQL to be evaluated */
  char **pzErrMsg                           /* Error msg written here */
){
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = NULL;     /* Statement to execute. */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return Code */
  int rc2;
  const char *zLeftover;          /* Tail of unprocessed SQL */
  sqlite3 *db = pArg->db;

  if( pzErrMsg ){
    *pzErrMsg = NULL;
  }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  if( pArg->expert.pExpert ){
    rc = expertHandleSQL(pArg, zSql, pzErrMsg);
    return expertFinish(pArg, (rc!=SQLITE_OK), pzErrMsg);
  }
#endif

  while( zSql[0] && (SQLITE_OK == rc) ){
    static const char *zStmtSql;
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, &zLeftover);
    if( SQLITE_OK != rc ){
      if( pzErrMsg ){
        *pzErrMsg = save_err_msg(db);
      }
    }else{
      if( !pStmt ){
        /* this happens for a comment or white-space */
        zSql = zLeftover;
        while( IsSpace(zSql[0]) ) zSql++;
        continue;
      }
      zStmtSql = sqlite3_sql(pStmt);
      if( zStmtSql==0 ) zStmtSql = "";
      while( IsSpace(zStmtSql[0]) ) zStmtSql++;

      /* save off the prepared statment handle and reset row count */
      if( pArg ){
        pArg->pStmt = pStmt;
        pArg->cnt = 0;
      }

      /* echo the sql statement if echo on */
      if( pArg && ShellHasFlag(pArg, SHFLG_Echo) ){
        utf8_printf(pArg->out, "%s\n", zStmtSql ? zStmtSql : zSql);
      }

      /* Show the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN if .eqp is on */
      if( pArg && pArg->autoEQP && sqlite3_stmt_isexplain(pStmt)==0 ){
        sqlite3_stmt *pExplain;
        char *zEQP;
        int triggerEQP = 0;
        disable_debug_trace_modes();
        sqlite3_db_config(db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRIGGER_EQP, -1, &triggerEQP);
        if( pArg->autoEQP>=AUTOEQP_trigger ){
          sqlite3_db_config(db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRIGGER_EQP, 1, 0);
        }
        zEQP = sqlite3_mprintf("EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN %s", zStmtSql);
        rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zEQP, -1, &pExplain, 0);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
          while( sqlite3_step(pExplain)==SQLITE_ROW ){
            const char *zEQPLine = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pExplain,3);
            int iEqpId = sqlite3_column_int(pExplain, 0);
            int iParentId = sqlite3_column_int(pExplain, 1);
            if( zEQPLine==0 ) zEQPLine = "";
            if( zEQPLine[0]=='-' ) eqp_render(pArg);
            eqp_append(pArg, iEqpId, iParentId, zEQPLine);
          }
          eqp_render(pArg);
        }
        sqlite3_finalize(pExplain);
        sqlite3_free(zEQP);
        if( pArg->autoEQP>=AUTOEQP_full ){
          /* Also do an EXPLAIN for ".eqp full" mode */
          zEQP = sqlite3_mprintf("EXPLAIN %s", zStmtSql);
          rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zEQP, -1, &pExplain, 0);
          if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
            pArg->cMode = MODE_Explain;
            explain_data_prepare(pArg, pExplain);
            exec_prepared_stmt(pArg, pExplain);
            explain_data_delete(pArg);
          }
          sqlite3_finalize(pExplain);
          sqlite3_free(zEQP);
        }
        if( pArg->autoEQP>=AUTOEQP_trigger && triggerEQP==0 ){
          sqlite3_db_config(db, SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRIGGER_EQP, 0, 0);
          /* Reprepare pStmt before reactiving trace modes */
          sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
          sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
          if( pArg ) pArg->pStmt = pStmt;
        }
        restore_debug_trace_modes();
      }

      if( pArg ){
        pArg->cMode = pArg->mode;
        if( pArg->autoExplain ){
          if( sqlite3_stmt_isexplain(pStmt)==1 ){
            pArg->cMode = MODE_Explain;
          }
          if( sqlite3_stmt_isexplain(pStmt)==2 ){
            pArg->cMode = MODE_EQP;
          }
        }

        /* If the shell is currently in ".explain" mode, gather the extra
        ** data required to add indents to the output.*/
        if( pArg->cMode==MODE_Explain ){
          explain_data_prepare(pArg, pStmt);
        }
      }

      bind_prepared_stmt(pArg, pStmt);
      exec_prepared_stmt(pArg, pStmt);
      explain_data_delete(pArg);
      eqp_render(pArg);

      /* print usage stats if stats on */
      if( pArg && pArg->statsOn ){
        display_stats(db, pArg, 0);
      }

      /* print loop-counters if required */
      if( pArg && pArg->scanstatsOn ){
        display_scanstats(db, pArg);
      }

      /* Finalize the statement just executed. If this fails, save a
      ** copy of the error message. Otherwise, set zSql to point to the
      ** next statement to execute. */
      rc2 = sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_NOMEM ) rc = rc2;
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        zSql = zLeftover;
        while( IsSpace(zSql[0]) ) zSql++;
      }else if( pzErrMsg ){
        *pzErrMsg = save_err_msg(db);
      }

      /* clear saved stmt handle */
      if( pArg ){
        pArg->pStmt = NULL;
      }
    }
  } /* end while */

  return rc;
}

/*
** Release memory previously allocated by tableColumnList().
*/
static void freeColumnList(char **azCol){
  int i;
  for(i=1; azCol[i]; i++){
    sqlite3_free(azCol[i]);
  }
  /* azCol[0] is a static string */
  sqlite3_free(azCol);
}

/*
** Return a list of pointers to strings which are the names of all
** columns in table zTab.   The memory to hold the names is dynamically
** allocated and must be released by the caller using a subsequent call
** to freeColumnList().
**
** The azCol[0] entry is usually NULL.  However, if zTab contains a rowid
** value that needs to be preserved, then azCol[0] is filled in with the
** name of the rowid column.
**
** The first regular column in the table is azCol[1].  The list is terminated
** by an entry with azCol[i]==0.
*/
static char **tableColumnList(ShellState *p, const char *zTab){
  char **azCol = 0;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
  char *zSql;
  int nCol = 0;
  int nAlloc = 0;
  int nPK = 0;       /* Number of PRIMARY KEY columns seen */
  int isIPK = 0;     /* True if one PRIMARY KEY column of type INTEGER */
  int preserveRowid = ShellHasFlag(p, SHFLG_PreserveRowid);
  int rc;

  zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA table_info=%Q", zTab);
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  if( rc ) return 0;
  while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    if( nCol>=nAlloc-2 ){
      nAlloc = nAlloc*2 + nCol + 10;
      azCol = sqlite3_realloc(azCol, nAlloc*sizeof(azCol[0]));
      if( azCol==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
    }
    azCol[++nCol] = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 1));
    if( sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 5) ){
      nPK++;
      if( nPK==1
       && sqlite3_stricmp((const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,2),
                          "INTEGER")==0
      ){
        isIPK = 1;
      }else{
        isIPK = 0;
      }
    }
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  if( azCol==0 ) return 0;
  azCol[0] = 0;
  azCol[nCol+1] = 0;

  /* The decision of whether or not a rowid really needs to be preserved
  ** is tricky.  We never need to preserve a rowid for a WITHOUT ROWID table
  ** or a table with an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY.  We are unable to preserve
  ** rowids on tables where the rowid is inaccessible because there are other
  ** columns in the table named "rowid", "_rowid_", and "oid".
  */
  if( preserveRowid && isIPK ){
    /* If a single PRIMARY KEY column with type INTEGER was seen, then it
    ** might be an alise for the ROWID.  But it might also be a WITHOUT ROWID
    ** table or a INTEGER PRIMARY KEY DESC column, neither of which are
    ** ROWID aliases.  To distinguish these cases, check to see if
    ** there is a "pk" entry in "PRAGMA index_list".  There will be
    ** no "pk" index if the PRIMARY KEY really is an alias for the ROWID.
    */
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("SELECT 1 FROM pragma_index_list(%Q)"
                           " WHERE origin='pk'", zTab);
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    if( rc ){
      freeColumnList(azCol);
      return 0;
    }
    rc = sqlite3_step(pStmt);
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    preserveRowid = rc==SQLITE_ROW;
  }
  if( preserveRowid ){
    /* Only preserve the rowid if we can find a name to use for the
    ** rowid */
    static char *azRowid[] = { "rowid", "_rowid_", "oid" };
    int i, j;
    for(j=0; j<3; j++){
      for(i=1; i<=nCol; i++){
        if( sqlite3_stricmp(azRowid[j],azCol[i])==0 ) break;
      }
      if( i>nCol ){
        /* At this point, we know that azRowid[j] is not the name of any
        ** ordinary column in the table.  Verify that azRowid[j] is a valid
        ** name for the rowid before adding it to azCol[0].  WITHOUT ROWID
        ** tables will fail this last check */
        rc = sqlite3_table_column_metadata(p->db,0,zTab,azRowid[j],0,0,0,0,0);
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK ) azCol[0] = azRowid[j];
        break;
      }
    }
  }
  return azCol;
}

/*
** Toggle the reverse_unordered_selects setting.
*/
static void toggleSelectOrder(sqlite3 *db){
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
  int iSetting = 0;
  char zStmt[100];
  sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "PRAGMA reverse_unordered_selects", -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    iSetting = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zStmt), zStmt,
       "PRAGMA reverse_unordered_selects(%d)", !iSetting);
  sqlite3_exec(db, zStmt, 0, 0, 0);
}

/*
** This is a different callback routine used for dumping the database.
** Each row received by this callback consists of a table name,
** the table type ("index" or "table") and SQL to create the table.
** This routine should print text sufficient to recreate the table.
*/
static int dump_callback(void *pArg, int nArg, char **azArg, char **azNotUsed){
  int rc;
  const char *zTable;
  const char *zType;
  const char *zSql;
  ShellState *p = (ShellState *)pArg;
  int dataOnly;
  int noSys;

  UNUSED_PARAMETER(azNotUsed);
  if( nArg!=3 || azArg==0 ) return 0;
  zTable = azArg[0];
  zType = azArg[1];
  zSql = azArg[2];
  dataOnly = (p->shellFlgs & SHFLG_DumpDataOnly)!=0;
  noSys    = (p->shellFlgs & SHFLG_DumpNoSys)!=0;

  if( strcmp(zTable, "sqlite_sequence")==0 && !noSys ){
    if( !dataOnly ) raw_printf(p->out, "DELETE FROM sqlite_sequence;\n");
  }else if( sqlite3_strglob("sqlite_stat?", zTable)==0 && !noSys ){
    if( !dataOnly ) raw_printf(p->out, "ANALYZE sqlite_schema;\n");
  }else if( strncmp(zTable, "sqlite_", 7)==0 ){
    return 0;
  }else if( dataOnly ){
    /* no-op */
  }else if( strncmp(zSql, "CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE", 20)==0 ){
    char *zIns;
    if( !p->writableSchema ){
      raw_printf(p->out, "PRAGMA writable_schema=ON;\n");
      p->writableSchema = 1;
    }
    zIns = sqlite3_mprintf(
       "INSERT INTO sqlite_schema(type,name,tbl_name,rootpage,sql)"
       "VALUES('table','%q','%q',0,'%q');",
       zTable, zTable, zSql);
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%s\n", zIns);
    sqlite3_free(zIns);
    return 0;
  }else{
    printSchemaLine(p->out, zSql, ";\n");
  }

  if( strcmp(zType, "table")==0 ){
    ShellText sSelect;
    ShellText sTable;
    char **azCol;
    int i;
    char *savedDestTable;
    int savedMode;

    azCol = tableColumnList(p, zTable);
    if( azCol==0 ){
      p->nErr++;
      return 0;
    }

    /* Always quote the table name, even if it appears to be pure ascii,
    ** in case it is a keyword. Ex:  INSERT INTO "table" ... */
    initText(&sTable);
    appendText(&sTable, zTable, quoteChar(zTable));
    /* If preserving the rowid, add a column list after the table name.
    ** In other words:  "INSERT INTO tab(rowid,a,b,c,...) VALUES(...)"
    ** instead of the usual "INSERT INTO tab VALUES(...)".
    */
    if( azCol[0] ){
      appendText(&sTable, "(", 0);
      appendText(&sTable, azCol[0], 0);
      for(i=1; azCol[i]; i++){
        appendText(&sTable, ",", 0);
        appendText(&sTable, azCol[i], quoteChar(azCol[i]));
      }
      appendText(&sTable, ")", 0);
    }

    /* Build an appropriate SELECT statement */
    initText(&sSelect);
    appendText(&sSelect, "SELECT ", 0);
    if( azCol[0] ){
      appendText(&sSelect, azCol[0], 0);
      appendText(&sSelect, ",", 0);
    }
    for(i=1; azCol[i]; i++){
      appendText(&sSelect, azCol[i], quoteChar(azCol[i]));
      if( azCol[i+1] ){
        appendText(&sSelect, ",", 0);
      }
    }
    freeColumnList(azCol);
    appendText(&sSelect, " FROM ", 0);
    appendText(&sSelect, zTable, quoteChar(zTable));

    savedDestTable = p->zDestTable;
    savedMode = p->mode;
    p->zDestTable = sTable.z;
    p->mode = p->cMode = MODE_Insert;
    rc = shell_exec(p, sSelect.z, 0);
    if( (rc&0xff)==SQLITE_CORRUPT ){
      raw_printf(p->out, "/****** CORRUPTION ERROR *******/\n");
      toggleSelectOrder(p->db);
      shell_exec(p, sSelect.z, 0);
      toggleSelectOrder(p->db);
    }
    p->zDestTable = savedDestTable;
    p->mode = savedMode;
    freeText(&sTable);
    freeText(&sSelect);
    if( rc ) p->nErr++;
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** Run zQuery.  Use dump_callback() as the callback routine so that
** the contents of the query are output as SQL statements.
**
** If we get a SQLITE_CORRUPT error, rerun the query after appending
** "ORDER BY rowid DESC" to the end.
*/
static int run_schema_dump_query(
  ShellState *p,
  const char *zQuery
){
  int rc;
  char *zErr = 0;
  rc = sqlite3_exec(p->db, zQuery, dump_callback, p, &zErr);
  if( rc==SQLITE_CORRUPT ){
    char *zQ2;
    int len = strlen30(zQuery);
    raw_printf(p->out, "/****** CORRUPTION ERROR *******/\n");
    if( zErr ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "/****** %s ******/\n", zErr);
      sqlite3_free(zErr);
      zErr = 0;
    }
    zQ2 = malloc( len+100 );
    if( zQ2==0 ) return rc;
    sqlite3_snprintf(len+100, zQ2, "%s ORDER BY rowid DESC", zQuery);
    rc = sqlite3_exec(p->db, zQ2, dump_callback, p, &zErr);
    if( rc ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "/****** ERROR: %s ******/\n", zErr);
    }else{
      rc = SQLITE_CORRUPT;
    }
    sqlite3_free(zErr);
    free(zQ2);
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Text of help messages.
**
** The help text for each individual command begins with a line that starts
** with ".".  Subsequent lines are supplimental information.
**
** There must be two or more spaces between the end of the command and the
** start of the description of what that command does.
*/
static const char *(azHelp[]) = {
#if defined(SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE)
  ".archive ...             Manage SQL archives",
  "   Each command must have exactly one of the following options:",
  "     -c, --create               Create a new archive",
  "     -u, --update               Add or update files with changed mtime",
  "     -i, --insert               Like -u but always add even if unchanged",
  "     -t, --list                 List contents of archive",
  "     -x, --extract              Extract files from archive",
  "   Optional arguments:",
  "     -v, --verbose              Print each filename as it is processed",
  "     -f FILE, --file FILE       Use archive FILE (default is current db)",
  "     -a FILE, --append FILE     Open FILE using the apndvfs VFS",
  "     -C DIR, --directory DIR    Read/extract files from directory DIR",
  "     -n, --dryrun               Show the SQL that would have occurred",
  "   Examples:",
  "     .ar -cf ARCHIVE foo bar  # Create ARCHIVE from files foo and bar",
  "     .ar -tf ARCHIVE          # List members of ARCHIVE",
  "     .ar -xvf ARCHIVE         # Verbosely extract files from ARCHIVE",
  "   See also:",
  "      http://sqlite.org/cli.html#sqlite_archive_support",
#endif
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTHORIZATION
  ".auth ON|OFF             Show authorizer callbacks",
#endif
  ".backup ?DB? FILE        Backup DB (default \"main\") to FILE",
  "       --append            Use the appendvfs",
  "       --async             Write to FILE without journal and fsync()",
  ".bail on|off             Stop after hitting an error.  Default OFF",
  ".binary on|off           Turn binary output on or off.  Default OFF",
  ".cd DIRECTORY            Change the working directory to DIRECTORY",
  ".changes on|off          Show number of rows changed by SQL",
  ".check GLOB              Fail if output since .testcase does not match",
  ".clone NEWDB             Clone data into NEWDB from the existing database",
  ".connection [close] [#]  Open or close an auxiliary database connection",
  ".databases               List names and files of attached databases",
  ".dbconfig ?op? ?val?     List or change sqlite3_db_config() options",
  ".dbinfo ?DB?             Show status information about the database",
  ".dump ?OBJECTS?          Render database content as SQL",
  "   Options:",
  "     --data-only            Output only INSERT statements",
  "     --newlines             Allow unescaped newline characters in output",
  "     --nosys                Omit system tables (ex: \"sqlite_stat1\")",
  "     --preserve-rowids      Include ROWID values in the output",
  "   OBJECTS is a LIKE pattern for tables, indexes, triggers or views to dump",
  "   Additional LIKE patterns can be given in subsequent arguments",
  ".echo on|off             Turn command echo on or off",
  ".eqp on|off|full|...     Enable or disable automatic EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN",
  "   Other Modes:",
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  "      test                  Show raw EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN output",
  "      trace                 Like \"full\" but enable \"PRAGMA vdbe_trace\"",
#endif
  "      trigger               Like \"full\" but also show trigger bytecode",
  ".excel                   Display the output of next command in spreadsheet",
  "   --bom                   Put a UTF8 byte-order mark on intermediate file",
  ".exit ?CODE?             Exit this program with return-code CODE",
  ".expert                  EXPERIMENTAL. Suggest indexes for queries",
  ".explain ?on|off|auto?   Change the EXPLAIN formatting mode.  Default: auto",
  ".filectrl CMD ...        Run various sqlite3_file_control() operations",
  "   --schema SCHEMA         Use SCHEMA instead of \"main\"",
  "   --help                  Show CMD details",
  ".fullschema ?--indent?   Show schema and the content of sqlite_stat tables",
  ".headers on|off          Turn display of headers on or off",
  ".help ?-all? ?PATTERN?   Show help text for PATTERN",
  ".import FILE TABLE       Import data from FILE into TABLE",
  "   Options:",
  "     --ascii               Use \\037 and \\036 as column and row separators",
  "     --csv                 Use , and \\n as column and row separators",
  "     --skip N              Skip the first N rows of input",
  "     -v                    \"Verbose\" - increase auxiliary output",
  "   Notes:",
  "     *  If TABLE does not exist, it is created.  The first row of input",
  "        determines the column names.",
  "     *  If neither --csv or --ascii are used, the input mode is derived",
  "        from the \".mode\" output mode",
  "     *  If FILE begins with \"|\" then it is a command that generates the",
  "        input text.",
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TEST_CONTROL
  ".imposter INDEX TABLE    Create imposter table TABLE on index INDEX",
#endif
  ".indexes ?TABLE?         Show names of indexes",
  "                           If TABLE is specified, only show indexes for",
  "                           tables matching TABLE using the LIKE operator.",
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_IOTRACE
  ".iotrace FILE            Enable I/O diagnostic logging to FILE",
#endif
  ".limit ?LIMIT? ?VAL?     Display or change the value of an SQLITE_LIMIT",
  ".lint OPTIONS            Report potential schema issues.",
  "     Options:",
  "        fkey-indexes     Find missing foreign key indexes",
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION
  ".load FILE ?ENTRY?       Load an extension library",
#endif
  ".log FILE|off            Turn logging on or off.  FILE can be stderr/stdout",
  ".mode MODE ?TABLE?       Set output mode",
  "   MODE is one of:",
  "     ascii     Columns/rows delimited by 0x1F and 0x1E",
  "     box       Tables using unicode box-drawing characters",
  "     csv       Comma-separated values",
  "     column    Output in columns.  (See .width)",
  "     html      HTML <table> code",
  "     insert    SQL insert statements for TABLE",
  "     json      Results in a JSON array",
  "     line      One value per line",
  "     list      Values delimited by \"|\"",
  "     markdown  Markdown table format",
  "     quote     Escape answers as for SQL",
  "     table     ASCII-art table",
  "     tabs      Tab-separated values",
  "     tcl       TCL list elements",
  ".nullvalue STRING        Use STRING in place of NULL values",
  ".once ?OPTIONS? ?FILE?   Output for the next SQL command only to FILE",
  "     If FILE begins with '|' then open as a pipe",
  "       --bom  Put a UTF8 byte-order mark at the beginning",
  "       -e     Send output to the system text editor",
  "       -x     Send output as CSV to a spreadsheet (same as \".excel\")",
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  ".oom ?--repeat M? ?N?    Simulate an OOM error on the N-th allocation",
#endif 
  ".open ?OPTIONS? ?FILE?   Close existing database and reopen FILE",
  "     Options:",
  "        --append        Use appendvfs to append database to the end of FILE",
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DESERIALIZE
  "        --deserialize   Load into memory using sqlite3_deserialize()",
  "        --hexdb         Load the output of \"dbtotxt\" as an in-memory db",
  "        --maxsize N     Maximum size for --hexdb or --deserialized database",
#endif
  "        --new           Initialize FILE to an empty database",
  "        --nofollow      Do not follow symbolic links",
  "        --readonly      Open FILE readonly",
  "        --zip           FILE is a ZIP archive",
  ".output ?FILE?           Send output to FILE or stdout if FILE is omitted",
  "   If FILE begins with '|' then open it as a pipe.",
  "   Options:",
  "     --bom                 Prefix output with a UTF8 byte-order mark",
  "     -e                    Send output to the system text editor",
  "     -x                    Send output as CSV to a spreadsheet",
  ".parameter CMD ...       Manage SQL parameter bindings",
  "   clear                   Erase all bindings",
  "   init                    Initialize the TEMP table that holds bindings",
  "   list                    List the current parameter bindings",
  "   set PARAMETER VALUE     Given SQL parameter PARAMETER a value of VALUE",
  "                           PARAMETER should start with one of: $ : @ ?",
  "   unset PARAMETER         Remove PARAMETER from the binding table",
  ".print STRING...         Print literal STRING",
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
  ".progress N              Invoke progress handler after every N opcodes",
  "   --limit N                 Interrupt after N progress callbacks",
  "   --once                    Do no more than one progress interrupt",
  "   --quiet|-q                No output except at interrupts",
  "   --reset                   Reset the count for each input and interrupt",
#endif
  ".prompt MAIN CONTINUE    Replace the standard prompts",
  ".quit                    Exit this program",
  ".read FILE               Read input from FILE",
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_DBPAGE_VTAB)
  ".recover                 Recover as much data as possible from corrupt db.",
  "   --freelist-corrupt       Assume the freelist is corrupt",
  "   --recovery-db NAME       Store recovery metadata in database file NAME",
  "   --lost-and-found TABLE   Alternative name for the lost-and-found table",
  "   --no-rowids              Do not attempt to recover rowid values",
  "                            that are not also INTEGER PRIMARY KEYs",
#endif
  ".restore ?DB? FILE       Restore content of DB (default \"main\") from FILE",
  ".save FILE               Write in-memory database into FILE",
  ".scanstats on|off        Turn sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus() metrics on or off",
  ".schema ?PATTERN?        Show the CREATE statements matching PATTERN",
  "   Options:",
  "      --indent             Try to pretty-print the schema",
  "      --nosys              Omit objects whose names start with \"sqlite_\"",
  ".selftest ?OPTIONS?      Run tests defined in the SELFTEST table",
  "    Options:",
  "       --init               Create a new SELFTEST table",
  "       -v                   Verbose output",
  ".separator COL ?ROW?     Change the column and row separators",
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_SESSION)
  ".session ?NAME? CMD ...  Create or control sessions",
  "   Subcommands:",
  "     attach TABLE             Attach TABLE",
  "     changeset FILE           Write a changeset into FILE",
  "     close                    Close one session",
  "     enable ?BOOLEAN?         Set or query the enable bit",
  "     filter GLOB...           Reject tables matching GLOBs",
  "     indirect ?BOOLEAN?       Mark or query the indirect status",
  "     isempty                  Query whether the session is empty",
  "     list                     List currently open session names",
  "     open DB NAME             Open a new session on DB",
  "     patchset FILE            Write a patchset into FILE",
  "   If ?NAME? is omitted, the first defined session is used.",
#endif
  ".sha3sum ...             Compute a SHA3 hash of database content",
  "    Options:",
  "      --schema              Also hash the sqlite_schema table",
  "      --sha3-224            Use the sha3-224 algorithm",
  "      --sha3-256            Use the sha3-256 algorithm (default)",
  "      --sha3-384            Use the sha3-384 algorithm",
  "      --sha3-512            Use the sha3-512 algorithm",
  "    Any other argument is a LIKE pattern for tables to hash",
#ifndef SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM
  ".shell CMD ARGS...       Run CMD ARGS... in a system shell",
#endif
  ".show                    Show the current values for various settings",
  ".stats ?ARG?             Show stats or turn stats on or off",
  "   off                      Turn off automatic stat display",
  "   on                       Turn on automatic stat display",
  "   stmt                     Show statement stats",
  "   vmstep                   Show the virtual machine step count only",
#ifndef SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM
  ".system CMD ARGS...      Run CMD ARGS... in a system shell",
#endif
  ".tables ?TABLE?          List names of tables matching LIKE pattern TABLE",
  ".testcase NAME           Begin redirecting output to 'testcase-out.txt'",
  ".testctrl CMD ...        Run various sqlite3_test_control() operations",
  "                           Run \".testctrl\" with no arguments for details",
  ".timeout MS              Try opening locked tables for MS milliseconds",
  ".timer on|off            Turn SQL timer on or off",
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
  ".trace ?OPTIONS?         Output each SQL statement as it is run",
  "    FILE                    Send output to FILE",
  "    stdout                  Send output to stdout",
  "    stderr                  Send output to stderr",
  "    off                     Disable tracing",
  "    --expanded              Expand query parameters",
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_NORMALIZE
  "    --normalized            Normal the SQL statements",
#endif
  "    --plain                 Show SQL as it is input",
  "    --stmt                  Trace statement execution (SQLITE_TRACE_STMT)",
  "    --profile               Profile statements (SQLITE_TRACE_PROFILE)",
  "    --row                   Trace each row (SQLITE_TRACE_ROW)",
  "    --close                 Trace connection close (SQLITE_TRACE_CLOSE)",
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE */
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  ".unmodule NAME ...       Unregister virtual table modules",
  "    --allexcept             Unregister everything except those named",
#endif
  ".vfsinfo ?AUX?           Information about the top-level VFS",
  ".vfslist                 List all available VFSes",
  ".vfsname ?AUX?           Print the name of the VFS stack",
  ".width NUM1 NUM2 ...     Set minimum column widths for columnar output",
  "     Negative values right-justify",
};

/*
** Output help text.
**
** zPattern describes the set of commands for which help text is provided.
** If zPattern is NULL, then show all commands, but only give a one-line
** description of each.
**
** Return the number of matches.
*/
static int showHelp(FILE *out, const char *zPattern){
  int i = 0;
  int j = 0;
  int n = 0;
  char *zPat;
  if( zPattern==0
   || zPattern[0]=='0'
   || strcmp(zPattern,"-a")==0
   || strcmp(zPattern,"-all")==0
   || strcmp(zPattern,"--all")==0
  ){
    /* Show all commands, but only one line per command */
    if( zPattern==0 ) zPattern = "";
    for(i=0; i<ArraySize(azHelp); i++){
      if( azHelp[i][0]=='.' || zPattern[0] ){
        utf8_printf(out, "%s\n", azHelp[i]);
        n++;
      }
    }
  }else{
    /* Look for commands that for which zPattern is an exact prefix */
    zPat = sqlite3_mprintf(".%s*", zPattern);
    for(i=0; i<ArraySize(azHelp); i++){
      if( sqlite3_strglob(zPat, azHelp[i])==0 ){
        utf8_printf(out, "%s\n", azHelp[i]);
        j = i+1;
        n++;
      }
    }
    sqlite3_free(zPat);
    if( n ){
      if( n==1 ){
        /* when zPattern is a prefix of exactly one command, then include the
        ** details of that command, which should begin at offset j */
        while( j<ArraySize(azHelp)-1 && azHelp[j][0]!='.' ){
          utf8_printf(out, "%s\n", azHelp[j]);
          j++;
        }
      }
      return n;
    }
    /* Look for commands that contain zPattern anywhere.  Show the complete
    ** text of all commands that match. */
    zPat = sqlite3_mprintf("%%%s%%", zPattern);
    for(i=0; i<ArraySize(azHelp); i++){
      if( azHelp[i][0]=='.' ) j = i;
      if( sqlite3_strlike(zPat, azHelp[i], 0)==0 ){
        utf8_printf(out, "%s\n", azHelp[j]);
        while( j<ArraySize(azHelp)-1 && azHelp[j+1][0]!='.' ){
          j++;
          utf8_printf(out, "%s\n", azHelp[j]);
        }
        i = j;
        n++;
      }
    }
    sqlite3_free(zPat);
  }
  return n;
}

/* Forward reference */
static int process_input(ShellState *p);

/*
** Read the content of file zName into memory obtained from sqlite3_malloc64()
** and return a pointer to the buffer. The caller is responsible for freeing
** the memory.
**
** If parameter pnByte is not NULL, (*pnByte) is set to the number of bytes
** read.
**
** For convenience, a nul-terminator byte is always appended to the data read
** from the file before the buffer is returned. This byte is not included in
** the final value of (*pnByte), if applicable.
**
** NULL is returned if any error is encountered. The final value of *pnByte
** is undefined in this case.
*/
static char *readFile(const char *zName, int *pnByte){
  FILE *in = fopen(zName, "rb");
  long nIn;
  size_t nRead;
  char *pBuf;
  if( in==0 ) return 0;
  fseek(in, 0, SEEK_END);
  nIn = ftell(in);
  rewind(in);
  pBuf = sqlite3_malloc64( nIn+1 );
  if( pBuf==0 ){ fclose(in); return 0; }
  nRead = fread(pBuf, nIn, 1, in);
  fclose(in);
  if( nRead!=1 ){
    sqlite3_free(pBuf);
    return 0;
  }
  pBuf[nIn] = 0;
  if( pnByte ) *pnByte = nIn;
  return pBuf;
}

#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_SESSION)
/*
** Close a single OpenSession object and release all of its associated
** resources.
*/
static void session_close(OpenSession *pSession){
  int i;
  sqlite3session_delete(pSession->p);
  sqlite3_free(pSession->zName);
  for(i=0; i<pSession->nFilter; i++){
    sqlite3_free(pSession->azFilter[i]);
  }
  sqlite3_free(pSession->azFilter);
  memset(pSession, 0, sizeof(OpenSession));
}
#endif

/*
** Close all OpenSession objects and release all associated resources.
*/
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_SESSION)
static void session_close_all(ShellState *p, int i){
  int j;
  struct AuxDb *pAuxDb = i<0 ? p->pAuxDb : &p->aAuxDb[i];
  for(j=0; j<pAuxDb->nSession; j++){
    session_close(&pAuxDb->aSession[j]);
  }
  pAuxDb->nSession = 0;
}
#else
# define session_close_all(X,Y)
#endif

/*
** Implementation of the xFilter function for an open session.  Omit
** any tables named by ".session filter" but let all other table through.
*/
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_SESSION)
static int session_filter(void *pCtx, const char *zTab){
  OpenSession *pSession = (OpenSession*)pCtx;
  int i;
  for(i=0; i<pSession->nFilter; i++){
    if( sqlite3_strglob(pSession->azFilter[i], zTab)==0 ) return 0;
  }
  return 1;
}
#endif

/*
** Try to deduce the type of file for zName based on its content.  Return
** one of the SHELL_OPEN_* constants.
**
** If the file does not exist or is empty but its name looks like a ZIP
** archive and the dfltZip flag is true, then assume it is a ZIP archive.
** Otherwise, assume an ordinary database regardless of the filename if
** the type cannot be determined from content.
*/
int deduceDatabaseType(const char *zName, int dfltZip){
  FILE *f = fopen(zName, "rb");
  size_t n;
  int rc = SHELL_OPEN_UNSPEC;
  char zBuf[100];
  if( f==0 ){
    if( dfltZip && sqlite3_strlike("%.zip",zName,0)==0 ){
       return SHELL_OPEN_ZIPFILE;
    }else{
       return SHELL_OPEN_NORMAL;
    }
  }
  n = fread(zBuf, 16, 1, f);
  if( n==1 && memcmp(zBuf, "SQLite format 3", 16)==0 ){
    fclose(f);
    return SHELL_OPEN_NORMAL;
  }
  fseek(f, -25, SEEK_END);
  n = fread(zBuf, 25, 1, f);
  if( n==1 && memcmp(zBuf, "Start-Of-SQLite3-", 17)==0 ){
    rc = SHELL_OPEN_APPENDVFS;
  }else{
    fseek(f, -22, SEEK_END);
    n = fread(zBuf, 22, 1, f);
    if( n==1 && zBuf[0]==0x50 && zBuf[1]==0x4b && zBuf[2]==0x05
       && zBuf[3]==0x06 ){
      rc = SHELL_OPEN_ZIPFILE;
    }else if( n==0 && dfltZip && sqlite3_strlike("%.zip",zName,0)==0 ){
      rc = SHELL_OPEN_ZIPFILE;
    }
  }
  fclose(f);
  return rc;  
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DESERIALIZE
/*
** Reconstruct an in-memory database using the output from the "dbtotxt"
** program.  Read content from the file in p->aAuxDb[].zDbFilename.
** If p->aAuxDb[].zDbFilename is 0, then read from standard input.
*/
static unsigned char *readHexDb(ShellState *p, int *pnData){
  unsigned char *a = 0;
  int nLine;
  int n = 0;
  int pgsz = 0;
  int iOffset = 0;
  int j, k;
  int rc;
  FILE *in;
  const char *zDbFilename = p->pAuxDb->zDbFilename;
  unsigned int x[16];
  char zLine[1000];
  if( zDbFilename ){
    in = fopen(zDbFilename, "r");
    if( in==0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "cannot open \"%s\" for reading\n", zDbFilename);
      return 0;
    }
    nLine = 0;
  }else{
    in = p->in;
    nLine = p->lineno;
    if( in==0 ) in = stdin;
  }
  *pnData = 0;
  nLine++;
  if( fgets(zLine, sizeof(zLine), in)==0 ) goto readHexDb_error;
  rc = sscanf(zLine, "| size %d pagesize %d", &n, &pgsz);
  if( rc!=2 ) goto readHexDb_error;
  if( n<0 ) goto readHexDb_error;
  if( pgsz<512 || pgsz>65536 || (pgsz&(pgsz-1))!=0 ) goto readHexDb_error;
  n = (n+pgsz-1)&~(pgsz-1);  /* Round n up to the next multiple of pgsz */
  a = sqlite3_malloc( n ? n : 1 );
  if( a==0 ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "Out of memory!\n");
    goto readHexDb_error;
  }
  memset(a, 0, n);
  if( pgsz<512 || pgsz>65536 || (pgsz & (pgsz-1))!=0 ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "invalid pagesize\n");
    goto readHexDb_error;
  }
  for(nLine++; fgets(zLine, sizeof(zLine), in)!=0; nLine++){
    rc = sscanf(zLine, "| page %d offset %d", &j, &k);
    if( rc==2 ){
      iOffset = k;
      continue;
    }
    if( strncmp(zLine, "| end ", 6)==0 ){
      break;
    }
    rc = sscanf(zLine,"| %d: %x %x %x %x %x %x %x %x %x %x %x %x %x %x %x %x",
                &j, &x[0], &x[1], &x[2], &x[3], &x[4], &x[5], &x[6], &x[7],
                &x[8], &x[9], &x[10], &x[11], &x[12], &x[13], &x[14], &x[15]);
    if( rc==17 ){
      k = iOffset+j;
      if( k+16<=n ){
        int ii;
        for(ii=0; ii<16; ii++) a[k+ii] = x[ii]&0xff;
      }
    }
  }
  *pnData = n;
  if( in!=p->in ){
    fclose(in);
  }else{
    p->lineno = nLine;
  }
  return a;

readHexDb_error:
  if( in!=p->in ){
    fclose(in);
  }else{
    while( fgets(zLine, sizeof(zLine), p->in)!=0 ){
      nLine++;
      if(strncmp(zLine, "| end ", 6)==0 ) break;
    }
    p->lineno = nLine;
  }
  sqlite3_free(a);
  utf8_printf(stderr,"Error on line %d of --hexdb input\n", nLine);
  return 0;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_DESERIALIZE */

/*
** Scalar function "shell_int32". The first argument to this function
** must be a blob. The second a non-negative integer. This function
** reads and returns a 32-bit big-endian integer from byte
** offset (4*<arg2>) of the blob.
*/
static void shellInt32(
  sqlite3_context *context, 
  int argc, 
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  const unsigned char *pBlob;
  int nBlob;
  int iInt;

  UNUSED_PARAMETER(argc);
  nBlob = sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[0]);
  pBlob = (const unsigned char*)sqlite3_value_blob(argv[0]);
  iInt = sqlite3_value_int(argv[1]);

  if( iInt>=0 && (iInt+1)*4<=nBlob ){
    const unsigned char *a = &pBlob[iInt*4];
    sqlite3_int64 iVal = ((sqlite3_int64)a[0]<<24)
                       + ((sqlite3_int64)a[1]<<16)
                       + ((sqlite3_int64)a[2]<< 8)
                       + ((sqlite3_int64)a[3]<< 0);
    sqlite3_result_int64(context, iVal);
  }
}

/*
** Scalar function "shell_idquote(X)" returns string X quoted as an identifier,
** using "..." with internal double-quote characters doubled.
*/
static void shellIdQuote(
  sqlite3_context *context, 
  int argc, 
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  const char *zName = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(argc);
  if( zName ){
    char *z = sqlite3_mprintf("\"%w\"", zName);
    sqlite3_result_text(context, z, -1, sqlite3_free);
  }
}

/*
** Scalar function "usleep(X)" invokes sqlite3_sleep(X) and returns X.
*/
static void shellUSleepFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context, 
  int argcUnused, 
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  int sleep = sqlite3_value_int(argv[0]);
  (void)argcUnused;
  sqlite3_sleep(sleep/1000);
  sqlite3_result_int(context, sleep);
}

/*
** Scalar function "shell_escape_crnl" used by the .recover command.
** The argument passed to this function is the output of built-in
** function quote(). If the first character of the input is "'", 
** indicating that the value passed to quote() was a text value,
** then this function searches the input for "\n" and "\r" characters
** and adds a wrapper similar to the following:
**
**   replace(replace(<input>, '\n', char(10), '\r', char(13));
**
** Or, if the first character of the input is not "'", then a copy
** of the input is returned.
*/
static void shellEscapeCrnl(
  sqlite3_context *context, 
  int argc, 
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  const char *zText = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
  UNUSED_PARAMETER(argc);
  if( zText[0]=='\'' ){
    int nText = sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[0]);
    int i;
    char zBuf1[20];
    char zBuf2[20];
    const char *zNL = 0;
    const char *zCR = 0;
    int nCR = 0;
    int nNL = 0;

    for(i=0; zText[i]; i++){
      if( zNL==0 && zText[i]=='\n' ){
        zNL = unused_string(zText, "\\n", "\\012", zBuf1);
        nNL = (int)strlen(zNL);
      }
      if( zCR==0 && zText[i]=='\r' ){
        zCR = unused_string(zText, "\\r", "\\015", zBuf2);
        nCR = (int)strlen(zCR);
      }
    }

    if( zNL || zCR ){
      int iOut = 0;
      i64 nMax = (nNL > nCR) ? nNL : nCR;
      i64 nAlloc = nMax * nText + (nMax+64)*2;
      char *zOut = (char*)sqlite3_malloc64(nAlloc);
      if( zOut==0 ){
        sqlite3_result_error_nomem(context);
        return;
      }

      if( zNL && zCR ){
        memcpy(&zOut[iOut], "replace(replace(", 16);
        iOut += 16;
      }else{
        memcpy(&zOut[iOut], "replace(", 8);
        iOut += 8;
      }
      for(i=0; zText[i]; i++){
        if( zText[i]=='\n' ){
          memcpy(&zOut[iOut], zNL, nNL);
          iOut += nNL;
        }else if( zText[i]=='\r' ){
          memcpy(&zOut[iOut], zCR, nCR);
          iOut += nCR;
        }else{
          zOut[iOut] = zText[i];
          iOut++;
        }
      }

      if( zNL ){
        memcpy(&zOut[iOut], ",'", 2); iOut += 2;
        memcpy(&zOut[iOut], zNL, nNL); iOut += nNL;
        memcpy(&zOut[iOut], "', char(10))", 12); iOut += 12;
      }
      if( zCR ){
        memcpy(&zOut[iOut], ",'", 2); iOut += 2;
        memcpy(&zOut[iOut], zCR, nCR); iOut += nCR;
        memcpy(&zOut[iOut], "', char(13))", 12); iOut += 12;
      }

      sqlite3_result_text(context, zOut, iOut, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
      sqlite3_free(zOut);
      return;
    }
  }

  sqlite3_result_value(context, argv[0]);
}

/* Flags for open_db().
**
** The default behavior of open_db() is to exit(1) if the database fails to
** open.  The OPEN_DB_KEEPALIVE flag changes that so that it prints an error
** but still returns without calling exit.
**
** The OPEN_DB_ZIPFILE flag causes open_db() to prefer to open files as a
** ZIP archive if the file does not exist or is empty and its name matches
** the *.zip pattern.
*/
#define OPEN_DB_KEEPALIVE   0x001   /* Return after error if true */
#define OPEN_DB_ZIPFILE     0x002   /* Open as ZIP if name matches *.zip */

/*
** Make sure the database is open.  If it is not, then open it.  If
** the database fails to open, print an error message and exit.
*/
static void open_db(ShellState *p, int openFlags){
  if( p->db==0 ){
    const char *zDbFilename = p->pAuxDb->zDbFilename;
    if( p->openMode==SHELL_OPEN_UNSPEC ){
      if( zDbFilename==0 || zDbFilename[0]==0 ){
        p->openMode = SHELL_OPEN_NORMAL;
      }else{
        p->openMode = (u8)deduceDatabaseType(zDbFilename, 
                             (openFlags & OPEN_DB_ZIPFILE)!=0);
      }
    }
    switch( p->openMode ){
      case SHELL_OPEN_APPENDVFS: {
        sqlite3_open_v2(zDbFilename, &p->db, 
           SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE|SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE|p->openFlags, "apndvfs");
        break;
      }
      case SHELL_OPEN_HEXDB:
      case SHELL_OPEN_DESERIALIZE: {
        sqlite3_open(0, &p->db);
        break;
      }
      case SHELL_OPEN_ZIPFILE: {
        sqlite3_open(":memory:", &p->db);
        break;
      }
      case SHELL_OPEN_READONLY: {
        sqlite3_open_v2(zDbFilename, &p->db,
            SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY|p->openFlags, 0);
        break;
      }
      case SHELL_OPEN_UNSPEC:
      case SHELL_OPEN_NORMAL: {
        sqlite3_open_v2(zDbFilename, &p->db,
           SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE|SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE|p->openFlags, 0);
        break;
      }
    }
    globalDb = p->db;
    if( p->db==0 || SQLITE_OK!=sqlite3_errcode(p->db) ){
      utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: unable to open database \"%s\": %s\n",
          zDbFilename, sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
      if( openFlags & OPEN_DB_KEEPALIVE ){
        sqlite3_open(":memory:", &p->db);
        return;
      }
      exit(1);
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION
    sqlite3_enable_load_extension(p->db, 1);
#endif
    sqlite3_fileio_init(p->db, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_shathree_init(p->db, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_completion_init(p->db, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_uint_init(p->db, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_decimal_init(p->db, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_regexp_init(p->db, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_ieee_init(p->db, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_series_init(p->db, 0, 0);
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_DBPAGE_VTAB)
    sqlite3_dbdata_init(p->db, 0, 0);
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB
    sqlite3_zipfile_init(p->db, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_sqlar_init(p->db, 0, 0);
#endif
    sqlite3_create_function(p->db, "shell_add_schema", 3, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                            shellAddSchemaName, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_create_function(p->db, "shell_module_schema", 1, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                            shellModuleSchema, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_create_function(p->db, "shell_putsnl", 1, SQLITE_UTF8, p,
                            shellPutsFunc, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_create_function(p->db, "shell_escape_crnl", 1, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                            shellEscapeCrnl, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_create_function(p->db, "shell_int32", 2, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                            shellInt32, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_create_function(p->db, "shell_idquote", 1, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                            shellIdQuote, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_create_function(p->db, "usleep",1,SQLITE_UTF8,0,
                            shellUSleepFunc, 0, 0);
#ifndef SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM
    sqlite3_create_function(p->db, "edit", 1, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                            editFunc, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_create_function(p->db, "edit", 2, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                            editFunc, 0, 0);
#endif
    if( p->openMode==SHELL_OPEN_ZIPFILE ){
      char *zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
         "CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE zip USING zipfile(%Q);", zDbFilename);
      sqlite3_exec(p->db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
      sqlite3_free(zSql);
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DESERIALIZE
    else
    if( p->openMode==SHELL_OPEN_DESERIALIZE || p->openMode==SHELL_OPEN_HEXDB ){
      int rc;
      int nData = 0;
      unsigned char *aData;
      if( p->openMode==SHELL_OPEN_DESERIALIZE ){
        aData = (unsigned char*)readFile(zDbFilename, &nData);
      }else{
        aData = readHexDb(p, &nData);
        if( aData==0 ){
          return;
        }
      }
      rc = sqlite3_deserialize(p->db, "main", aData, nData, nData,
                   SQLITE_DESERIALIZE_RESIZEABLE |
                   SQLITE_DESERIALIZE_FREEONCLOSE);
      if( rc ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: sqlite3_deserialize() returns %d\n", rc);
      }
      if( p->szMax>0 ){
        sqlite3_file_control(p->db, "main", SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_LIMIT, &p->szMax);
      }
    }
#endif
  }
}

/*
** Attempt to close the databaes connection.  Report errors.
*/
void close_db(sqlite3 *db){
  int rc = sqlite3_close(db);
  if( rc ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: sqlite3_close() returns %d: %s\n",
        rc, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  } 
}

#if HAVE_READLINE || HAVE_EDITLINE
/*
** Readline completion callbacks
*/
static char *readline_completion_generator(const char *text, int state){
  static sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
  char *zRet;
  if( state==0 ){
    char *zSql;
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("SELECT DISTINCT candidate COLLATE nocase"
                           "  FROM completion(%Q) ORDER BY 1", text);
    sqlite3_prepare_v2(globalDb, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
  }
  if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    zRet = strdup((const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0));
  }else{
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    pStmt = 0;
    zRet = 0;
  }
  return zRet;
}
static char **readline_completion(const char *zText, int iStart, int iEnd){
  rl_attempted_completion_over = 1;
  return rl_completion_matches(zText, readline_completion_generator);
}

#elif HAVE_LINENOISE
/*
** Linenoise completion callback
*/
static void linenoise_completion(const char *zLine, linenoiseCompletions *lc){
  int nLine = strlen30(zLine);
  int i, iStart;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
  char *zSql;
  char zBuf[1000];

  if( nLine>sizeof(zBuf)-30 ) return;
  if( zLine[0]=='.' || zLine[0]=='#') return;
  for(i=nLine-1; i>=0 && (isalnum(zLine[i]) || zLine[i]=='_'); i--){}
  if( i==nLine-1 ) return;
  iStart = i+1;
  memcpy(zBuf, zLine, iStart);
  zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("SELECT DISTINCT candidate COLLATE nocase"
                         "  FROM completion(%Q,%Q) ORDER BY 1",
                         &zLine[iStart], zLine);
  sqlite3_prepare_v2(globalDb, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  sqlite3_exec(globalDb, "PRAGMA page_count", 0, 0, 0); /* Load the schema */
  while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    const char *zCompletion = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0);
    int nCompletion = sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, 0);
    if( iStart+nCompletion < sizeof(zBuf)-1 ){
      memcpy(zBuf+iStart, zCompletion, nCompletion+1);
      linenoiseAddCompletion(lc, zBuf);
    }
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
}
#endif

/*
** Do C-language style dequoting.
**
**    \a    -> alarm
**    \b    -> backspace
**    \t    -> tab
**    \n    -> newline
**    \v    -> vertical tab
**    \f    -> form feed
**    \r    -> carriage return
**    \s    -> space
**    \"    -> "
**    \'    -> '
**    \\    -> backslash
**    \NNN  -> ascii character NNN in octal
*/
static void resolve_backslashes(char *z){
  int i, j;
  char c;
  while( *z && *z!='\\' ) z++;
  for(i=j=0; (c = z[i])!=0; i++, j++){
    if( c=='\\' && z[i+1]!=0 ){
      c = z[++i];
      if( c=='a' ){
        c = '\a';
      }else if( c=='b' ){
        c = '\b';
      }else if( c=='t' ){
        c = '\t';
      }else if( c=='n' ){
        c = '\n';
      }else if( c=='v' ){
        c = '\v';
      }else if( c=='f' ){
        c = '\f';
      }else if( c=='r' ){
        c = '\r';
      }else if( c=='"' ){
        c = '"';
      }else if( c=='\'' ){
        c = '\'';
      }else if( c=='\\' ){
        c = '\\';
      }else if( c>='0' && c<='7' ){
        c -= '0';
        if( z[i+1]>='0' && z[i+1]<='7' ){
          i++;
          c = (c<<3) + z[i] - '0';
          if( z[i+1]>='0' && z[i+1]<='7' ){
            i++;
            c = (c<<3) + z[i] - '0';
          }
        }
      }
    }
    z[j] = c;
  }
  if( j<i ) z[j] = 0;
}

/*
** Interpret zArg as either an integer or a boolean value.  Return 1 or 0
** for TRUE and FALSE.  Return the integer value if appropriate.
*/
static int booleanValue(const char *zArg){
  int i;
  if( zArg[0]=='0' && zArg[1]=='x' ){
    for(i=2; hexDigitValue(zArg[i])>=0; i++){}
  }else{
    for(i=0; zArg[i]>='0' && zArg[i]<='9'; i++){}
  }
  if( i>0 && zArg[i]==0 ) return (int)(integerValue(zArg) & 0xffffffff);
  if( sqlite3_stricmp(zArg, "on")==0 || sqlite3_stricmp(zArg,"yes")==0 ){
    return 1;
  }
  if( sqlite3_stricmp(zArg, "off")==0 || sqlite3_stricmp(zArg,"no")==0 ){
    return 0;
  }
  utf8_printf(stderr, "ERROR: Not a boolean value: \"%s\". Assuming \"no\".\n",
          zArg);
  return 0;
}

/*
** Set or clear a shell flag according to a boolean value.
*/
static void setOrClearFlag(ShellState *p, unsigned mFlag, const char *zArg){
  if( booleanValue(zArg) ){
    ShellSetFlag(p, mFlag);
  }else{
    ShellClearFlag(p, mFlag);
  }
}

/*
** Close an output file, assuming it is not stderr or stdout
*/
static void output_file_close(FILE *f){
  if( f && f!=stdout && f!=stderr ) fclose(f);
}

/*
** Try to open an output file.   The names "stdout" and "stderr" are
** recognized and do the right thing.  NULL is returned if the output
** filename is "off".
*/
static FILE *output_file_open(const char *zFile, int bTextMode){
  FILE *f;
  if( strcmp(zFile,"stdout")==0 ){
    f = stdout;
  }else if( strcmp(zFile, "stderr")==0 ){
    f = stderr;
  }else if( strcmp(zFile, "off")==0 ){
    f = 0;
  }else{
    f = fopen(zFile, bTextMode ? "w" : "wb");
    if( f==0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: cannot open \"%s\"\n", zFile);
    }
  }
  return f;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
/*
** A routine for handling output from sqlite3_trace().
*/
static int sql_trace_callback(
  unsigned mType,         /* The trace type */
  void *pArg,             /* The ShellState pointer */
  void *pP,               /* Usually a pointer to sqlite_stmt */
  void *pX                /* Auxiliary output */
){
  ShellState *p = (ShellState*)pArg;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
  const char *zSql;
  int nSql;
  if( p->traceOut==0 ) return 0;
  if( mType==SQLITE_TRACE_CLOSE ){
    utf8_printf(p->traceOut, "-- closing database connection\n");
    return 0;
  }
  if( mType!=SQLITE_TRACE_ROW && ((const char*)pX)[0]=='-' ){
    zSql = (const char*)pX;
  }else{
    pStmt = (sqlite3_stmt*)pP;
    switch( p->eTraceType ){
      case SHELL_TRACE_EXPANDED: {
        zSql = sqlite3_expanded_sql(pStmt);
        break;
      }
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_NORMALIZE
      case SHELL_TRACE_NORMALIZED: {
        zSql = sqlite3_normalized_sql(pStmt);
        break;
      }
#endif
      default: {
        zSql = sqlite3_sql(pStmt);
        break;
      }
    }
  }
  if( zSql==0 ) return 0;
  nSql = strlen30(zSql);
  while( nSql>0 && zSql[nSql-1]==';' ){ nSql--; }
  switch( mType ){
    case SQLITE_TRACE_ROW:
    case SQLITE_TRACE_STMT: {
      utf8_printf(p->traceOut, "%.*s;\n", nSql, zSql);
      break;
    }
    case SQLITE_TRACE_PROFILE: {
      sqlite3_int64 nNanosec = *(sqlite3_int64*)pX;
      utf8_printf(p->traceOut, "%.*s; -- %lld ns\n", nSql, zSql, nNanosec);
      break;
    }
  }
  return 0;
}
#endif

/*
** A no-op routine that runs with the ".breakpoint" doc-command.  This is
** a useful spot to set a debugger breakpoint.
*/
static void test_breakpoint(void){
  static int nCall = 0;
  nCall++;
}

/*
** An object used to read a CSV and other files for import.
*/
typedef struct ImportCtx ImportCtx;
struct ImportCtx {
  const char *zFile;  /* Name of the input file */
  FILE *in;           /* Read the CSV text from this input stream */
  int (SQLITE_CDECL *xCloser)(FILE*);      /* Func to close in */
  char *z;            /* Accumulated text for a field */
  int n;              /* Number of bytes in z */
  int nAlloc;         /* Space allocated for z[] */
  int nLine;          /* Current line number */
  int nRow;           /* Number of rows imported */
  int nErr;           /* Number of errors encountered */
  int bNotFirst;      /* True if one or more bytes already read */
  int cTerm;          /* Character that terminated the most recent field */
  int cColSep;        /* The column separator character.  (Usually ",") */
  int cRowSep;        /* The row separator character.  (Usually "\n") */
};

/* Clean up resourced used by an ImportCtx */
static void import_cleanup(ImportCtx *p){
  if( p->in!=0 && p->xCloser!=0 ){
    p->xCloser(p->in);
    p->in = 0;
  }
  sqlite3_free(p->z);
  p->z = 0;
}

/* Append a single byte to z[] */
static void import_append_char(ImportCtx *p, int c){
  if( p->n+1>=p->nAlloc ){
    p->nAlloc += p->nAlloc + 100;
    p->z = sqlite3_realloc64(p->z, p->nAlloc);
    if( p->z==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
  }
  p->z[p->n++] = (char)c;
}

/* Read a single field of CSV text.  Compatible with rfc4180 and extended
** with the option of having a separator other than ",".
**
**   +  Input comes from p->in.
**   +  Store results in p->z of length p->n.  Space to hold p->z comes
**      from sqlite3_malloc64().
**   +  Use p->cSep as the column separator.  The default is ",".
**   +  Use p->rSep as the row separator.  The default is "\n".
**   +  Keep track of the line number in p->nLine.
**   +  Store the character that terminates the field in p->cTerm.  Store
**      EOF on end-of-file.
**   +  Report syntax errors on stderr
*/
static char *SQLITE_CDECL csv_read_one_field(ImportCtx *p){
  int c;
  int cSep = p->cColSep;
  int rSep = p->cRowSep;
  p->n = 0;
  c = fgetc(p->in);
  if( c==EOF || seenInterrupt ){
    p->cTerm = EOF;
    return 0;
  }
  if( c=='"' ){
    int pc, ppc;
    int startLine = p->nLine;
    int cQuote = c;
    pc = ppc = 0;
    while( 1 ){
      c = fgetc(p->in);
      if( c==rSep ) p->nLine++;
      if( c==cQuote ){
        if( pc==cQuote ){
          pc = 0;
          continue;
        }
      }
      if( (c==cSep && pc==cQuote)
       || (c==rSep && pc==cQuote)
       || (c==rSep && pc=='\r' && ppc==cQuote)
       || (c==EOF && pc==cQuote)
      ){
        do{ p->n--; }while( p->z[p->n]!=cQuote );
        p->cTerm = c;
        break;
      }
      if( pc==cQuote && c!='\r' ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "%s:%d: unescaped %c character\n",
                p->zFile, p->nLine, cQuote);
      }
      if( c==EOF ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "%s:%d: unterminated %c-quoted field\n",
                p->zFile, startLine, cQuote);
        p->cTerm = c;
        break;
      }
      import_append_char(p, c);
      ppc = pc;
      pc = c;
    }
  }else{
    /* If this is the first field being parsed and it begins with the
    ** UTF-8 BOM  (0xEF BB BF) then skip the BOM */
    if( (c&0xff)==0xef && p->bNotFirst==0 ){
      import_append_char(p, c);
      c = fgetc(p->in);
      if( (c&0xff)==0xbb ){
        import_append_char(p, c);
        c = fgetc(p->in);
        if( (c&0xff)==0xbf ){
          p->bNotFirst = 1;
          p->n = 0;
          return csv_read_one_field(p);
        }
      }
    }
    while( c!=EOF && c!=cSep && c!=rSep ){
      import_append_char(p, c);
      c = fgetc(p->in);
    }
    if( c==rSep ){
      p->nLine++;
      if( p->n>0 && p->z[p->n-1]=='\r' ) p->n--;
    }
    p->cTerm = c;
  }
  if( p->z ) p->z[p->n] = 0;
  p->bNotFirst = 1;
  return p->z;
}

/* Read a single field of ASCII delimited text.
**
**   +  Input comes from p->in.
**   +  Store results in p->z of length p->n.  Space to hold p->z comes
**      from sqlite3_malloc64().
**   +  Use p->cSep as the column separator.  The default is "\x1F".
**   +  Use p->rSep as the row separator.  The default is "\x1E".
**   +  Keep track of the row number in p->nLine.
**   +  Store the character that terminates the field in p->cTerm.  Store
**      EOF on end-of-file.
**   +  Report syntax errors on stderr
*/
static char *SQLITE_CDECL ascii_read_one_field(ImportCtx *p){
  int c;
  int cSep = p->cColSep;
  int rSep = p->cRowSep;
  p->n = 0;
  c = fgetc(p->in);
  if( c==EOF || seenInterrupt ){
    p->cTerm = EOF;
    return 0;
  }
  while( c!=EOF && c!=cSep && c!=rSep ){
    import_append_char(p, c);
    c = fgetc(p->in);
  }
  if( c==rSep ){
    p->nLine++;
  }
  p->cTerm = c;
  if( p->z ) p->z[p->n] = 0;
  return p->z;
}

/*
** Try to transfer data for table zTable.  If an error is seen while
** moving forward, try to go backwards.  The backwards movement won't
** work for WITHOUT ROWID tables.
*/
static void tryToCloneData(
  ShellState *p,
  sqlite3 *newDb,
  const char *zTable
){
  sqlite3_stmt *pQuery = 0;
  sqlite3_stmt *pInsert = 0;
  char *zQuery = 0;
  char *zInsert = 0;
  int rc;
  int i, j, n;
  int nTable = strlen30(zTable);
  int k = 0;
  int cnt = 0;
  const int spinRate = 10000;

  zQuery = sqlite3_mprintf("SELECT * FROM \"%w\"", zTable);
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zQuery, -1, &pQuery, 0);
  if( rc ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "Error %d: %s on [%s]\n",
            sqlite3_extended_errcode(p->db), sqlite3_errmsg(p->db),
            zQuery);
    goto end_data_xfer;
  }
  n = sqlite3_column_count(pQuery);
  zInsert = sqlite3_malloc64(200 + nTable + n*3);
  if( zInsert==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
  sqlite3_snprintf(200+nTable,zInsert,
                   "INSERT OR IGNORE INTO \"%s\" VALUES(?", zTable);
  i = strlen30(zInsert);
  for(j=1; j<n; j++){
    memcpy(zInsert+i, ",?", 2);
    i += 2;
  }
  memcpy(zInsert+i, ");", 3);
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(newDb, zInsert, -1, &pInsert, 0);
  if( rc ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "Error %d: %s on [%s]\n",
            sqlite3_extended_errcode(newDb), sqlite3_errmsg(newDb),
            zQuery);
    goto end_data_xfer;
  }
  for(k=0; k<2; k++){
    while( (rc = sqlite3_step(pQuery))==SQLITE_ROW ){
      for(i=0; i<n; i++){
        switch( sqlite3_column_type(pQuery, i) ){
          case SQLITE_NULL: {
            sqlite3_bind_null(pInsert, i+1);
            break;
          }
          case SQLITE_INTEGER: {
            sqlite3_bind_int64(pInsert, i+1, sqlite3_column_int64(pQuery,i));
            break;
          }
          case SQLITE_FLOAT: {
            sqlite3_bind_double(pInsert, i+1, sqlite3_column_double(pQuery,i));
            break;
          }
          case SQLITE_TEXT: {
            sqlite3_bind_text(pInsert, i+1,
                             (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pQuery,i),
                             -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
            break;
          }
          case SQLITE_BLOB: {
            sqlite3_bind_blob(pInsert, i+1, sqlite3_column_blob(pQuery,i),
                                            sqlite3_column_bytes(pQuery,i),
                                            SQLITE_STATIC);
            break;
          }
        }
      } /* End for */
      rc = sqlite3_step(pInsert);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK && rc!=SQLITE_ROW && rc!=SQLITE_DONE ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Error %d: %s\n", sqlite3_extended_errcode(newDb),
                        sqlite3_errmsg(newDb));
      }
      sqlite3_reset(pInsert);
      cnt++;
      if( (cnt%spinRate)==0 ){
        printf("%c\b", "|/-\\"[(cnt/spinRate)%4]);
        fflush(stdout);
      }
    } /* End while */
    if( rc==SQLITE_DONE ) break;
    sqlite3_finalize(pQuery);
    sqlite3_free(zQuery);
    zQuery = sqlite3_mprintf("SELECT * FROM \"%w\" ORDER BY rowid DESC;",
                             zTable);
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zQuery, -1, &pQuery, 0);
    if( rc ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Warning: cannot step \"%s\" backwards", zTable);
      break;
    }
  } /* End for(k=0...) */

end_data_xfer:
  sqlite3_finalize(pQuery);
  sqlite3_finalize(pInsert);
  sqlite3_free(zQuery);
  sqlite3_free(zInsert);
}


/*
** Try to transfer all rows of the schema that match zWhere.  For
** each row, invoke xForEach() on the object defined by that row.
** If an error is encountered while moving forward through the
** sqlite_schema table, try again moving backwards.
*/
static void tryToCloneSchema(
  ShellState *p,
  sqlite3 *newDb,
  const char *zWhere,
  void (*xForEach)(ShellState*,sqlite3*,const char*)
){
  sqlite3_stmt *pQuery = 0;
  char *zQuery = 0;
  int rc;
  const unsigned char *zName;
  const unsigned char *zSql;
  char *zErrMsg = 0;

  zQuery = sqlite3_mprintf("SELECT name, sql FROM sqlite_schema"
                           " WHERE %s", zWhere);
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zQuery, -1, &pQuery, 0);
  if( rc ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: (%d) %s on [%s]\n",
                    sqlite3_extended_errcode(p->db), sqlite3_errmsg(p->db),
                    zQuery);
    goto end_schema_xfer;
  }
  while( (rc = sqlite3_step(pQuery))==SQLITE_ROW ){
    zName = sqlite3_column_text(pQuery, 0);
    zSql = sqlite3_column_text(pQuery, 1);
    printf("%s... ", zName); fflush(stdout);
    sqlite3_exec(newDb, (const char*)zSql, 0, 0, &zErrMsg);
    if( zErrMsg ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\nSQL: [%s]\n", zErrMsg, zSql);
      sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
      zErrMsg = 0;
    }
    if( xForEach ){
      xForEach(p, newDb, (const char*)zName);
    }
    printf("done\n");
  }
  if( rc!=SQLITE_DONE ){
    sqlite3_finalize(pQuery);
    sqlite3_free(zQuery);
    zQuery = sqlite3_mprintf("SELECT name, sql FROM sqlite_schema"
                             " WHERE %s ORDER BY rowid DESC", zWhere);
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zQuery, -1, &pQuery, 0);
    if( rc ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: (%d) %s on [%s]\n",
                      sqlite3_extended_errcode(p->db), sqlite3_errmsg(p->db),
                      zQuery);
      goto end_schema_xfer;
    }
    while( (rc = sqlite3_step(pQuery))==SQLITE_ROW ){
      zName = sqlite3_column_text(pQuery, 0);
      zSql = sqlite3_column_text(pQuery, 1);
      printf("%s... ", zName); fflush(stdout);
      sqlite3_exec(newDb, (const char*)zSql, 0, 0, &zErrMsg);
      if( zErrMsg ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\nSQL: [%s]\n", zErrMsg, zSql);
        sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
        zErrMsg = 0;
      }
      if( xForEach ){
        xForEach(p, newDb, (const char*)zName);
      }
      printf("done\n");
    }
  }
end_schema_xfer:
  sqlite3_finalize(pQuery);
  sqlite3_free(zQuery);
}

/*
** Open a new database file named "zNewDb".  Try to recover as much information
** as possible out of the main database (which might be corrupt) and write it
** into zNewDb.
*/
static void tryToClone(ShellState *p, const char *zNewDb){
  int rc;
  sqlite3 *newDb = 0;
  if( access(zNewDb,0)==0 ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "File \"%s\" already exists.\n", zNewDb);
    return;
  }
  rc = sqlite3_open(zNewDb, &newDb);
  if( rc ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "Cannot create output database: %s\n",
            sqlite3_errmsg(newDb));
  }else{
    sqlite3_exec(p->db, "PRAGMA writable_schema=ON;", 0, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_exec(newDb, "BEGIN EXCLUSIVE;", 0, 0, 0);
    tryToCloneSchema(p, newDb, "type='table'", tryToCloneData);
    tryToCloneSchema(p, newDb, "type!='table'", 0);
    sqlite3_exec(newDb, "COMMIT;", 0, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_exec(p->db, "PRAGMA writable_schema=OFF;", 0, 0, 0);
  }
  close_db(newDb);
}

/*
** Change the output file back to stdout.
**
** If the p->doXdgOpen flag is set, that means the output was being
** redirected to a temporary file named by p->zTempFile.  In that case,
** launch start/open/xdg-open on that temporary file.
*/
static void output_reset(ShellState *p){
  if( p->outfile[0]=='|' ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_POPEN
    pclose(p->out);
#endif
  }else{
    output_file_close(p->out);
#ifndef SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM
    if( p->doXdgOpen ){
      const char *zXdgOpenCmd =
#if defined(_WIN32)
      "start";
#elif defined(__APPLE__)
      "open";
#else
      "xdg-open";
#endif
      char *zCmd;
      zCmd = sqlite3_mprintf("%s %s", zXdgOpenCmd, p->zTempFile);
      if( system(zCmd) ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Failed: [%s]\n", zCmd);
      }else{
        /* Give the start/open/xdg-open command some time to get
        ** going before we continue, and potential delete the
        ** p->zTempFile data file out from under it */
        sqlite3_sleep(2000);
      }
      sqlite3_free(zCmd);
      outputModePop(p);
      p->doXdgOpen = 0;
    }
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM) */
  }
  p->outfile[0] = 0;
  p->out = stdout;
}

/*
** Run an SQL command and return the single integer result.
*/
static int db_int(ShellState *p, const char *zSql){
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
  int res = 0;
  sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( pStmt && sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
    res = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,0);
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  return res;
}

/*
** Convert a 2-byte or 4-byte big-endian integer into a native integer
*/
static unsigned int get2byteInt(unsigned char *a){
  return (a[0]<<8) + a[1];
}
static unsigned int get4byteInt(unsigned char *a){
  return (a[0]<<24) + (a[1]<<16) + (a[2]<<8) + a[3];
}

/*
** Implementation of the ".dbinfo" command.
**
** Return 1 on error, 2 to exit, and 0 otherwise.
*/
static int shell_dbinfo_command(ShellState *p, int nArg, char **azArg){
  static const struct { const char *zName; int ofst; } aField[] = {
     { "file change counter:",  24  },
     { "database page count:",  28  },
     { "freelist page count:",  36  },
     { "schema cookie:",        40  },
     { "schema format:",        44  },
     { "default cache size:",   48  },
     { "autovacuum top root:",  52  },
     { "incremental vacuum:",   64  },
     { "text encoding:",        56  },
     { "user version:",         60  },
     { "application id:",       68  },
     { "software version:",     96  },
  };
  static const struct { const char *zName; const char *zSql; } aQuery[] = {
     { "number of tables:",
       "SELECT count(*) FROM %s WHERE type='table'" },
     { "number of indexes:",
       "SELECT count(*) FROM %s WHERE type='index'" },
     { "number of triggers:",
       "SELECT count(*) FROM %s WHERE type='trigger'" },
     { "number of views:",
       "SELECT count(*) FROM %s WHERE type='view'" },
     { "schema size:",
       "SELECT total(length(sql)) FROM %s" },
  };
  int i, rc;
  unsigned iDataVersion;
  char *zSchemaTab;
  char *zDb = nArg>=2 ? azArg[1] : "main";
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
  unsigned char aHdr[100];
  open_db(p, 0);
  if( p->db==0 ) return 1;
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db,
             "SELECT data FROM sqlite_dbpage(?1) WHERE pgno=1",
             -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( rc ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    return 1;
  }
  sqlite3_bind_text(pStmt, 1, zDb, -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
  if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW
   && sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt,0)>100
  ){
    memcpy(aHdr, sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt,0), 100);
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  }else{
    raw_printf(stderr, "unable to read database header\n");
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    return 1;
  }
  i = get2byteInt(aHdr+16);
  if( i==1 ) i = 65536;
  utf8_printf(p->out, "%-20s %d\n", "database page size:", i);
  utf8_printf(p->out, "%-20s %d\n", "write format:", aHdr[18]);
  utf8_printf(p->out, "%-20s %d\n", "read format:", aHdr[19]);
  utf8_printf(p->out, "%-20s %d\n", "reserved bytes:", aHdr[20]);
  for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aField); i++){
    int ofst = aField[i].ofst;
    unsigned int val = get4byteInt(aHdr + ofst);
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%-20s %u", aField[i].zName, val);
    switch( ofst ){
      case 56: {
        if( val==1 ) raw_printf(p->out, " (utf8)");
        if( val==2 ) raw_printf(p->out, " (utf16le)");
        if( val==3 ) raw_printf(p->out, " (utf16be)");
      }
    }
    raw_printf(p->out, "\n");
  }
  if( zDb==0 ){
    zSchemaTab = sqlite3_mprintf("main.sqlite_schema");
  }else if( strcmp(zDb,"temp")==0 ){
    zSchemaTab = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", "sqlite_temp_schema");
  }else{
    zSchemaTab = sqlite3_mprintf("\"%w\".sqlite_schema", zDb);
  }
  for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aQuery); i++){
    char *zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(aQuery[i].zSql, zSchemaTab);
    int val = db_int(p, zSql);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%-20s %d\n", aQuery[i].zName, val);
  }
  sqlite3_free(zSchemaTab);
  sqlite3_file_control(p->db, zDb, SQLITE_FCNTL_DATA_VERSION, &iDataVersion);
  utf8_printf(p->out, "%-20s %u\n", "data version", iDataVersion);
  return 0;
}

/*
** Print the current sqlite3_errmsg() value to stderr and return 1.
*/
static int shellDatabaseError(sqlite3 *db){
  const char *zErr = sqlite3_errmsg(db);
  utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", zErr);
  return 1;
}

/*
** Compare the pattern in zGlob[] against the text in z[].  Return TRUE
** if they match and FALSE (0) if they do not match.
**
** Globbing rules:
**
**      '*'       Matches any sequence of zero or more characters.
**
**      '?'       Matches exactly one character.
**
**     [...]      Matches one character from the enclosed list of
**                characters.
**
**     [^...]     Matches one character not in the enclosed list.
**
**      '#'       Matches any sequence of one or more digits with an
**                optional + or - sign in front
**
**      ' '       Any span of whitespace matches any other span of
**                whitespace.
**
** Extra whitespace at the end of z[] is ignored.
*/
static int testcase_glob(const char *zGlob, const char *z){
  int c, c2;
  int invert;
  int seen;

  while( (c = (*(zGlob++)))!=0 ){
    if( IsSpace(c) ){
      if( !IsSpace(*z) ) return 0;
      while( IsSpace(*zGlob) ) zGlob++;
      while( IsSpace(*z) ) z++;
    }else if( c=='*' ){
      while( (c=(*(zGlob++))) == '*' || c=='?' ){
        if( c=='?' && (*(z++))==0 ) return 0;
      }
      if( c==0 ){
        return 1;
      }else if( c=='[' ){
        while( *z && testcase_glob(zGlob-1,z)==0 ){
          z++;
        }
        return (*z)!=0;
      }
      while( (c2 = (*(z++)))!=0 ){
        while( c2!=c ){
          c2 = *(z++);
          if( c2==0 ) return 0;
        }
        if( testcase_glob(zGlob,z) ) return 1;
      }
      return 0;
    }else if( c=='?' ){
      if( (*(z++))==0 ) return 0;
    }else if( c=='[' ){
      int prior_c = 0;
      seen = 0;
      invert = 0;
      c = *(z++);
      if( c==0 ) return 0;
      c2 = *(zGlob++);
      if( c2=='^' ){
        invert = 1;
        c2 = *(zGlob++);
      }
      if( c2==']' ){
        if( c==']' ) seen = 1;
        c2 = *(zGlob++);
      }
      while( c2 && c2!=']' ){
        if( c2=='-' && zGlob[0]!=']' && zGlob[0]!=0 && prior_c>0 ){
          c2 = *(zGlob++);
          if( c>=prior_c && c<=c2 ) seen = 1;
          prior_c = 0;
        }else{
          if( c==c2 ){
            seen = 1;
          }
          prior_c = c2;
        }
        c2 = *(zGlob++);
      }
      if( c2==0 || (seen ^ invert)==0 ) return 0;
    }else if( c=='#' ){
      if( (z[0]=='-' || z[0]=='+') && IsDigit(z[1]) ) z++;
      if( !IsDigit(z[0]) ) return 0;
      z++;
      while( IsDigit(z[0]) ){ z++; }
    }else{
      if( c!=(*(z++)) ) return 0;
    }
  }
  while( IsSpace(*z) ){ z++; }
  return *z==0;
}


/*
** Compare the string as a command-line option with either one or two
** initial "-" characters.
*/
static int optionMatch(const char *zStr, const char *zOpt){
  if( zStr[0]!='-' ) return 0;
  zStr++;
  if( zStr[0]=='-' ) zStr++;
  return strcmp(zStr, zOpt)==0;
}

/*
** Delete a file.
*/
int shellDeleteFile(const char *zFilename){
  int rc;
#ifdef _WIN32
  wchar_t *z = sqlite3_win32_utf8_to_unicode(zFilename);
  rc = _wunlink(z);
  sqlite3_free(z);
#else
  rc = unlink(zFilename);
#endif
  return rc;
}

/*
** Try to delete the temporary file (if there is one) and free the
** memory used to hold the name of the temp file.
*/
static void clearTempFile(ShellState *p){
  if( p->zTempFile==0 ) return;
  if( p->doXdgOpen ) return;
  if( shellDeleteFile(p->zTempFile) ) return;
  sqlite3_free(p->zTempFile);
  p->zTempFile = 0;
}

/*
** Create a new temp file name with the given suffix.
*/
static void newTempFile(ShellState *p, const char *zSuffix){
  clearTempFile(p);
  sqlite3_free(p->zTempFile);
  p->zTempFile = 0;
  if( p->db ){
    sqlite3_file_control(p->db, 0, SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME, &p->zTempFile);
  }
  if( p->zTempFile==0 ){
    /* If p->db is an in-memory database then the TEMPFILENAME file-control
    ** will not work and we will need to fallback to guessing */
    char *zTemp;
    sqlite3_uint64 r;
    sqlite3_randomness(sizeof(r), &r);
    zTemp = getenv("TEMP");
    if( zTemp==0 ) zTemp = getenv("TMP");
    if( zTemp==0 ){
#ifdef _WIN32
      zTemp = "\\tmp";
#else
      zTemp = "/tmp";
#endif
    }
    p->zTempFile = sqlite3_mprintf("%s/temp%llx.%s", zTemp, r, zSuffix);
  }else{
    p->zTempFile = sqlite3_mprintf("%z.%s", p->zTempFile, zSuffix);
  }
  if( p->zTempFile==0 ){
    raw_printf(stderr, "out of memory\n");
    exit(1);
  }
}


/*
** The implementation of SQL scalar function fkey_collate_clause(), used
** by the ".lint fkey-indexes" command. This scalar function is always
** called with four arguments - the parent table name, the parent column name,
** the child table name and the child column name.
**
**   fkey_collate_clause('parent-tab', 'parent-col', 'child-tab', 'child-col')
**
** If either of the named tables or columns do not exist, this function
** returns an empty string. An empty string is also returned if both tables
** and columns exist but have the same default collation sequence. Or,
** if both exist but the default collation sequences are different, this
** function returns the string " COLLATE <parent-collation>", where
** <parent-collation> is the default collation sequence of the parent column.
*/
static void shellFkeyCollateClause(
  sqlite3_context *pCtx,
  int nVal,
  sqlite3_value **apVal
){
  sqlite3 *db = sqlite3_context_db_handle(pCtx);
  const char *zParent;
  const char *zParentCol;
  const char *zParentSeq;
  const char *zChild;
  const char *zChildCol;
  const char *zChildSeq = 0;  /* Initialize to avoid false-positive warning */
  int rc;

  assert( nVal==4 );
  zParent = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[0]);
  zParentCol = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[1]);
  zChild = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[2]);
  zChildCol = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(apVal[3]);

  sqlite3_result_text(pCtx, "", -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
  rc = sqlite3_table_column_metadata(
      db, "main", zParent, zParentCol, 0, &zParentSeq, 0, 0, 0
  );
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = sqlite3_table_column_metadata(
        db, "main", zChild, zChildCol, 0, &zChildSeq, 0, 0, 0
    );
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && sqlite3_stricmp(zParentSeq, zChildSeq) ){
    char *z = sqlite3_mprintf(" COLLATE %s", zParentSeq);
    sqlite3_result_text(pCtx, z, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
    sqlite3_free(z);
  }
}


/*
** The implementation of dot-command ".lint fkey-indexes".
*/
static int lintFkeyIndexes(
  ShellState *pState,             /* Current shell tool state */
  char **azArg,                   /* Array of arguments passed to dot command */
  int nArg                        /* Number of entries in azArg[] */
){
  sqlite3 *db = pState->db;       /* Database handle to query "main" db of */
  FILE *out = pState->out;        /* Stream to write non-error output to */
  int bVerbose = 0;               /* If -verbose is present */
  int bGroupByParent = 0;         /* If -groupbyparent is present */
  int i;                          /* To iterate through azArg[] */
  const char *zIndent = "";       /* How much to indent CREATE INDEX by */
  int rc;                         /* Return code */
  sqlite3_stmt *pSql = 0;         /* Compiled version of SQL statement below */

  /*
  ** This SELECT statement returns one row for each foreign key constraint
  ** in the schema of the main database. The column values are:
  **
  ** 0. The text of an SQL statement similar to:
  **
  **      "EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT 1 FROM child_table WHERE child_key=?"
  **
  **    This SELECT is similar to the one that the foreign keys implementation
  **    needs to run internally on child tables. If there is an index that can
  **    be used to optimize this query, then it can also be used by the FK
  **    implementation to optimize DELETE or UPDATE statements on the parent
  **    table.
  **
  ** 1. A GLOB pattern suitable for sqlite3_strglob(). If the plan output by
  **    the EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN command matches this pattern, then the schema
  **    contains an index that can be used to optimize the query.
  **
  ** 2. Human readable text that describes the child table and columns. e.g.
  **
  **       "child_table(child_key1, child_key2)"
  **
  ** 3. Human readable text that describes the parent table and columns. e.g.
  **
  **       "parent_table(parent_key1, parent_key2)"
  **
  ** 4. A full CREATE INDEX statement for an index that could be used to
  **    optimize DELETE or UPDATE statements on the parent table. e.g.
  **
  **       "CREATE INDEX child_table_child_key ON child_table(child_key)"
  **
  ** 5. The name of the parent table.
  **
  ** These six values are used by the C logic below to generate the report.
  */
  const char *zSql =
  "SELECT "
    "     'EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT 1 FROM ' || quote(s.name) || ' WHERE '"
    "  || group_concat(quote(s.name) || '.' || quote(f.[from]) || '=?' "
    "  || fkey_collate_clause("
    "       f.[table], COALESCE(f.[to], p.[name]), s.name, f.[from]),' AND ')"
    ", "
    "     'SEARCH ' || s.name || ' USING COVERING INDEX*('"
    "  || group_concat('*=?', ' AND ') || ')'"
    ", "
    "     s.name  || '(' || group_concat(f.[from],  ', ') || ')'"
    ", "
    "     f.[table] || '(' || group_concat(COALESCE(f.[to], p.[name])) || ')'"
    ", "
    "     'CREATE INDEX ' || quote(s.name ||'_'|| group_concat(f.[from], '_'))"
    "  || ' ON ' || quote(s.name) || '('"
    "  || group_concat(quote(f.[from]) ||"
    "        fkey_collate_clause("
    "          f.[table], COALESCE(f.[to], p.[name]), s.name, f.[from]), ', ')"
    "  || ');'"
    ", "
    "     f.[table] "
    "FROM sqlite_schema AS s, pragma_foreign_key_list(s.name) AS f "
    "LEFT JOIN pragma_table_info AS p ON (pk-1=seq AND p.arg=f.[table]) "
    "GROUP BY s.name, f.id "
    "ORDER BY (CASE WHEN ? THEN f.[table] ELSE s.name END)"
  ;
  const char *zGlobIPK = "SEARCH * USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid=?)";

  for(i=2; i<nArg; i++){
    int n = strlen30(azArg[i]);
    if( n>1 && sqlite3_strnicmp("-verbose", azArg[i], n)==0 ){
      bVerbose = 1;
    }
    else if( n>1 && sqlite3_strnicmp("-groupbyparent", azArg[i], n)==0 ){
      bGroupByParent = 1;
      zIndent = "    ";
    }
    else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: %s %s ?-verbose? ?-groupbyparent?\n",
          azArg[0], azArg[1]
      );
      return SQLITE_ERROR;
    }
  }

  /* Register the fkey_collate_clause() SQL function */
  rc = sqlite3_create_function(db, "fkey_collate_clause", 4, SQLITE_UTF8,
      0, shellFkeyCollateClause, 0, 0
  );


  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pSql, 0);
  }
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    sqlite3_bind_int(pSql, 1, bGroupByParent);
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    int rc2;
    char *zPrev = 0;
    while( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pSql) ){
      int res = -1;
      sqlite3_stmt *pExplain = 0;
      const char *zEQP = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 0);
      const char *zGlob = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 1);
      const char *zFrom = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 2);
      const char *zTarget = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 3);
      const char *zCI = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 4);
      const char *zParent = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 5);

      rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zEQP, -1, &pExplain, 0);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;
      if( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pExplain) ){
        const char *zPlan = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pExplain, 3);
        res = (
              0==sqlite3_strglob(zGlob, zPlan)
           || 0==sqlite3_strglob(zGlobIPK, zPlan)
        );
      }
      rc = sqlite3_finalize(pExplain);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;

      if( res<0 ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Error: internal error");
        break;
      }else{
        if( bGroupByParent
        && (bVerbose || res==0)
        && (zPrev==0 || sqlite3_stricmp(zParent, zPrev))
        ){
          raw_printf(out, "-- Parent table %s\n", zParent);
          sqlite3_free(zPrev);
          zPrev = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", zParent);
        }

        if( res==0 ){
          raw_printf(out, "%s%s --> %s\n", zIndent, zCI, zTarget);
        }else if( bVerbose ){
          raw_printf(out, "%s/* no extra indexes required for %s -> %s */\n",
              zIndent, zFrom, zTarget
          );
        }
      }
    }
    sqlite3_free(zPrev);

    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "%s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
    }

    rc2 = sqlite3_finalize(pSql);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && rc2!=SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = rc2;
      raw_printf(stderr, "%s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
    }
  }else{
    raw_printf(stderr, "%s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  }

  return rc;
}

/*
** Implementation of ".lint" dot command.
*/
static int lintDotCommand(
  ShellState *pState,             /* Current shell tool state */
  char **azArg,                   /* Array of arguments passed to dot command */
  int nArg                        /* Number of entries in azArg[] */
){
  int n;
  n = (nArg>=2 ? strlen30(azArg[1]) : 0);
  if( n<1 || sqlite3_strnicmp(azArg[1], "fkey-indexes", n) ) goto usage;
  return lintFkeyIndexes(pState, azArg, nArg);

 usage:
  raw_printf(stderr, "Usage %s sub-command ?switches...?\n", azArg[0]);
  raw_printf(stderr, "Where sub-commands are:\n");
  raw_printf(stderr, "    fkey-indexes\n");
  return SQLITE_ERROR;
}

#if !defined SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
static void shellPrepare(
  sqlite3 *db, 
  int *pRc, 
  const char *zSql, 
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt
){
  *ppStmt = 0;
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    int rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, ppStmt, 0);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "sql error: %s (%d)\n", 
          sqlite3_errmsg(db), sqlite3_errcode(db)
      );
      *pRc = rc;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Create a prepared statement using printf-style arguments for the SQL.
**
** This routine is could be marked "static".  But it is not always used,
** depending on compile-time options.  By omitting the "static", we avoid
** nuisance compiler warnings about "defined but not used".
*/
void shellPreparePrintf(
  sqlite3 *db, 
  int *pRc, 
  sqlite3_stmt **ppStmt,
  const char *zFmt, 
  ...
){
  *ppStmt = 0;
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    va_list ap;
    char *z;
    va_start(ap, zFmt);
    z = sqlite3_vmprintf(zFmt, ap);
    va_end(ap);
    if( z==0 ){
      *pRc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }else{
      shellPrepare(db, pRc, z, ppStmt);
      sqlite3_free(z);
    }
  }
}

/* Finalize the prepared statement created using shellPreparePrintf().
**
** This routine is could be marked "static".  But it is not always used,
** depending on compile-time options.  By omitting the "static", we avoid
** nuisance compiler warnings about "defined but not used".
*/
void shellFinalize(
  int *pRc, 
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt
){
  if( pStmt ){
    sqlite3 *db = sqlite3_db_handle(pStmt);
    int rc = sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "SQL error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      }
      *pRc = rc;
    }
  }
}

/* Reset the prepared statement created using shellPreparePrintf().
**
** This routine is could be marked "static".  But it is not always used,
** depending on compile-time options.  By omitting the "static", we avoid
** nuisance compiler warnings about "defined but not used".
*/
void shellReset(
  int *pRc, 
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt
){
  int rc = sqlite3_reset(pStmt);
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      sqlite3 *db = sqlite3_db_handle(pStmt);
      raw_printf(stderr, "SQL error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
    }
    *pRc = rc;
  }
}
#endif /* !defined SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE */

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB)
/******************************************************************************
** The ".archive" or ".ar" command.
*/
/*
** Structure representing a single ".ar" command.
*/
typedef struct ArCommand ArCommand;
struct ArCommand {
  u8 eCmd;                        /* An AR_CMD_* value */
  u8 bVerbose;                    /* True if --verbose */
  u8 bZip;                        /* True if the archive is a ZIP */
  u8 bDryRun;                     /* True if --dry-run */
  u8 bAppend;                     /* True if --append */
  u8 fromCmdLine;                 /* Run from -A instead of .archive */
  int nArg;                       /* Number of command arguments */
  char *zSrcTable;                /* "sqlar", "zipfile($file)" or "zip" */
  const char *zFile;              /* --file argument, or NULL */
  const char *zDir;               /* --directory argument, or NULL */
  char **azArg;                   /* Array of command arguments */
  ShellState *p;                  /* Shell state */
  sqlite3 *db;                    /* Database containing the archive */
};

/*
** Print a usage message for the .ar command to stderr and return SQLITE_ERROR.
*/
static int arUsage(FILE *f){
  showHelp(f,"archive");
  return SQLITE_ERROR;
}

/*
** Print an error message for the .ar command to stderr and return 
** SQLITE_ERROR.
*/
static int arErrorMsg(ArCommand *pAr, const char *zFmt, ...){
  va_list ap;
  char *z;
  va_start(ap, zFmt);
  z = sqlite3_vmprintf(zFmt, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", z);
  if( pAr->fromCmdLine ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "Use \"-A\" for more help\n");
  }else{
    utf8_printf(stderr, "Use \".archive --help\" for more help\n");
  }
  sqlite3_free(z);
  return SQLITE_ERROR;
}

/*
** Values for ArCommand.eCmd.
*/
#define AR_CMD_CREATE       1
#define AR_CMD_UPDATE       2
#define AR_CMD_INSERT       3
#define AR_CMD_EXTRACT      4
#define AR_CMD_LIST         5
#define AR_CMD_HELP         6

/*
** Other (non-command) switches.
*/
#define AR_SWITCH_VERBOSE     7
#define AR_SWITCH_FILE        8
#define AR_SWITCH_DIRECTORY   9
#define AR_SWITCH_APPEND     10
#define AR_SWITCH_DRYRUN     11

static int arProcessSwitch(ArCommand *pAr, int eSwitch, const char *zArg){
  switch( eSwitch ){
    case AR_CMD_CREATE:
    case AR_CMD_EXTRACT:
    case AR_CMD_LIST:
    case AR_CMD_UPDATE:
    case AR_CMD_INSERT:
    case AR_CMD_HELP:
      if( pAr->eCmd ){
        return arErrorMsg(pAr, "multiple command options");
      }
      pAr->eCmd = eSwitch;
      break;

    case AR_SWITCH_DRYRUN:
      pAr->bDryRun = 1;
      break;
    case AR_SWITCH_VERBOSE:
      pAr->bVerbose = 1;
      break;
    case AR_SWITCH_APPEND:
      pAr->bAppend = 1;
      /* Fall thru into --file */
    case AR_SWITCH_FILE:
      pAr->zFile = zArg;
      break;
    case AR_SWITCH_DIRECTORY:
      pAr->zDir = zArg;
      break;
  }

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Parse the command line for an ".ar" command. The results are written into
** structure (*pAr). SQLITE_OK is returned if the command line is parsed
** successfully, otherwise an error message is written to stderr and 
** SQLITE_ERROR returned.
*/
static int arParseCommand(
  char **azArg,                   /* Array of arguments passed to dot command */
  int nArg,                       /* Number of entries in azArg[] */
  ArCommand *pAr                  /* Populate this object */
){
  struct ArSwitch {
    const char *zLong;
    char cShort;
    u8 eSwitch;
    u8 bArg;
  } aSwitch[] = {
    { "create",    'c', AR_CMD_CREATE,       0 },
    { "extract",   'x', AR_CMD_EXTRACT,      0 },
    { "insert",    'i', AR_CMD_INSERT,       0 },
    { "list",      't', AR_CMD_LIST,         0 },
    { "update",    'u', AR_CMD_UPDATE,       0 },
    { "help",      'h', AR_CMD_HELP,         0 },
    { "verbose",   'v', AR_SWITCH_VERBOSE,   0 },
    { "file",      'f', AR_SWITCH_FILE,      1 },
    { "append",    'a', AR_SWITCH_APPEND,    1 },
    { "directory", 'C', AR_SWITCH_DIRECTORY, 1 },
    { "dryrun",    'n', AR_SWITCH_DRYRUN,    0 },
  };
  int nSwitch = sizeof(aSwitch) / sizeof(struct ArSwitch);
  struct ArSwitch *pEnd = &aSwitch[nSwitch];

  if( nArg<=1 ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "Wrong number of arguments.  Usage:\n");
    return arUsage(stderr);
  }else{
    char *z = azArg[1];
    if( z[0]!='-' ){
      /* Traditional style [tar] invocation */
      int i;
      int iArg = 2;
      for(i=0; z[i]; i++){
        const char *zArg = 0;
        struct ArSwitch *pOpt;
        for(pOpt=&aSwitch[0]; pOpt<pEnd; pOpt++){
          if( z[i]==pOpt->cShort ) break;
        }
        if( pOpt==pEnd ){
          return arErrorMsg(pAr, "unrecognized option: %c", z[i]);
        }
        if( pOpt->bArg ){
          if( iArg>=nArg ){
            return arErrorMsg(pAr, "option requires an argument: %c",z[i]);
          }
          zArg = azArg[iArg++];
        }
        if( arProcessSwitch(pAr, pOpt->eSwitch, zArg) ) return SQLITE_ERROR;
      }
      pAr->nArg = nArg-iArg;
      if( pAr->nArg>0 ){
        pAr->azArg = &azArg[iArg];
      }
    }else{
      /* Non-traditional invocation */
      int iArg;
      for(iArg=1; iArg<nArg; iArg++){
        int n;
        z = azArg[iArg];
        if( z[0]!='-' ){
          /* All remaining command line words are command arguments. */
          pAr->azArg = &azArg[iArg];
          pAr->nArg = nArg-iArg;
          break;
        }
        n = strlen30(z);

        if( z[1]!='-' ){
          int i;
          /* One or more short options */
          for(i=1; i<n; i++){
            const char *zArg = 0;
            struct ArSwitch *pOpt;
            for(pOpt=&aSwitch[0]; pOpt<pEnd; pOpt++){
              if( z[i]==pOpt->cShort ) break;
            }
            if( pOpt==pEnd ){
              return arErrorMsg(pAr, "unrecognized option: %c", z[i]);
            }
            if( pOpt->bArg ){
              if( i<(n-1) ){
                zArg = &z[i+1];
                i = n;
              }else{
                if( iArg>=(nArg-1) ){
                  return arErrorMsg(pAr, "option requires an argument: %c",
                                    z[i]);
                }
                zArg = azArg[++iArg];
              }
            }
            if( arProcessSwitch(pAr, pOpt->eSwitch, zArg) ) return SQLITE_ERROR;
          }
        }else if( z[2]=='\0' ){
          /* A -- option, indicating that all remaining command line words
          ** are command arguments.  */
          pAr->azArg = &azArg[iArg+1];
          pAr->nArg = nArg-iArg-1;
          break;
        }else{
          /* A long option */
          const char *zArg = 0;             /* Argument for option, if any */
          struct ArSwitch *pMatch = 0;      /* Matching option */
          struct ArSwitch *pOpt;            /* Iterator */
          for(pOpt=&aSwitch[0]; pOpt<pEnd; pOpt++){
            const char *zLong = pOpt->zLong;
            if( (n-2)<=strlen30(zLong) && 0==memcmp(&z[2], zLong, n-2) ){
              if( pMatch ){
                return arErrorMsg(pAr, "ambiguous option: %s",z);
              }else{
                pMatch = pOpt;
              }
            }
          }

          if( pMatch==0 ){
            return arErrorMsg(pAr, "unrecognized option: %s", z);
          }
          if( pMatch->bArg ){
            if( iArg>=(nArg-1) ){
              return arErrorMsg(pAr, "option requires an argument: %s", z);
            }
            zArg = azArg[++iArg];
          }
          if( arProcessSwitch(pAr, pMatch->eSwitch, zArg) ) return SQLITE_ERROR;
        }
      }
    }
  }

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** This function assumes that all arguments within the ArCommand.azArg[]
** array refer to archive members, as for the --extract or --list commands. 
** It checks that each of them are present. If any specified file is not
** present in the archive, an error is printed to stderr and an error
** code returned. Otherwise, if all specified arguments are present in
** the archive, SQLITE_OK is returned.
**
** This function strips any trailing '/' characters from each argument.
** This is consistent with the way the [tar] command seems to work on
** Linux.
*/
static int arCheckEntries(ArCommand *pAr){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  if( pAr->nArg ){
    int i, j;
    sqlite3_stmt *pTest = 0;

    shellPreparePrintf(pAr->db, &rc, &pTest,
        "SELECT name FROM %s WHERE name=$name", 
        pAr->zSrcTable
    );
    j = sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(pTest, "$name");
    for(i=0; i<pAr->nArg && rc==SQLITE_OK; i++){
      char *z = pAr->azArg[i];
      int n = strlen30(z);
      int bOk = 0;
      while( n>0 && z[n-1]=='/' ) n--;
      z[n] = '\0';
      sqlite3_bind_text(pTest, j, z, -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
      if( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pTest) ){
        bOk = 1;
      }
      shellReset(&rc, pTest);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK && bOk==0 ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "not found in archive: %s\n", z);
        rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
      }
    }
    shellFinalize(&rc, pTest);
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Format a WHERE clause that can be used against the "sqlar" table to
** identify all archive members that match the command arguments held
** in (*pAr). Leave this WHERE clause in (*pzWhere) before returning.
** The caller is responsible for eventually calling sqlite3_free() on
** any non-NULL (*pzWhere) value.
*/
static void arWhereClause(
  int *pRc, 
  ArCommand *pAr, 
  char **pzWhere                  /* OUT: New WHERE clause */
){
  char *zWhere = 0;
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    if( pAr->nArg==0 ){
      zWhere = sqlite3_mprintf("1");
    }else{
      int i;
      const char *zSep = "";
      for(i=0; i<pAr->nArg; i++){
        const char *z = pAr->azArg[i];
        zWhere = sqlite3_mprintf(
          "%z%s name = '%q' OR substr(name,1,%d) = '%q/'", 
          zWhere, zSep, z, strlen30(z)+1, z
        );
        if( zWhere==0 ){
          *pRc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
          break;
        }
        zSep = " OR ";
      }
    }
  }
  *pzWhere = zWhere;
}

/*
** Implementation of .ar "lisT" command. 
*/
static int arListCommand(ArCommand *pAr){
  const char *zSql = "SELECT %s FROM %s WHERE %s"; 
  const char *azCols[] = {
    "name",
    "lsmode(mode), sz, datetime(mtime, 'unixepoch'), name"
  };

  char *zWhere = 0;
  sqlite3_stmt *pSql = 0;
  int rc;

  rc = arCheckEntries(pAr);
  arWhereClause(&rc, pAr, &zWhere);

  shellPreparePrintf(pAr->db, &rc, &pSql, zSql, azCols[pAr->bVerbose],
                     pAr->zSrcTable, zWhere);
  if( pAr->bDryRun ){
    utf8_printf(pAr->p->out, "%s\n", sqlite3_sql(pSql));
  }else{
    while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pSql) ){
      if( pAr->bVerbose ){
        utf8_printf(pAr->p->out, "%s % 10d  %s  %s\n",
            sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 0),
            sqlite3_column_int(pSql, 1), 
            sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 2),
            sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 3)
        );
      }else{
        utf8_printf(pAr->p->out, "%s\n", sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 0));
      }
    }
  }
  shellFinalize(&rc, pSql);
  sqlite3_free(zWhere);
  return rc;
}


/*
** Implementation of .ar "eXtract" command. 
*/
static int arExtractCommand(ArCommand *pAr){
  const char *zSql1 = 
    "SELECT "
    " ($dir || name),"
    " writefile(($dir || name), %s, mode, mtime) "
    "FROM %s WHERE (%s) AND (data IS NULL OR $dirOnly = 0)"
    " AND name NOT GLOB '*..[/\\]*'";

  const char *azExtraArg[] = { 
    "sqlar_uncompress(data, sz)",
    "data"
  };

  sqlite3_stmt *pSql = 0;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  char *zDir = 0;
  char *zWhere = 0;
  int i, j;

  /* If arguments are specified, check that they actually exist within
  ** the archive before proceeding. And formulate a WHERE clause to
  ** match them.  */
  rc = arCheckEntries(pAr);
  arWhereClause(&rc, pAr, &zWhere);

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    if( pAr->zDir ){
      zDir = sqlite3_mprintf("%s/", pAr->zDir);
    }else{
      zDir = sqlite3_mprintf("");
    }
    if( zDir==0 ) rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }

  shellPreparePrintf(pAr->db, &rc, &pSql, zSql1, 
      azExtraArg[pAr->bZip], pAr->zSrcTable, zWhere
  );

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    j = sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(pSql, "$dir");
    sqlite3_bind_text(pSql, j, zDir, -1, SQLITE_STATIC);

    /* Run the SELECT statement twice. The first time, writefile() is called
    ** for all archive members that should be extracted. The second time,
    ** only for the directories. This is because the timestamps for
    ** extracted directories must be reset after they are populated (as
    ** populating them changes the timestamp).  */
    for(i=0; i<2; i++){
      j = sqlite3_bind_parameter_index(pSql, "$dirOnly");
      sqlite3_bind_int(pSql, j, i);
      if( pAr->bDryRun ){
        utf8_printf(pAr->p->out, "%s\n", sqlite3_sql(pSql));
      }else{
        while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pSql) ){
          if( i==0 && pAr->bVerbose ){
            utf8_printf(pAr->p->out, "%s\n", sqlite3_column_text(pSql, 0));
          }
        }
      }
      shellReset(&rc, pSql);
    }
    shellFinalize(&rc, pSql);
  }

  sqlite3_free(zDir);
  sqlite3_free(zWhere);
  return rc;
}

/*
** Run the SQL statement in zSql.  Or if doing a --dryrun, merely print it out.
*/
static int arExecSql(ArCommand *pAr, const char *zSql){
  int rc;
  if( pAr->bDryRun ){
    utf8_printf(pAr->p->out, "%s\n", zSql);
    rc = SQLITE_OK;
  }else{
    char *zErr = 0;
    rc = sqlite3_exec(pAr->db, zSql, 0, 0, &zErr);
    if( zErr ){
      utf8_printf(stdout, "ERROR: %s\n", zErr);
      sqlite3_free(zErr);
    }
  }
  return rc;
}


/*
** Implementation of .ar "create", "insert", and "update" commands.
**
**     create    ->     Create a new SQL archive
**     insert    ->     Insert or reinsert all files listed
**     update    ->     Insert files that have changed or that were not
**                      previously in the archive
**
** Create the "sqlar" table in the database if it does not already exist.
** Then add each file in the azFile[] array to the archive. Directories
** are added recursively. If argument bVerbose is non-zero, a message is
** printed on stdout for each file archived.
**
** The create command is the same as update, except that it drops
** any existing "sqlar" table before beginning.  The "insert" command
** always overwrites every file named on the command-line, where as
** "update" only overwrites if the size or mtime or mode has changed.
*/
static int arCreateOrUpdateCommand(
  ArCommand *pAr,                 /* Command arguments and options */
  int bUpdate,                    /* true for a --create. */
  int bOnlyIfChanged              /* Only update if file has changed */
){
  const char *zCreate = 
      "CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS sqlar(\n"
      "  name TEXT PRIMARY KEY,  -- name of the file\n"
      "  mode INT,               -- access permissions\n"
      "  mtime INT,              -- last modification time\n"
      "  sz INT,                 -- original file size\n"
      "  data BLOB               -- compressed content\n"
      ")";
  const char *zDrop = "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS sqlar";
  const char *zInsertFmt[2] = {
     "REPLACE INTO %s(name,mode,mtime,sz,data)\n"
     "  SELECT\n"
     "    %s,\n"
     "    mode,\n"
     "    mtime,\n"
     "    CASE substr(lsmode(mode),1,1)\n"
     "      WHEN '-' THEN length(data)\n"
     "      WHEN 'd' THEN 0\n"
     "      ELSE -1 END,\n"
     "    sqlar_compress(data)\n"
     "  FROM fsdir(%Q,%Q) AS disk\n"
     "  WHERE lsmode(mode) NOT LIKE '?%%'%s;"
     ,
     "REPLACE INTO %s(name,mode,mtime,data)\n"
     "  SELECT\n"
     "    %s,\n"
     "    mode,\n"
     "    mtime,\n"
     "    data\n"
     "  FROM fsdir(%Q,%Q) AS disk\n"
     "  WHERE lsmode(mode) NOT LIKE '?%%'%s;"
  };
  int i;                          /* For iterating through azFile[] */
  int rc;                         /* Return code */
  const char *zTab = 0;           /* SQL table into which to insert */
  char *zSql;
  char zTemp[50];
  char *zExists = 0;

  arExecSql(pAr, "PRAGMA page_size=512");
  rc = arExecSql(pAr, "SAVEPOINT ar;");
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
  zTemp[0] = 0; 
  if( pAr->bZip ){
    /* Initialize the zipfile virtual table, if necessary */
    if( pAr->zFile ){
      sqlite3_uint64 r;
      sqlite3_randomness(sizeof(r),&r);
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zTemp),zTemp,"zip%016llx",r);
      zTab = zTemp;
      zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
         "CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE temp.%s USING zipfile(%Q)",
         zTab, pAr->zFile
      );
      rc = arExecSql(pAr, zSql);
      sqlite3_free(zSql);
    }else{
      zTab = "zip";
    }
  }else{
    /* Initialize the table for an SQLAR */
    zTab = "sqlar";
    if( bUpdate==0 ){
      rc = arExecSql(pAr, zDrop);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) goto end_ar_transaction;
    }
    rc = arExecSql(pAr, zCreate);
  }
  if( bOnlyIfChanged ){
    zExists = sqlite3_mprintf(
      " AND NOT EXISTS("
          "SELECT 1 FROM %s AS mem"
          " WHERE mem.name=disk.name"
          " AND mem.mtime=disk.mtime"
          " AND mem.mode=disk.mode)", zTab);
  }else{
    zExists = sqlite3_mprintf("");
  }
  if( zExists==0 ) rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  for(i=0; i<pAr->nArg && rc==SQLITE_OK; i++){
    char *zSql2 = sqlite3_mprintf(zInsertFmt[pAr->bZip], zTab,
        pAr->bVerbose ? "shell_putsnl(name)" : "name",
        pAr->azArg[i], pAr->zDir, zExists);
    rc = arExecSql(pAr, zSql2);
    sqlite3_free(zSql2);
  }
end_ar_transaction:
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    sqlite3_exec(pAr->db, "ROLLBACK TO ar; RELEASE ar;", 0, 0, 0);
  }else{
    rc = arExecSql(pAr, "RELEASE ar;");
    if( pAr->bZip && pAr->zFile ){
      zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("DROP TABLE %s", zTemp);
      arExecSql(pAr, zSql);
      sqlite3_free(zSql);
    }
  }
  sqlite3_free(zExists);
  return rc;
}

/*
** Implementation of ".ar" dot command.
*/
static int arDotCommand(
  ShellState *pState,          /* Current shell tool state */
  int fromCmdLine,             /* True if -A command-line option, not .ar cmd */
  char **azArg,                /* Array of arguments passed to dot command */
  int nArg                     /* Number of entries in azArg[] */
){
  ArCommand cmd;
  int rc;
  memset(&cmd, 0, sizeof(cmd));
  cmd.fromCmdLine = fromCmdLine;
  rc = arParseCommand(azArg, nArg, &cmd);
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    int eDbType = SHELL_OPEN_UNSPEC;
    cmd.p = pState;
    cmd.db = pState->db;
    if( cmd.zFile ){
      eDbType = deduceDatabaseType(cmd.zFile, 1);
    }else{
      eDbType = pState->openMode;
    }
    if( eDbType==SHELL_OPEN_ZIPFILE ){
      if( cmd.eCmd==AR_CMD_EXTRACT || cmd.eCmd==AR_CMD_LIST ){
        if( cmd.zFile==0 ){
          cmd.zSrcTable = sqlite3_mprintf("zip");
        }else{
          cmd.zSrcTable = sqlite3_mprintf("zipfile(%Q)", cmd.zFile);
        }
      }
      cmd.bZip = 1;
    }else if( cmd.zFile ){
      int flags;
      if( cmd.bAppend ) eDbType = SHELL_OPEN_APPENDVFS;
      if( cmd.eCmd==AR_CMD_CREATE || cmd.eCmd==AR_CMD_INSERT 
           || cmd.eCmd==AR_CMD_UPDATE ){
        flags = SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE|SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE;
      }else{
        flags = SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY;
      }
      cmd.db = 0;
      if( cmd.bDryRun ){
        utf8_printf(pState->out, "-- open database '%s'%s\n", cmd.zFile,
             eDbType==SHELL_OPEN_APPENDVFS ? " using 'apndvfs'" : "");
      }
      rc = sqlite3_open_v2(cmd.zFile, &cmd.db, flags, 
             eDbType==SHELL_OPEN_APPENDVFS ? "apndvfs" : 0);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "cannot open file: %s (%s)\n", 
            cmd.zFile, sqlite3_errmsg(cmd.db)
        );
        goto end_ar_command;
      }
      sqlite3_fileio_init(cmd.db, 0, 0);
      sqlite3_sqlar_init(cmd.db, 0, 0);
      sqlite3_create_function(cmd.db, "shell_putsnl", 1, SQLITE_UTF8, cmd.p,
                              shellPutsFunc, 0, 0);

    }
    if( cmd.zSrcTable==0 && cmd.bZip==0 && cmd.eCmd!=AR_CMD_HELP ){
      if( cmd.eCmd!=AR_CMD_CREATE
       && sqlite3_table_column_metadata(cmd.db,0,"sqlar","name",0,0,0,0,0)
      ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "database does not contain an 'sqlar' table\n");
        rc = SQLITE_ERROR;
        goto end_ar_command;
      }
      cmd.zSrcTable = sqlite3_mprintf("sqlar");
    }

    switch( cmd.eCmd ){
      case AR_CMD_CREATE:
        rc = arCreateOrUpdateCommand(&cmd, 0, 0);
        break;

      case AR_CMD_EXTRACT:
        rc = arExtractCommand(&cmd);
        break;

      case AR_CMD_LIST:
        rc = arListCommand(&cmd);
        break;

      case AR_CMD_HELP:
        arUsage(pState->out);
        break;

      case AR_CMD_INSERT:
        rc = arCreateOrUpdateCommand(&cmd, 1, 0);
        break;

      default:
        assert( cmd.eCmd==AR_CMD_UPDATE );
        rc = arCreateOrUpdateCommand(&cmd, 1, 1);
        break;
    }
  }
end_ar_command:
  if( cmd.db!=pState->db ){
    close_db(cmd.db);
  }
  sqlite3_free(cmd.zSrcTable);

  return rc;
}
/* End of the ".archive" or ".ar" command logic
*******************************************************************************/
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB) */

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_DBPAGE_VTAB)
/*
** If (*pRc) is not SQLITE_OK when this function is called, it is a no-op.
** Otherwise, the SQL statement or statements in zSql are executed using
** database connection db and the error code written to *pRc before
** this function returns.
*/
static void shellExec(sqlite3 *db, int *pRc, const char *zSql){
  int rc = *pRc;
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    char *zErr = 0;
    rc = sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, 0, 0, &zErr);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "SQL error: %s\n", zErr);
    }
    sqlite3_free(zErr);
    *pRc = rc;
  }
}

/*
** Like shellExec(), except that zFmt is a printf() style format string.
*/
static void shellExecPrintf(sqlite3 *db, int *pRc, const char *zFmt, ...){
  char *z = 0;
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    va_list ap;
    va_start(ap, zFmt);
    z = sqlite3_vmprintf(zFmt, ap);
    va_end(ap);
    if( z==0 ){
      *pRc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }else{
      shellExec(db, pRc, z);
    }
    sqlite3_free(z);
  }
}

/*
** If *pRc is not SQLITE_OK when this function is called, it is a no-op.
** Otherwise, an attempt is made to allocate, zero and return a pointer
** to a buffer nByte bytes in size. If an OOM error occurs, *pRc is set
** to SQLITE_NOMEM and NULL returned.
*/
static void *shellMalloc(int *pRc, sqlite3_int64 nByte){
  void *pRet = 0;
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    pRet = sqlite3_malloc64(nByte);
    if( pRet==0 ){
      *pRc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }else{
      memset(pRet, 0, nByte);
    }
  }
  return pRet;
}

/*
** If *pRc is not SQLITE_OK when this function is called, it is a no-op.
** Otherwise, zFmt is treated as a printf() style string. The result of
** formatting it along with any trailing arguments is written into a 
** buffer obtained from sqlite3_malloc(), and pointer to which is returned.
** It is the responsibility of the caller to eventually free this buffer
** using a call to sqlite3_free().
** 
** If an OOM error occurs, (*pRc) is set to SQLITE_NOMEM and a NULL 
** pointer returned.
*/
static char *shellMPrintf(int *pRc, const char *zFmt, ...){
  char *z = 0;
  if( *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    va_list ap;
    va_start(ap, zFmt);
    z = sqlite3_vmprintf(zFmt, ap);
    va_end(ap);
    if( z==0 ){
      *pRc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    }
  }
  return z;
}

/*
** When running the ".recover" command, each output table, and the special
** orphaned row table if it is required, is represented by an instance
** of the following struct.
*/
typedef struct RecoverTable RecoverTable;
struct RecoverTable {
  char *zQuoted;                  /* Quoted version of table name */
  int nCol;                       /* Number of columns in table */
  char **azlCol;                  /* Array of column lists */
  int iPk;                        /* Index of IPK column */
};

/*
** Free a RecoverTable object allocated by recoverFindTable() or
** recoverOrphanTable().
*/
static void recoverFreeTable(RecoverTable *pTab){
  if( pTab ){
    sqlite3_free(pTab->zQuoted);
    if( pTab->azlCol ){
      int i;
      for(i=0; i<=pTab->nCol; i++){
        sqlite3_free(pTab->azlCol[i]);
      }
      sqlite3_free(pTab->azlCol);
    }
    sqlite3_free(pTab);
  }
}

/*
** This function is a no-op if (*pRc) is not SQLITE_OK when it is called.
** Otherwise, it allocates and returns a RecoverTable object based on the
** final four arguments passed to this function. It is the responsibility
** of the caller to eventually free the returned object using
** recoverFreeTable().
*/
static RecoverTable *recoverNewTable(
  int *pRc,                       /* IN/OUT: Error code */
  const char *zName,              /* Name of table */
  const char *zSql,               /* CREATE TABLE statement */
  int bIntkey, 
  int nCol
){
  sqlite3 *dbtmp = 0;             /* sqlite3 handle for testing CREATE TABLE */
  int rc = *pRc;
  RecoverTable *pTab = 0;

  pTab = (RecoverTable*)shellMalloc(&rc, sizeof(RecoverTable));
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    int nSqlCol = 0;
    int bSqlIntkey = 0;
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
    
    rc = sqlite3_open("", &dbtmp);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      sqlite3_create_function(dbtmp, "shell_idquote", 1, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                              shellIdQuote, 0, 0);
    }
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = sqlite3_exec(dbtmp, "PRAGMA writable_schema = on", 0, 0, 0);
    }
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = sqlite3_exec(dbtmp, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
      if( rc==SQLITE_ERROR ){
        rc = SQLITE_OK;
        goto finished;
      }
    }
    shellPreparePrintf(dbtmp, &rc, &pStmt, 
        "SELECT count(*) FROM pragma_table_info(%Q)", zName
    );
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
      nSqlCol = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
    }
    shellFinalize(&rc, pStmt);

    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK || nSqlCol<nCol ){
      goto finished;
    }

    shellPreparePrintf(dbtmp, &rc, &pStmt, 
      "SELECT ("
      "  SELECT substr(data,1,1)==X'0D' FROM sqlite_dbpage WHERE pgno=rootpage"
      ") FROM sqlite_schema WHERE name = %Q", zName
    );
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
      bSqlIntkey = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
    }
    shellFinalize(&rc, pStmt);

    if( bIntkey==bSqlIntkey ){
      int i;
      const char *zPk = "_rowid_";
      sqlite3_stmt *pPkFinder = 0;

      /* If this is an intkey table and there is an INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
      ** set zPk to the name of the PK column, and pTab->iPk to the index
      ** of the column, where columns are 0-numbered from left to right.
      ** Or, if this is a WITHOUT ROWID table or if there is no IPK column,
      ** leave zPk as "_rowid_" and pTab->iPk at -2.  */
      pTab->iPk = -2;
      if( bIntkey ){
        shellPreparePrintf(dbtmp, &rc, &pPkFinder, 
          "SELECT cid, name FROM pragma_table_info(%Q) "
          "  WHERE pk=1 AND type='integer' COLLATE nocase"
          "  AND NOT EXISTS (SELECT cid FROM pragma_table_info(%Q) WHERE pk=2)"
          , zName, zName
        );
        if( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pPkFinder) ){
          pTab->iPk = sqlite3_column_int(pPkFinder, 0);
          zPk = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pPkFinder, 1);
        }
      }

      pTab->zQuoted = shellMPrintf(&rc, "\"%w\"", zName);
      pTab->azlCol = (char**)shellMalloc(&rc, sizeof(char*) * (nSqlCol+1));
      pTab->nCol = nSqlCol;

      if( bIntkey ){
        pTab->azlCol[0] = shellMPrintf(&rc, "\"%w\"", zPk);
      }else{
        pTab->azlCol[0] = shellMPrintf(&rc, "");
      }
      i = 1;
      shellPreparePrintf(dbtmp, &rc, &pStmt, 
          "SELECT %Q || group_concat(shell_idquote(name), ', ') "
          "  FILTER (WHERE cid!=%d) OVER (ORDER BY %s cid) "
          "FROM pragma_table_info(%Q)", 
          bIntkey ? ", " : "", pTab->iPk, 
          bIntkey ? "" : "(CASE WHEN pk=0 THEN 1000000 ELSE pk END), ",
          zName
      );
      while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
        const char *zText = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0);
        pTab->azlCol[i] = shellMPrintf(&rc, "%s%s", pTab->azlCol[0], zText);
        i++;
      }
      shellFinalize(&rc, pStmt);

      shellFinalize(&rc, pPkFinder);
    }
  }

 finished:
  sqlite3_close(dbtmp);
  *pRc = rc;
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK || (pTab && pTab->zQuoted==0) ){
    recoverFreeTable(pTab);
    pTab = 0;
  }
  return pTab;
}

/*
** This function is called to search the schema recovered from the
** sqlite_schema table of the (possibly) corrupt database as part
** of a ".recover" command. Specifically, for a table with root page
** iRoot and at least nCol columns. Additionally, if bIntkey is 0, the
** table must be a WITHOUT ROWID table, or if non-zero, not one of
** those.
**
** If a table is found, a (RecoverTable*) object is returned. Or, if
** no such table is found, but bIntkey is false and iRoot is the 
** root page of an index in the recovered schema, then (*pbNoop) is
** set to true and NULL returned. Or, if there is no such table or
** index, NULL is returned and (*pbNoop) set to 0, indicating that
** the caller should write data to the orphans table.
*/
static RecoverTable *recoverFindTable(
  ShellState *pState,             /* Shell state object */
  int *pRc,                       /* IN/OUT: Error code */
  int iRoot,                      /* Root page of table */
  int bIntkey,                    /* True for an intkey table */
  int nCol,                       /* Number of columns in table */
  int *pbNoop                     /* OUT: True if iRoot is root of index */
){
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
  RecoverTable *pRet = 0;
  int bNoop = 0;
  const char *zSql = 0;
  const char *zName = 0;

  /* Search the recovered schema for an object with root page iRoot. */
  shellPreparePrintf(pState->db, pRc, &pStmt,
      "SELECT type, name, sql FROM recovery.schema WHERE rootpage=%d", iRoot
  );
  while( *pRc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
    const char *zType = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0);
    if( bIntkey==0 && sqlite3_stricmp(zType, "index")==0 ){
      bNoop = 1;
      break;
    }
    if( sqlite3_stricmp(zType, "table")==0 ){
      zName = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 1);
      zSql = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 2);
      pRet = recoverNewTable(pRc, zName, zSql, bIntkey, nCol);
      break;
    }
  }

  shellFinalize(pRc, pStmt);
  *pbNoop = bNoop;
  return pRet;
}

/*
** Return a RecoverTable object representing the orphans table.
*/
static RecoverTable *recoverOrphanTable(
  ShellState *pState,             /* Shell state object */
  int *pRc,                       /* IN/OUT: Error code */
  const char *zLostAndFound,      /* Base name for orphans table */
  int nCol                        /* Number of user data columns */
){
  RecoverTable *pTab = 0;
  if( nCol>=0 && *pRc==SQLITE_OK ){
    int i;

    /* This block determines the name of the orphan table. The prefered
    ** name is zLostAndFound. But if that clashes with another name
    ** in the recovered schema, try zLostAndFound_0, zLostAndFound_1
    ** and so on until a non-clashing name is found.  */
    int iTab = 0;
    char *zTab = shellMPrintf(pRc, "%s", zLostAndFound);
    sqlite3_stmt *pTest = 0;
    shellPrepare(pState->db, pRc,
        "SELECT 1 FROM recovery.schema WHERE name=?", &pTest
    );
    if( pTest ) sqlite3_bind_text(pTest, 1, zTab, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
    while( *pRc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pTest) ){
      shellReset(pRc, pTest);
      sqlite3_free(zTab);
      zTab = shellMPrintf(pRc, "%s_%d", zLostAndFound, iTab++);
      sqlite3_bind_text(pTest, 1, zTab, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
    }
    shellFinalize(pRc, pTest);

    pTab = (RecoverTable*)shellMalloc(pRc, sizeof(RecoverTable));
    if( pTab ){
      pTab->zQuoted = shellMPrintf(pRc, "\"%w\"", zTab);
      pTab->nCol = nCol;
      pTab->iPk = -2;
      if( nCol>0 ){
        pTab->azlCol = (char**)shellMalloc(pRc, sizeof(char*) * (nCol+1));
        if( pTab->azlCol ){
          pTab->azlCol[nCol] = shellMPrintf(pRc, "");
          for(i=nCol-1; i>=0; i--){
            pTab->azlCol[i] = shellMPrintf(pRc, "%s, NULL", pTab->azlCol[i+1]);
          }
        }
      }

      if( *pRc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        recoverFreeTable(pTab);
        pTab = 0;
      }else{
        raw_printf(pState->out, 
            "CREATE TABLE %s(rootpgno INTEGER, "
            "pgno INTEGER, nfield INTEGER, id INTEGER", pTab->zQuoted
        );
        for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
          raw_printf(pState->out, ", c%d", i);
        }
        raw_printf(pState->out, ");\n");
      }
    }
    sqlite3_free(zTab);
  }
  return pTab;
}

/*
** This function is called to recover data from the database. A script
** to construct a new database containing all recovered data is output
** on stream pState->out.
*/
static int recoverDatabaseCmd(ShellState *pState, int nArg, char **azArg){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  sqlite3_stmt *pLoop = 0;        /* Loop through all root pages */
  sqlite3_stmt *pPages = 0;       /* Loop through all pages in a group */
  sqlite3_stmt *pCells = 0;       /* Loop through all cells in a page */
  const char *zRecoveryDb = "";   /* Name of "recovery" database */
  const char *zLostAndFound = "lost_and_found";
  int i;
  int nOrphan = -1;
  RecoverTable *pOrphan = 0;

  int bFreelist = 1;              /* 0 if --freelist-corrupt is specified */
  int bRowids = 1;                /* 0 if --no-rowids */
  for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
    char *z = azArg[i];
    int n;
    if( z[0]=='-' && z[1]=='-' ) z++;
    n = strlen30(z);
    if( n<=17 && memcmp("-freelist-corrupt", z, n)==0 ){
      bFreelist = 0;
    }else
    if( n<=12 && memcmp("-recovery-db", z, n)==0 && i<(nArg-1) ){
      i++;
      zRecoveryDb = azArg[i];
    }else
    if( n<=15 && memcmp("-lost-and-found", z, n)==0 && i<(nArg-1) ){
      i++;
      zLostAndFound = azArg[i];
    }else
    if( n<=10 && memcmp("-no-rowids", z, n)==0 ){
      bRowids = 0;
    }
    else{
      utf8_printf(stderr, "unexpected option: %s\n", azArg[i]); 
      showHelp(pState->out, azArg[0]);
      return 1;
    }
  }

  shellExecPrintf(pState->db, &rc,
    /* Attach an in-memory database named 'recovery'. Create an indexed 
    ** cache of the sqlite_dbptr virtual table. */
    "PRAGMA writable_schema = on;"
    "ATTACH %Q AS recovery;"
    "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS recovery.dbptr;"
    "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS recovery.freelist;"
    "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS recovery.map;"
    "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS recovery.schema;"
    "CREATE TABLE recovery.freelist(pgno INTEGER PRIMARY KEY);", zRecoveryDb
  );

  if( bFreelist ){
    shellExec(pState->db, &rc,
      "WITH trunk(pgno) AS ("
      "  SELECT shell_int32("
      "      (SELECT data FROM sqlite_dbpage WHERE pgno=1), 8) AS x "
      "      WHERE x>0"
      "    UNION"
      "  SELECT shell_int32("
      "      (SELECT data FROM sqlite_dbpage WHERE pgno=trunk.pgno), 0) AS x "
      "      FROM trunk WHERE x>0"
      "),"
      "freelist(data, n, freepgno) AS ("
      "  SELECT data, min(16384, shell_int32(data, 1)-1), t.pgno "
      "      FROM trunk t, sqlite_dbpage s WHERE s.pgno=t.pgno"
      "    UNION ALL"
      "  SELECT data, n-1, shell_int32(data, 2+n) "
      "      FROM freelist WHERE n>=0"
      ")"
      "REPLACE INTO recovery.freelist SELECT freepgno FROM freelist;"
    );
  }

  /* If this is an auto-vacuum database, add all pointer-map pages to
  ** the freelist table. Do this regardless of whether or not 
  ** --freelist-corrupt was specified.  */
  shellExec(pState->db, &rc, 
    "WITH ptrmap(pgno) AS ("
    "  SELECT 2 WHERE shell_int32("
    "    (SELECT data FROM sqlite_dbpage WHERE pgno=1), 13"
    "  )"
    "    UNION ALL "
    "  SELECT pgno+1+(SELECT page_size FROM pragma_page_size)/5 AS pp "
    "  FROM ptrmap WHERE pp<=(SELECT page_count FROM pragma_page_count)"
    ")"
    "REPLACE INTO recovery.freelist SELECT pgno FROM ptrmap"
  );

  shellExec(pState->db, &rc, 
    "CREATE TABLE recovery.dbptr("
    "      pgno, child, PRIMARY KEY(child, pgno)"
    ") WITHOUT ROWID;"
    "INSERT OR IGNORE INTO recovery.dbptr(pgno, child) "
    "    SELECT * FROM sqlite_dbptr"
    "      WHERE pgno NOT IN freelist AND child NOT IN freelist;"

    /* Delete any pointer to page 1. This ensures that page 1 is considered
    ** a root page, regardless of how corrupt the db is. */
    "DELETE FROM recovery.dbptr WHERE child = 1;"

    /* Delete all pointers to any pages that have more than one pointer
    ** to them. Such pages will be treated as root pages when recovering
    ** data.  */
    "DELETE FROM recovery.dbptr WHERE child IN ("
    "  SELECT child FROM recovery.dbptr GROUP BY child HAVING count(*)>1"
    ");"

    /* Create the "map" table that will (eventually) contain instructions
    ** for dealing with each page in the db that contains one or more 
    ** records. */
    "CREATE TABLE recovery.map("
      "pgno INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, maxlen INT, intkey, root INT"
    ");"

    /* Populate table [map]. If there are circular loops of pages in the
    ** database, the following adds all pages in such a loop to the map
    ** as individual root pages. This could be handled better.  */
    "WITH pages(i, maxlen) AS ("
    "  SELECT page_count, ("
    "    SELECT max(field+1) FROM sqlite_dbdata WHERE pgno=page_count"
    "  ) FROM pragma_page_count WHERE page_count>0"
    "    UNION ALL"
    "  SELECT i-1, ("
    "    SELECT max(field+1) FROM sqlite_dbdata WHERE pgno=i-1"
    "  ) FROM pages WHERE i>=2"
    ")"
    "INSERT INTO recovery.map(pgno, maxlen, intkey, root) "
    "  SELECT i, maxlen, NULL, ("
    "    WITH p(orig, pgno, parent) AS ("
    "      SELECT 0, i, (SELECT pgno FROM recovery.dbptr WHERE child=i)"
    "        UNION "
    "      SELECT i, p.parent, "
    "        (SELECT pgno FROM recovery.dbptr WHERE child=p.parent) FROM p"
    "    )"
    "    SELECT pgno FROM p WHERE (parent IS NULL OR pgno = orig)"
    ") "
    "FROM pages WHERE maxlen IS NOT NULL AND i NOT IN freelist;"
    "UPDATE recovery.map AS o SET intkey = ("
    "  SELECT substr(data, 1, 1)==X'0D' FROM sqlite_dbpage WHERE pgno=o.pgno"
    ");"

    /* Extract data from page 1 and any linked pages into table
    ** recovery.schema. With the same schema as an sqlite_schema table.  */
    "CREATE TABLE recovery.schema(type, name, tbl_name, rootpage, sql);"
    "INSERT INTO recovery.schema SELECT "
    "  max(CASE WHEN field=0 THEN value ELSE NULL END),"
    "  max(CASE WHEN field=1 THEN value ELSE NULL END),"
    "  max(CASE WHEN field=2 THEN value ELSE NULL END),"
    "  max(CASE WHEN field=3 THEN value ELSE NULL END),"
    "  max(CASE WHEN field=4 THEN value ELSE NULL END)"
    "FROM sqlite_dbdata WHERE pgno IN ("
    "  SELECT pgno FROM recovery.map WHERE root=1"
    ")"
    "GROUP BY pgno, cell;"
    "CREATE INDEX recovery.schema_rootpage ON schema(rootpage);"
  );

  /* Open a transaction, then print out all non-virtual, non-"sqlite_%" 
  ** CREATE TABLE statements that extracted from the existing schema.  */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
    /* ".recover" might output content in an order which causes immediate
    ** foreign key constraints to be violated. So disable foreign-key
    ** constraint enforcement to prevent problems when running the output
    ** script. */
    raw_printf(pState->out, "PRAGMA foreign_keys=OFF;\n");
    raw_printf(pState->out, "BEGIN;\n");
    raw_printf(pState->out, "PRAGMA writable_schema = on;\n");
    shellPrepare(pState->db, &rc,
        "SELECT sql FROM recovery.schema "
        "WHERE type='table' AND sql LIKE 'create table%'", &pStmt
    );
    while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
      const char *zCreateTable = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0);
      raw_printf(pState->out, "CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS %s;\n", 
          &zCreateTable[12]
      );
    }
    shellFinalize(&rc, pStmt);
  }

  /* Figure out if an orphan table will be required. And if so, how many
  ** user columns it should contain */
  shellPrepare(pState->db, &rc, 
      "SELECT coalesce(max(maxlen), -2) FROM recovery.map WHERE root>1"
      , &pLoop
  );
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pLoop) ){
    nOrphan = sqlite3_column_int(pLoop, 0);
  }
  shellFinalize(&rc, pLoop);
  pLoop = 0;

  shellPrepare(pState->db, &rc,
      "SELECT pgno FROM recovery.map WHERE root=?", &pPages
  );

  shellPrepare(pState->db, &rc,
      "SELECT max(field), group_concat(shell_escape_crnl(quote"
      "(case when (? AND field<0) then NULL else value end)"
      "), ', ')"
      ", min(field) "
      "FROM sqlite_dbdata WHERE pgno = ? AND field != ?"
      "GROUP BY cell", &pCells
  );

  /* Loop through each root page. */
  shellPrepare(pState->db, &rc, 
      "SELECT root, intkey, max(maxlen) FROM recovery.map" 
      " WHERE root>1 GROUP BY root, intkey ORDER BY root=("
      "  SELECT rootpage FROM recovery.schema WHERE name='sqlite_sequence'"
      ")", &pLoop
  );
  while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pLoop) ){
    int iRoot = sqlite3_column_int(pLoop, 0);
    int bIntkey = sqlite3_column_int(pLoop, 1);
    int nCol = sqlite3_column_int(pLoop, 2);
    int bNoop = 0;
    RecoverTable *pTab;

    assert( bIntkey==0 || bIntkey==1 );
    pTab = recoverFindTable(pState, &rc, iRoot, bIntkey, nCol, &bNoop);
    if( bNoop || rc ) continue;
    if( pTab==0 ){
      if( pOrphan==0 ){
        pOrphan = recoverOrphanTable(pState, &rc, zLostAndFound, nOrphan);
      }
      pTab = pOrphan;
      if( pTab==0 ) break;
    }

    if( 0==sqlite3_stricmp(pTab->zQuoted, "\"sqlite_sequence\"") ){
      raw_printf(pState->out, "DELETE FROM sqlite_sequence;\n");
    }
    sqlite3_bind_int(pPages, 1, iRoot);
    if( bRowids==0 && pTab->iPk<0 ){
      sqlite3_bind_int(pCells, 1, 1);
    }else{
      sqlite3_bind_int(pCells, 1, 0);
    }
    sqlite3_bind_int(pCells, 3, pTab->iPk);

    while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pPages) ){
      int iPgno = sqlite3_column_int(pPages, 0);
      sqlite3_bind_int(pCells, 2, iPgno);
      while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pCells) ){
        int nField = sqlite3_column_int(pCells, 0);
        int iMin = sqlite3_column_int(pCells, 2);
        const char *zVal = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pCells, 1);

        RecoverTable *pTab2 = pTab;
        if( pTab!=pOrphan && (iMin<0)!=bIntkey ){
          if( pOrphan==0 ){
            pOrphan = recoverOrphanTable(pState, &rc, zLostAndFound, nOrphan);
          }
          pTab2 = pOrphan;
          if( pTab2==0 ) break;
        }

        nField = nField+1;
        if( pTab2==pOrphan ){
          raw_printf(pState->out, 
              "INSERT INTO %s VALUES(%d, %d, %d, %s%s%s);\n",
              pTab2->zQuoted, iRoot, iPgno, nField,
              iMin<0 ? "" : "NULL, ", zVal, pTab2->azlCol[nField]
          );
        }else{
          raw_printf(pState->out, "INSERT INTO %s(%s) VALUES( %s );\n", 
              pTab2->zQuoted, pTab2->azlCol[nField], zVal
          );
        }
      }
      shellReset(&rc, pCells);
    }
    shellReset(&rc, pPages);
    if( pTab!=pOrphan ) recoverFreeTable(pTab);
  }
  shellFinalize(&rc, pLoop);
  shellFinalize(&rc, pPages);
  shellFinalize(&rc, pCells);
  recoverFreeTable(pOrphan);

  /* The rest of the schema */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
    shellPrepare(pState->db, &rc, 
        "SELECT sql, name FROM recovery.schema "
        "WHERE sql NOT LIKE 'create table%'", &pStmt
    );
    while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
      const char *zSql = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0);
      if( sqlite3_strnicmp(zSql, "create virt", 11)==0 ){
        const char *zName = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 1);
        char *zPrint = shellMPrintf(&rc, 
          "INSERT INTO sqlite_schema VALUES('table', %Q, %Q, 0, %Q)",
          zName, zName, zSql
        );
        raw_printf(pState->out, "%s;\n", zPrint);
        sqlite3_free(zPrint);
      }else{
        raw_printf(pState->out, "%s;\n", zSql);
      }
    }
    shellFinalize(&rc, pStmt);
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    raw_printf(pState->out, "PRAGMA writable_schema = off;\n");
    raw_printf(pState->out, "COMMIT;\n");
  }
  sqlite3_exec(pState->db, "DETACH recovery", 0, 0, 0);
  return rc;
}
#endif /* !(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_DBPAGE_VTAB) */

/*
** If an input line begins with "." then invoke this routine to
** process that line.
**
** Return 1 on error, 2 to exit, and 0 otherwise.
*/
static int do_meta_command(char *zLine, ShellState *p){
  int h = 1;
  int nArg = 0;
  int n, c;
  int rc = 0;
  char *azArg[52];

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  if( p->expert.pExpert ){
    expertFinish(p, 1, 0);
  }
#endif

  /* Parse the input line into tokens.
  */
  while( zLine[h] && nArg<ArraySize(azArg)-1 ){
    while( IsSpace(zLine[h]) ){ h++; }
    if( zLine[h]==0 ) break;
    if( zLine[h]=='\'' || zLine[h]=='"' ){
      int delim = zLine[h++];
      azArg[nArg++] = &zLine[h];
      while( zLine[h] && zLine[h]!=delim ){
        if( zLine[h]=='\\' && delim=='"' && zLine[h+1]!=0 ) h++;
        h++;
      }
      if( zLine[h]==delim ){
        zLine[h++] = 0;
      }
      if( delim=='"' ) resolve_backslashes(azArg[nArg-1]);
    }else{
      azArg[nArg++] = &zLine[h];
      while( zLine[h] && !IsSpace(zLine[h]) ){ h++; }
      if( zLine[h] ) zLine[h++] = 0;
      resolve_backslashes(azArg[nArg-1]);
    }
  }
  azArg[nArg] = 0;

  /* Process the input line.
  */
  if( nArg==0 ) return 0; /* no tokens, no error */
  n = strlen30(azArg[0]);
  c = azArg[0][0];
  clearTempFile(p);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTHORIZATION
  if( c=='a' && strncmp(azArg[0], "auth", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg!=2 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .auth ON|OFF\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    open_db(p, 0);
    if( booleanValue(azArg[1]) ){
      sqlite3_set_authorizer(p->db, shellAuth, p);
    }else{
      sqlite3_set_authorizer(p->db, 0, 0);
    }
  }else
#endif

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB)
  if( c=='a' && strncmp(azArg[0], "archive", n)==0 ){
    open_db(p, 0);
    rc = arDotCommand(p, 0, azArg, nArg);
  }else
#endif

  if( (c=='b' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "backup", n)==0)
   || (c=='s' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "save", n)==0)
  ){
    const char *zDestFile = 0;
    const char *zDb = 0;
    sqlite3 *pDest;
    sqlite3_backup *pBackup;
    int j;
    int bAsync = 0;
    const char *zVfs = 0;
    for(j=1; j<nArg; j++){
      const char *z = azArg[j];
      if( z[0]=='-' ){
        if( z[1]=='-' ) z++;
        if( strcmp(z, "-append")==0 ){
          zVfs = "apndvfs";
        }else
        if( strcmp(z, "-async")==0 ){
          bAsync = 1;
        }else
        {
          utf8_printf(stderr, "unknown option: %s\n", azArg[j]);
          return 1;
        }
      }else if( zDestFile==0 ){
        zDestFile = azArg[j];
      }else if( zDb==0 ){
        zDb = zDestFile;
        zDestFile = azArg[j];
      }else{
        raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .backup ?DB? ?OPTIONS? FILENAME\n");
        return 1;
      }
    }
    if( zDestFile==0 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "missing FILENAME argument on .backup\n");
      return 1;
    }
    if( zDb==0 ) zDb = "main";
    rc = sqlite3_open_v2(zDestFile, &pDest, 
                  SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE|SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE, zVfs);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: cannot open \"%s\"\n", zDestFile);
      close_db(pDest);
      return 1;
    }
    if( bAsync ){
      sqlite3_exec(pDest, "PRAGMA synchronous=OFF; PRAGMA journal_mode=OFF;",
                   0, 0, 0);
    }
    open_db(p, 0);
    pBackup = sqlite3_backup_init(pDest, "main", p->db, zDb);
    if( pBackup==0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(pDest));
      close_db(pDest);
      return 1;
    }
    while(  (rc = sqlite3_backup_step(pBackup,100))==SQLITE_OK ){}
    sqlite3_backup_finish(pBackup);
    if( rc==SQLITE_DONE ){
      rc = 0;
    }else{
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(pDest));
      rc = 1;
    }
    close_db(pDest);
  }else

  if( c=='b' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "bail", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      bail_on_error = booleanValue(azArg[1]);
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .bail on|off\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  if( c=='b' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "binary", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      if( booleanValue(azArg[1]) ){
        setBinaryMode(p->out, 1);
      }else{
        setTextMode(p->out, 1);
      }
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .binary on|off\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  /* The undocumented ".breakpoint" command causes a call to the no-op
  ** routine named test_breakpoint().
  */
  if( c=='b' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "breakpoint", n)==0 ){
    test_breakpoint();
  }else

  if( c=='c' && strcmp(azArg[0],"cd")==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)
      wchar_t *z = sqlite3_win32_utf8_to_unicode(azArg[1]);
      rc = !SetCurrentDirectoryW(z);
      sqlite3_free(z);
#else
      rc = chdir(azArg[1]);
#endif
      if( rc ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Cannot change to directory \"%s\"\n", azArg[1]);
        rc = 1;
      }
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .cd DIRECTORY\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  if( c=='c' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "changes", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      setOrClearFlag(p, SHFLG_CountChanges, azArg[1]);
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .changes on|off\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  /* Cancel output redirection, if it is currently set (by .testcase)
  ** Then read the content of the testcase-out.txt file and compare against
  ** azArg[1].  If there are differences, report an error and exit.
  */
  if( c=='c' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "check", n)==0 ){
    char *zRes = 0;
    output_reset(p);
    if( nArg!=2 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .check GLOB-PATTERN\n");
      rc = 2;
    }else if( (zRes = readFile("testcase-out.txt", 0))==0 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Error: cannot read 'testcase-out.txt'\n");
      rc = 2;
    }else if( testcase_glob(azArg[1],zRes)==0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr,
                 "testcase-%s FAILED\n Expected: [%s]\n      Got: [%s]\n",
                 p->zTestcase, azArg[1], zRes);
      rc = 1;
    }else{
      utf8_printf(stdout, "testcase-%s ok\n", p->zTestcase);
      p->nCheck++;
    }
    sqlite3_free(zRes);
  }else

  if( c=='c' && strncmp(azArg[0], "clone", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      tryToClone(p, azArg[1]);
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .clone FILENAME\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  if( c=='c' && strncmp(azArg[0], "connection", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==1 ){
      /* List available connections */
      int i;
      for(i=0; i<ArraySize(p->aAuxDb); i++){
        const char *zFile = p->aAuxDb[i].zDbFilename;
        if( p->aAuxDb[i].db==0 && p->pAuxDb!=&p->aAuxDb[i] ){
          zFile = "(not open)";
        }else if( zFile==0 ){
          zFile = "(memory)";
        }else if( zFile[0]==0 ){
          zFile = "(temporary-file)";
        }
        if( p->pAuxDb == &p->aAuxDb[i] ){
          utf8_printf(stdout, "ACTIVE %d: %s\n", i, zFile);
        }else if( p->aAuxDb[i].db!=0 ){
          utf8_printf(stdout, "       %d: %s\n", i, zFile);
        }
      }
    }else if( nArg==2 && IsDigit(azArg[1][0]) && azArg[1][1]==0 ){
      int i = azArg[1][0] - '0';
      if( p->pAuxDb != &p->aAuxDb[i] && i>=0 && i<ArraySize(p->aAuxDb) ){
        p->pAuxDb->db = p->db;
        p->pAuxDb = &p->aAuxDb[i];
        globalDb = p->db = p->pAuxDb->db;
        p->pAuxDb->db = 0;
      }
    }else if( nArg==3 && strcmp(azArg[1], "close")==0
           && IsDigit(azArg[2][0]) && azArg[2][1]==0 ){
      int i = azArg[2][0] - '0';
      if( i<0 || i>=ArraySize(p->aAuxDb) ){
        /* No-op */
      }else if( p->pAuxDb == &p->aAuxDb[i] ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "cannot close the active database connection\n");
        rc = 1;
      }else if( p->aAuxDb[i].db ){
        session_close_all(p, i);
        close_db(p->aAuxDb[i].db);
        p->aAuxDb[i].db = 0;
      }
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .connection [close] [CONNECTION-NUMBER]\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  if( c=='d' && n>1 && strncmp(azArg[0], "databases", n)==0 ){
    char **azName = 0;
    int nName = 0;
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
    int i;
    open_db(p, 0);
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, "PRAGMA database_list", -1, &pStmt, 0);
    if( rc ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
      rc = 1;
    }else{
      while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
        const char *zSchema = (const char *)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,1);
        const char *zFile = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,2);
        azName = sqlite3_realloc(azName, (nName+1)*2*sizeof(char*));
        if( azName==0 ){ shell_out_of_memory();  /* Does not return */ }
        azName[nName*2] = strdup(zSchema);
        azName[nName*2+1] = strdup(zFile);
        nName++;
      }
    }
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    for(i=0; i<nName; i++){
      int eTxn = sqlite3_txn_state(p->db, azName[i*2]);
      int bRdonly = sqlite3_db_readonly(p->db, azName[i*2]);
      const char *z = azName[i*2+1];
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%s: %s %s%s\n",
         azName[i*2],
         z && z[0] ? z : "\"\"",
         bRdonly ? "r/o" : "r/w",
         eTxn==SQLITE_TXN_NONE ? "" :
            eTxn==SQLITE_TXN_READ ? " read-txn" : " write-txn");
      free(azName[i*2]);
      free(azName[i*2+1]);
    }
    sqlite3_free(azName);
  }else

  if( c=='d' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "dbconfig", n)==0 ){
    static const struct DbConfigChoices {
      const char *zName;
      int op;
    } aDbConfig[] = {
        { "defensive",          SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DEFENSIVE             },
        { "dqs_ddl",            SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DQS_DDL               },
        { "dqs_dml",            SQLITE_DBCONFIG_DQS_DML               },
        { "enable_fkey",        SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_FKEY           },
        { "enable_qpsg",        SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_QPSG           },
        { "enable_trigger",     SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_TRIGGER        },
        { "enable_view",        SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_VIEW           },
        { "fts3_tokenizer",     SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_FTS3_TOKENIZER },
        { "legacy_alter_table", SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LEGACY_ALTER_TABLE    },
        { "legacy_file_format", SQLITE_DBCONFIG_LEGACY_FILE_FORMAT    },
        { "load_extension",     SQLITE_DBCONFIG_ENABLE_LOAD_EXTENSION },
        { "no_ckpt_on_close",   SQLITE_DBCONFIG_NO_CKPT_ON_CLOSE      },
        { "reset_database",     SQLITE_DBCONFIG_RESET_DATABASE        },
        { "trigger_eqp",        SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRIGGER_EQP           },
        { "trusted_schema",     SQLITE_DBCONFIG_TRUSTED_SCHEMA        },
        { "writable_schema",    SQLITE_DBCONFIG_WRITABLE_SCHEMA       },
    };
    int ii, v;
    open_db(p, 0);
    for(ii=0; ii<ArraySize(aDbConfig); ii++){
      if( nArg>1 && strcmp(azArg[1], aDbConfig[ii].zName)!=0 ) continue;
      if( nArg>=3 ){
        sqlite3_db_config(p->db, aDbConfig[ii].op, booleanValue(azArg[2]), 0);
      }
      sqlite3_db_config(p->db, aDbConfig[ii].op, -1, &v);
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%19s %s\n", aDbConfig[ii].zName, v ? "on" : "off");
      if( nArg>1 ) break;
    }
    if( nArg>1 && ii==ArraySize(aDbConfig) ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: unknown dbconfig \"%s\"\n", azArg[1]);
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Enter \".dbconfig\" with no arguments for a list\n");
    }   
  }else

  if( c=='d' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "dbinfo", n)==0 ){
    rc = shell_dbinfo_command(p, nArg, azArg);
  }else

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_DBPAGE_VTAB)
  if( c=='r' && strncmp(azArg[0], "recover", n)==0 ){
    open_db(p, 0);
    rc = recoverDatabaseCmd(p, nArg, azArg);
  }else
#endif /* !(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_DBPAGE_VTAB) */

  if( c=='d' && strncmp(azArg[0], "dump", n)==0 ){
    char *zLike = 0;
    char *zSql;
    int i;
    int savedShowHeader = p->showHeader;
    int savedShellFlags = p->shellFlgs;
    ShellClearFlag(p, 
       SHFLG_PreserveRowid|SHFLG_Newlines|SHFLG_Echo
       |SHFLG_DumpDataOnly|SHFLG_DumpNoSys);
    for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
      if( azArg[i][0]=='-' ){
        const char *z = azArg[i]+1;
        if( z[0]=='-' ) z++;
        if( strcmp(z,"preserve-rowids")==0 ){
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
          raw_printf(stderr, "The --preserve-rowids option is not compatible"
                             " with SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE\n");
          rc = 1;
          sqlite3_free(zLike);
          goto meta_command_exit;
#else
          ShellSetFlag(p, SHFLG_PreserveRowid);
#endif
        }else
        if( strcmp(z,"newlines")==0 ){
          ShellSetFlag(p, SHFLG_Newlines);
        }else
        if( strcmp(z,"data-only")==0 ){
          ShellSetFlag(p, SHFLG_DumpDataOnly);
        }else
        if( strcmp(z,"nosys")==0 ){
          ShellSetFlag(p, SHFLG_DumpNoSys);
        }else
        {
          raw_printf(stderr, "Unknown option \"%s\" on \".dump\"\n", azArg[i]);
          rc = 1;
          sqlite3_free(zLike);
          goto meta_command_exit;
        }
      }else{
        /* azArg[i] contains a LIKE pattern. This ".dump" request should
        ** only dump data for tables for which either the table name matches
        ** the LIKE pattern, or the table appears to be a shadow table of
        ** a virtual table for which the name matches the LIKE pattern.
        */
        char *zExpr = sqlite3_mprintf(
            "name LIKE %Q ESCAPE '\\' OR EXISTS ("
            "  SELECT 1 FROM sqlite_schema WHERE "
            "    name LIKE %Q ESCAPE '\\' AND"
            "    sql LIKE 'CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE%%' AND"
            "    substr(o.name, 1, length(name)+1) == (name||'_')"
            ")", azArg[i], azArg[i]
        );
      
        if( zLike ){
          zLike = sqlite3_mprintf("%z OR %z", zLike, zExpr);
        }else{
          zLike = zExpr;
        }
      }
    }

    open_db(p, 0);

    if( (p->shellFlgs & SHFLG_DumpDataOnly)==0 ){
      /* When playing back a "dump", the content might appear in an order
      ** which causes immediate foreign key constraints to be violated.
      ** So disable foreign-key constraint enforcement to prevent problems. */
      raw_printf(p->out, "PRAGMA foreign_keys=OFF;\n");
      raw_printf(p->out, "BEGIN TRANSACTION;\n");
    }
    p->writableSchema = 0;
    p->showHeader = 0;
    /* Set writable_schema=ON since doing so forces SQLite to initialize
    ** as much of the schema as it can even if the sqlite_schema table is
    ** corrupt. */
    sqlite3_exec(p->db, "SAVEPOINT dump; PRAGMA writable_schema=ON", 0, 0, 0);
    p->nErr = 0;
    if( zLike==0 ) zLike = sqlite3_mprintf("true");
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
      "SELECT name, type, sql FROM sqlite_schema AS o "
      "WHERE (%s) AND type=='table'"
      "  AND sql NOT NULL"
      " ORDER BY tbl_name='sqlite_sequence', rowid",
      zLike
    );
    run_schema_dump_query(p,zSql);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    if( (p->shellFlgs & SHFLG_DumpDataOnly)==0 ){
      zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
        "SELECT sql FROM sqlite_schema AS o "
        "WHERE (%s) AND sql NOT NULL"
        "  AND type IN ('index','trigger','view')",
        zLike
      );
      run_table_dump_query(p, zSql);
      sqlite3_free(zSql);
    }
    sqlite3_free(zLike);
    if( p->writableSchema ){
      raw_printf(p->out, "PRAGMA writable_schema=OFF;\n");
      p->writableSchema = 0;
    }
    sqlite3_exec(p->db, "PRAGMA writable_schema=OFF;", 0, 0, 0);
    sqlite3_exec(p->db, "RELEASE dump;", 0, 0, 0);
    if( (p->shellFlgs & SHFLG_DumpDataOnly)==0 ){
      raw_printf(p->out, p->nErr?"ROLLBACK; -- due to errors\n":"COMMIT;\n");
    }
    p->showHeader = savedShowHeader;
    p->shellFlgs = savedShellFlags;
  }else

  if( c=='e' && strncmp(azArg[0], "echo", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      setOrClearFlag(p, SHFLG_Echo, azArg[1]);
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .echo on|off\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  if( c=='e' && strncmp(azArg[0], "eqp", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      p->autoEQPtest = 0;
      if( p->autoEQPtrace ){
        if( p->db ) sqlite3_exec(p->db, "PRAGMA vdbe_trace=OFF;", 0, 0, 0);
        p->autoEQPtrace = 0;
      }
      if( strcmp(azArg[1],"full")==0 ){
        p->autoEQP = AUTOEQP_full;
      }else if( strcmp(azArg[1],"trigger")==0 ){
        p->autoEQP = AUTOEQP_trigger;
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
      }else if( strcmp(azArg[1],"test")==0 ){
        p->autoEQP = AUTOEQP_on;
        p->autoEQPtest = 1;
      }else if( strcmp(azArg[1],"trace")==0 ){
        p->autoEQP = AUTOEQP_full;
        p->autoEQPtrace = 1;
        open_db(p, 0);
        sqlite3_exec(p->db, "SELECT name FROM sqlite_schema LIMIT 1", 0, 0, 0);
        sqlite3_exec(p->db, "PRAGMA vdbe_trace=ON;", 0, 0, 0);
#endif
      }else{
        p->autoEQP = (u8)booleanValue(azArg[1]);
      }
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .eqp off|on|trace|trigger|full\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  if( c=='e' && strncmp(azArg[0], "exit", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg>1 && (rc = (int)integerValue(azArg[1]))!=0 ) exit(rc);
    rc = 2;
  }else

  /* The ".explain" command is automatic now.  It is largely pointless.  It
  ** retained purely for backwards compatibility */
  if( c=='e' && strncmp(azArg[0], "explain", n)==0 ){
    int val = 1;
    if( nArg>=2 ){
      if( strcmp(azArg[1],"auto")==0 ){
        val = 99;
      }else{
        val =  booleanValue(azArg[1]);
      }
    }
    if( val==1 && p->mode!=MODE_Explain ){
      p->normalMode = p->mode;
      p->mode = MODE_Explain;
      p->autoExplain = 0;
    }else if( val==0 ){
      if( p->mode==MODE_Explain ) p->mode = p->normalMode;
      p->autoExplain = 0;
    }else if( val==99 ){
      if( p->mode==MODE_Explain ) p->mode = p->normalMode;
      p->autoExplain = 1;
    }
  }else

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  if( c=='e' && strncmp(azArg[0], "expert", n)==0 ){
    open_db(p, 0);
    expertDotCommand(p, azArg, nArg);
  }else
#endif

  if( c=='f' && strncmp(azArg[0], "filectrl", n)==0 ){
    static const struct {
       const char *zCtrlName;   /* Name of a test-control option */
       int ctrlCode;            /* Integer code for that option */
       const char *zUsage;      /* Usage notes */
    } aCtrl[] = {
      { "chunk_size",     SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE,      "SIZE"           },
      { "data_version",   SQLITE_FCNTL_DATA_VERSION,    ""               },
      { "has_moved",      SQLITE_FCNTL_HAS_MOVED,       ""               },  
      { "lock_timeout",   SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCK_TIMEOUT,    "MILLISEC"       },
      { "persist_wal",    SQLITE_FCNTL_PERSIST_WAL,     "[BOOLEAN]"      },
   /* { "pragma",         SQLITE_FCNTL_PRAGMA,          "NAME ARG"       },*/
      { "psow",       SQLITE_FCNTL_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE, "[BOOLEAN]"      },
      { "reserve_bytes",  SQLITE_FCNTL_RESERVE_BYTES,   "[N]"            },
      { "size_limit",     SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_LIMIT,      "[LIMIT]"        },
      { "tempfilename",   SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME,    ""               },
   /* { "win32_av_retry", SQLITE_FCNTL_WIN32_AV_RETRY,  "COUNT DELAY"    },*/
    };
    int filectrl = -1;
    int iCtrl = -1;
    sqlite3_int64 iRes = 0;  /* Integer result to display if rc2==1 */
    int isOk = 0;            /* 0: usage  1: %lld  2: no-result */
    int n2, i;
    const char *zCmd = 0;
    const char *zSchema = 0;

    open_db(p, 0);
    zCmd = nArg>=2 ? azArg[1] : "help";

    if( zCmd[0]=='-' 
     && (strcmp(zCmd,"--schema")==0 || strcmp(zCmd,"-schema")==0)
     && nArg>=4
    ){
      zSchema = azArg[2];
      for(i=3; i<nArg; i++) azArg[i-2] = azArg[i];
      nArg -= 2;
      zCmd = azArg[1];
    }

    /* The argument can optionally begin with "-" or "--" */
    if( zCmd[0]=='-' && zCmd[1] ){
      zCmd++;
      if( zCmd[0]=='-' && zCmd[1] ) zCmd++;
    }

    /* --help lists all file-controls */
    if( strcmp(zCmd,"help")==0 ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "Available file-controls:\n");
      for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aCtrl); i++){
        utf8_printf(p->out, "  .filectrl %s %s\n",
                    aCtrl[i].zCtrlName, aCtrl[i].zUsage);
      }
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }

    /* convert filectrl text option to value. allow any unique prefix
    ** of the option name, or a numerical value. */
    n2 = strlen30(zCmd);
    for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aCtrl); i++){
      if( strncmp(zCmd, aCtrl[i].zCtrlName, n2)==0 ){
        if( filectrl<0 ){
          filectrl = aCtrl[i].ctrlCode;
          iCtrl = i;
        }else{
          utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: ambiguous file-control: \"%s\"\n"
                              "Use \".filectrl --help\" for help\n", zCmd);
          rc = 1;
          goto meta_command_exit;
        }
      }
    }
    if( filectrl<0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: unknown file-control: %s\n"
                         "Use \".filectrl --help\" for help\n", zCmd);
    }else{
      switch(filectrl){
        case SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_LIMIT: {
          if( nArg!=2 && nArg!=3 ) break;
          iRes = nArg==3 ? integerValue(azArg[2]) : -1;
          sqlite3_file_control(p->db, zSchema, SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_LIMIT, &iRes);
          isOk = 1;
          break;
        }
        case SQLITE_FCNTL_LOCK_TIMEOUT:
        case SQLITE_FCNTL_CHUNK_SIZE: {
          int x;
          if( nArg!=3 ) break;
          x = (int)integerValue(azArg[2]);
          sqlite3_file_control(p->db, zSchema, filectrl, &x);
          isOk = 2;
          break;
        }
        case SQLITE_FCNTL_PERSIST_WAL:
        case SQLITE_FCNTL_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE: {
          int x;
          if( nArg!=2 && nArg!=3 ) break;
          x = nArg==3 ? booleanValue(azArg[2]) : -1;
          sqlite3_file_control(p->db, zSchema, filectrl, &x);
          iRes = x;
          isOk = 1;
          break;
        }
        case SQLITE_FCNTL_DATA_VERSION:
        case SQLITE_FCNTL_HAS_MOVED: {
          int x;
          if( nArg!=2 ) break;
          sqlite3_file_control(p->db, zSchema, filectrl, &x);
          iRes = x;
          isOk = 1;
          break;
        }
        case SQLITE_FCNTL_TEMPFILENAME: {
          char *z = 0;
          if( nArg!=2 ) break;
          sqlite3_file_control(p->db, zSchema, filectrl, &z);
          if( z ){
            utf8_printf(p->out, "%s\n", z);
            sqlite3_free(z);
          }
          isOk = 2;
          break;
        }
        case SQLITE_FCNTL_RESERVE_BYTES: {
          int x;
          if( nArg>=3 ){
            x = atoi(azArg[2]);
            sqlite3_file_control(p->db, zSchema, filectrl, &x);
          }
          x = -1;
          sqlite3_file_control(p->db, zSchema, filectrl, &x);
          utf8_printf(p->out,"%d\n", x);
          isOk = 2;
          break;
        }
      }
    }
    if( isOk==0 && iCtrl>=0 ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "Usage: .filectrl %s %s\n", zCmd,aCtrl[iCtrl].zUsage);
      rc = 1;
    }else if( isOk==1 ){
      char zBuf[100];
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zBuf), zBuf, "%lld", iRes);
      raw_printf(p->out, "%s\n", zBuf);
    }
  }else

  if( c=='f' && strncmp(azArg[0], "fullschema", n)==0 ){
    ShellState data;
    int doStats = 0;
    memcpy(&data, p, sizeof(data));
    data.showHeader = 0;
    data.cMode = data.mode = MODE_Semi;
    if( nArg==2 && optionMatch(azArg[1], "indent") ){
      data.cMode = data.mode = MODE_Pretty;
      nArg = 1;
    }
    if( nArg!=1 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .fullschema ?--indent?\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    open_db(p, 0);
    rc = sqlite3_exec(p->db,
       "SELECT sql FROM"
       "  (SELECT sql sql, type type, tbl_name tbl_name, name name, rowid x"
       "     FROM sqlite_schema UNION ALL"
       "   SELECT sql, type, tbl_name, name, rowid FROM sqlite_temp_schema) "
       "WHERE type!='meta' AND sql NOTNULL AND name NOT LIKE 'sqlite_%' "
       "ORDER BY x",
       callback, &data, 0
    );
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
      rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db,
               "SELECT rowid FROM sqlite_schema"
               " WHERE name GLOB 'sqlite_stat[134]'",
               -1, &pStmt, 0);
      doStats = sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW;
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    }
    if( doStats==0 ){
      raw_printf(p->out, "/* No STAT tables available */\n");
    }else{
      raw_printf(p->out, "ANALYZE sqlite_schema;\n");
      data.cMode = data.mode = MODE_Insert;
      data.zDestTable = "sqlite_stat1";
      shell_exec(&data, "SELECT * FROM sqlite_stat1", 0);
      data.zDestTable = "sqlite_stat4";
      shell_exec(&data, "SELECT * FROM sqlite_stat4", 0);
      raw_printf(p->out, "ANALYZE sqlite_schema;\n");
    }
  }else

  if( c=='h' && strncmp(azArg[0], "headers", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      p->showHeader = booleanValue(azArg[1]);
      p->shellFlgs |= SHFLG_HeaderSet;
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .headers on|off\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  if( c=='h' && strncmp(azArg[0], "help", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg>=2 ){
      n = showHelp(p->out, azArg[1]);
      if( n==0 ){
        utf8_printf(p->out, "Nothing matches '%s'\n", azArg[1]);
      }
    }else{
      showHelp(p->out, 0);
    }
  }else

  if( c=='i' && strncmp(azArg[0], "import", n)==0 ){
    char *zTable = 0;           /* Insert data into this table */
    char *zFile = 0;            /* Name of file to extra content from */
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = NULL; /* A statement */
    int nCol;                   /* Number of columns in the table */
    int nByte;                  /* Number of bytes in an SQL string */
    int i, j;                   /* Loop counters */
    int needCommit;             /* True to COMMIT or ROLLBACK at end */
    int nSep;                   /* Number of bytes in p->colSeparator[] */
    char *zSql;                 /* An SQL statement */
    ImportCtx sCtx;             /* Reader context */
    char *(SQLITE_CDECL *xRead)(ImportCtx*); /* Func to read one value */
    int eVerbose = 0;           /* Larger for more console output */
    int nSkip = 0;              /* Initial lines to skip */
    int useOutputMode = 1;      /* Use output mode to determine separators */

    memset(&sCtx, 0, sizeof(sCtx));
    if( p->mode==MODE_Ascii ){
      xRead = ascii_read_one_field;
    }else{
      xRead = csv_read_one_field;
    }
    for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
      char *z = azArg[i];
      if( z[0]=='-' && z[1]=='-' ) z++;
      if( z[0]!='-' ){
        if( zFile==0 ){
          zFile = z;
        }else if( zTable==0 ){
          zTable = z;
        }else{
          utf8_printf(p->out, "ERROR: extra argument: \"%s\".  Usage:\n", z);
          showHelp(p->out, "import");
          rc = 1;
          goto meta_command_exit;
        }
      }else if( strcmp(z,"-v")==0 ){
        eVerbose++;
      }else if( strcmp(z,"-skip")==0 && i<nArg-1 ){
        nSkip = integerValue(azArg[++i]);
      }else if( strcmp(z,"-ascii")==0 ){
        sCtx.cColSep = SEP_Unit[0];
        sCtx.cRowSep = SEP_Record[0];
        xRead = ascii_read_one_field;
        useOutputMode = 0;
      }else if( strcmp(z,"-csv")==0 ){
        sCtx.cColSep = ',';
        sCtx.cRowSep = '\n';
        xRead = csv_read_one_field;
        useOutputMode = 0;
      }else{
        utf8_printf(p->out, "ERROR: unknown option: \"%s\".  Usage:\n", z);
        showHelp(p->out, "import");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
    }
    if( zTable==0 ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "ERROR: missing %s argument. Usage:\n",
                  zFile==0 ? "FILE" : "TABLE");
      showHelp(p->out, "import");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    seenInterrupt = 0;
    open_db(p, 0);
    if( useOutputMode ){
      /* If neither the --csv or --ascii options are specified, then set
      ** the column and row separator characters from the output mode. */
      nSep = strlen30(p->colSeparator);
      if( nSep==0 ){
        raw_printf(stderr,
                   "Error: non-null column separator required for import\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      if( nSep>1 ){
        raw_printf(stderr, 
              "Error: multi-character column separators not allowed"
              " for import\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      nSep = strlen30(p->rowSeparator);
      if( nSep==0 ){
        raw_printf(stderr,
            "Error: non-null row separator required for import\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      if( nSep==2 && p->mode==MODE_Csv && strcmp(p->rowSeparator,SEP_CrLf)==0 ){
        /* When importing CSV (only), if the row separator is set to the
        ** default output row separator, change it to the default input
        ** row separator.  This avoids having to maintain different input
        ** and output row separators. */
        sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->rowSeparator), p->rowSeparator, SEP_Row);
        nSep = strlen30(p->rowSeparator);
      }
      if( nSep>1 ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Error: multi-character row separators not allowed"
                           " for import\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      sCtx.cColSep = p->colSeparator[0];
      sCtx.cRowSep = p->rowSeparator[0];
    }
    sCtx.zFile = zFile;
    sCtx.nLine = 1;
    if( sCtx.zFile[0]=='|' ){
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_POPEN
      raw_printf(stderr, "Error: pipes are not supported in this OS\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
#else
      sCtx.in = popen(sCtx.zFile+1, "r");
      sCtx.zFile = "<pipe>";
      sCtx.xCloser = pclose;
#endif
    }else{
      sCtx.in = fopen(sCtx.zFile, "rb");
      sCtx.xCloser = fclose;
    }
    if( sCtx.in==0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: cannot open \"%s\"\n", zFile);
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    if( eVerbose>=2 || (eVerbose>=1 && useOutputMode) ){
      char zSep[2];
      zSep[1] = 0;
      zSep[0] = sCtx.cColSep;
      utf8_printf(p->out, "Column separator ");
      output_c_string(p->out, zSep);
      utf8_printf(p->out, ", row separator ");
      zSep[0] = sCtx.cRowSep;
      output_c_string(p->out, zSep);
      utf8_printf(p->out, "\n");
    }
    while( (nSkip--)>0 ){
      while( xRead(&sCtx) && sCtx.cTerm==sCtx.cColSep ){}
    }
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("SELECT * FROM \"%w\"", zTable);
    if( zSql==0 ){
      import_cleanup(&sCtx);
      shell_out_of_memory();
    }
    nByte = strlen30(zSql);
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
    import_append_char(&sCtx, 0);    /* To ensure sCtx.z is allocated */
    if( rc && sqlite3_strglob("no such table: *", sqlite3_errmsg(p->db))==0 ){
      char *zCreate = sqlite3_mprintf("CREATE TABLE \"%w\"", zTable);
      char cSep = '(';
      while( xRead(&sCtx) ){
        zCreate = sqlite3_mprintf("%z%c\n  \"%w\" TEXT", zCreate, cSep, sCtx.z);
        cSep = ',';
        if( sCtx.cTerm!=sCtx.cColSep ) break;
      }
      if( cSep=='(' ){
        sqlite3_free(zCreate);
        import_cleanup(&sCtx);
        utf8_printf(stderr,"%s: empty file\n", sCtx.zFile);
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      zCreate = sqlite3_mprintf("%z\n)", zCreate);
      if( eVerbose>=1 ){
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%s\n", zCreate);
      }
      rc = sqlite3_exec(p->db, zCreate, 0, 0, 0);
      sqlite3_free(zCreate);
      if( rc ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "CREATE TABLE \"%s\"(...) failed: %s\n", zTable,
                sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
        import_cleanup(&sCtx);
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
    }
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    if( rc ){
      if (pStmt) sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
      import_cleanup(&sCtx);
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    nCol = sqlite3_column_count(pStmt);
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    pStmt = 0;
    if( nCol==0 ) return 0; /* no columns, no error */
    zSql = sqlite3_malloc64( nByte*2 + 20 + nCol*2 );
    if( zSql==0 ){
      import_cleanup(&sCtx);
      shell_out_of_memory();
    }
    sqlite3_snprintf(nByte+20, zSql, "INSERT INTO \"%w\" VALUES(?", zTable);
    j = strlen30(zSql);
    for(i=1; i<nCol; i++){
      zSql[j++] = ',';
      zSql[j++] = '?';
    }
    zSql[j++] = ')';
    zSql[j] = 0;
    if( eVerbose>=2 ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "Insert using: %s\n", zSql);
    }
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    if( rc ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
      if (pStmt) sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      import_cleanup(&sCtx);
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    needCommit = sqlite3_get_autocommit(p->db);
    if( needCommit ) sqlite3_exec(p->db, "BEGIN", 0, 0, 0);
    do{
      int startLine = sCtx.nLine;
      for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
        char *z = xRead(&sCtx);
        /*
        ** Did we reach end-of-file before finding any columns?
        ** If so, stop instead of NULL filling the remaining columns.
        */
        if( z==0 && i==0 ) break;
        /*
        ** Did we reach end-of-file OR end-of-line before finding any
        ** columns in ASCII mode?  If so, stop instead of NULL filling
        ** the remaining columns.
        */
        if( p->mode==MODE_Ascii && (z==0 || z[0]==0) && i==0 ) break;
        sqlite3_bind_text(pStmt, i+1, z, -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
        if( i<nCol-1 && sCtx.cTerm!=sCtx.cColSep ){
          utf8_printf(stderr, "%s:%d: expected %d columns but found %d - "
                          "filling the rest with NULL\n",
                          sCtx.zFile, startLine, nCol, i+1);
          i += 2;
          while( i<=nCol ){ sqlite3_bind_null(pStmt, i); i++; }
        }
      }
      if( sCtx.cTerm==sCtx.cColSep ){
        do{
          xRead(&sCtx);
          i++;
        }while( sCtx.cTerm==sCtx.cColSep );
        utf8_printf(stderr, "%s:%d: expected %d columns but found %d - "
                        "extras ignored\n",
                        sCtx.zFile, startLine, nCol, i);
      }
      if( i>=nCol ){
        sqlite3_step(pStmt);
        rc = sqlite3_reset(pStmt);
        if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
          utf8_printf(stderr, "%s:%d: INSERT failed: %s\n", sCtx.zFile,
                      startLine, sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
          sCtx.nErr++;
        }else{
          sCtx.nRow++;
        }
      }
    }while( sCtx.cTerm!=EOF );

    import_cleanup(&sCtx);
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    if( needCommit ) sqlite3_exec(p->db, "COMMIT", 0, 0, 0);
    if( eVerbose>0 ){
      utf8_printf(p->out,
          "Added %d rows with %d errors using %d lines of input\n",
          sCtx.nRow, sCtx.nErr, sCtx.nLine-1);
    }
  }else

#ifndef SQLITE_UNTESTABLE
  if( c=='i' && strncmp(azArg[0], "imposter", n)==0 ){
    char *zSql;
    char *zCollist = 0;
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
    int tnum = 0;
    int isWO = 0;  /* True if making an imposter of a WITHOUT ROWID table */
    int lenPK = 0; /* Length of the PRIMARY KEY string for isWO tables */
    int i;
    if( !(nArg==3 || (nArg==2 && sqlite3_stricmp(azArg[1],"off")==0)) ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Usage: .imposter INDEX IMPOSTER\n"
                          "       .imposter off\n");
      /* Also allowed, but not documented:
      **
      **    .imposter TABLE IMPOSTER
      **
      ** where TABLE is a WITHOUT ROWID table.  In that case, the
      ** imposter is another WITHOUT ROWID table with the columns in
      ** storage order. */
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    open_db(p, 0);
    if( nArg==2 ){
      sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_IMPOSTER, p->db, "main", 0, 1);
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
      "SELECT rootpage, 0 FROM sqlite_schema"
      " WHERE name='%q' AND type='index'"
      "UNION ALL "
      "SELECT rootpage, 1 FROM sqlite_schema"
      " WHERE name='%q' AND type='table'"
      "   AND sql LIKE '%%without%%rowid%%'",
      azArg[1], azArg[1]
    );
    sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    if( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
      tnum = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
      isWO = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 1);
    }
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf("PRAGMA index_xinfo='%q'", azArg[1]);
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
    i = 0;
    while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
      char zLabel[20];
      const char *zCol = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,2);
      i++;
      if( zCol==0 ){
        if( sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,1)==-1 ){
          zCol = "_ROWID_";
        }else{
          sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zLabel),zLabel,"expr%d",i);
          zCol = zLabel;
        }
      }
      if( isWO && lenPK==0 && sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,5)==0 && zCollist ){
        lenPK = (int)strlen(zCollist);
      }
      if( zCollist==0 ){
        zCollist = sqlite3_mprintf("\"%w\"", zCol);
      }else{
        zCollist = sqlite3_mprintf("%z,\"%w\"", zCollist, zCol);
      }
    }
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    if( i==0 || tnum==0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "no such index: \"%s\"\n", azArg[1]);
      rc = 1;
      sqlite3_free(zCollist);
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    if( lenPK==0 ) lenPK = 100000;
    zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
          "CREATE TABLE \"%w\"(%s,PRIMARY KEY(%.*s))WITHOUT ROWID",
          azArg[2], zCollist, lenPK, zCollist);
    sqlite3_free(zCollist);
    rc = sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_IMPOSTER, p->db, "main", 1, tnum);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = sqlite3_exec(p->db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
      sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_IMPOSTER, p->db, "main", 0, 0);
      if( rc ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Error in [%s]: %s\n", zSql, sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
      }else{
        utf8_printf(stdout, "%s;\n", zSql);
        raw_printf(stdout,
          "WARNING: writing to an imposter table will corrupt the \"%s\" %s!\n",
          azArg[1], isWO ? "table" : "index"
        );
      }
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "SQLITE_TESTCTRL_IMPOSTER returns %d\n", rc);
      rc = 1;
    }
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
  }else
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TEST_CONTROL) */

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_IOTRACE
  if( c=='i' && strncmp(azArg[0], "iotrace", n)==0 ){
    SQLITE_API extern void (SQLITE_CDECL *sqlite3IoTrace)(const char*, ...);
    if( iotrace && iotrace!=stdout ) fclose(iotrace);
    iotrace = 0;
    if( nArg<2 ){
      sqlite3IoTrace = 0;
    }else if( strcmp(azArg[1], "-")==0 ){
      sqlite3IoTrace = iotracePrintf;
      iotrace = stdout;
    }else{
      iotrace = fopen(azArg[1], "w");
      if( iotrace==0 ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: cannot open \"%s\"\n", azArg[1]);
        sqlite3IoTrace = 0;
        rc = 1;
      }else{
        sqlite3IoTrace = iotracePrintf;
      }
    }
  }else
#endif

  if( c=='l' && n>=5 && strncmp(azArg[0], "limits", n)==0 ){
    static const struct {
       const char *zLimitName;   /* Name of a limit */
       int limitCode;            /* Integer code for that limit */
    } aLimit[] = {
      { "length",                SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH                    },
      { "sql_length",            SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH                },
      { "column",                SQLITE_LIMIT_COLUMN                    },
      { "expr_depth",            SQLITE_LIMIT_EXPR_DEPTH                },
      { "compound_select",       SQLITE_LIMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT           },
      { "vdbe_op",               SQLITE_LIMIT_VDBE_OP                   },
      { "function_arg",          SQLITE_LIMIT_FUNCTION_ARG              },
      { "attached",              SQLITE_LIMIT_ATTACHED                  },
      { "like_pattern_length",   SQLITE_LIMIT_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH       },
      { "variable_number",       SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER           },
      { "trigger_depth",         SQLITE_LIMIT_TRIGGER_DEPTH             },
      { "worker_threads",        SQLITE_LIMIT_WORKER_THREADS            },
    };
    int i, n2;
    open_db(p, 0);
    if( nArg==1 ){
      for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aLimit); i++){
        printf("%20s %d\n", aLimit[i].zLimitName,
               sqlite3_limit(p->db, aLimit[i].limitCode, -1));
      }
    }else if( nArg>3 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .limit NAME ?NEW-VALUE?\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }else{
      int iLimit = -1;
      n2 = strlen30(azArg[1]);
      for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aLimit); i++){
        if( sqlite3_strnicmp(aLimit[i].zLimitName, azArg[1], n2)==0 ){
          if( iLimit<0 ){
            iLimit = i;
          }else{
            utf8_printf(stderr, "ambiguous limit: \"%s\"\n", azArg[1]);
            rc = 1;
            goto meta_command_exit;
          }
        }
      }
      if( iLimit<0 ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "unknown limit: \"%s\"\n"
                        "enter \".limits\" with no arguments for a list.\n",
                         azArg[1]);
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      if( nArg==3 ){
        sqlite3_limit(p->db, aLimit[iLimit].limitCode,
                      (int)integerValue(azArg[2]));
      }
      printf("%20s %d\n", aLimit[iLimit].zLimitName,
             sqlite3_limit(p->db, aLimit[iLimit].limitCode, -1));
    }
  }else

  if( c=='l' && n>2 && strncmp(azArg[0], "lint", n)==0 ){
    open_db(p, 0);
    lintDotCommand(p, azArg, nArg);
  }else

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_LOAD_EXTENSION
  if( c=='l' && strncmp(azArg[0], "load", n)==0 ){
    const char *zFile, *zProc;
    char *zErrMsg = 0;
    if( nArg<2 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .load FILE ?ENTRYPOINT?\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    zFile = azArg[1];
    zProc = nArg>=3 ? azArg[2] : 0;
    open_db(p, 0);
    rc = sqlite3_load_extension(p->db, zFile, zProc, &zErrMsg);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", zErrMsg);
      sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else
#endif

  if( c=='l' && strncmp(azArg[0], "log", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg!=2 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .log FILENAME\n");
      rc = 1;
    }else{
      const char *zFile = azArg[1];
      output_file_close(p->pLog);
      p->pLog = output_file_open(zFile, 0);
    }
  }else

  if( c=='m' && strncmp(azArg[0], "mode", n)==0 ){
    const char *zMode = nArg>=2 ? azArg[1] : "";
    int n2 = strlen30(zMode);
    int c2 = zMode[0];
    if( c2=='l' && n2>2 && strncmp(azArg[1],"lines",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Line;
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->rowSeparator), p->rowSeparator, SEP_Row);
    }else if( c2=='c' && strncmp(azArg[1],"columns",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Column;
      if( (p->shellFlgs & SHFLG_HeaderSet)==0 ){
        p->showHeader = 1;
      }
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->rowSeparator), p->rowSeparator, SEP_Row);
    }else if( c2=='l' && n2>2 && strncmp(azArg[1],"list",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_List;
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->colSeparator), p->colSeparator, SEP_Column);
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->rowSeparator), p->rowSeparator, SEP_Row);
    }else if( c2=='h' && strncmp(azArg[1],"html",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Html;
    }else if( c2=='t' && strncmp(azArg[1],"tcl",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Tcl;
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->colSeparator), p->colSeparator, SEP_Space);
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->rowSeparator), p->rowSeparator, SEP_Row);
    }else if( c2=='c' && strncmp(azArg[1],"csv",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Csv;
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->colSeparator), p->colSeparator, SEP_Comma);
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->rowSeparator), p->rowSeparator, SEP_CrLf);
    }else if( c2=='t' && strncmp(azArg[1],"tabs",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_List;
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->colSeparator), p->colSeparator, SEP_Tab);
    }else if( c2=='i' && strncmp(azArg[1],"insert",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Insert;
      set_table_name(p, nArg>=3 ? azArg[2] : "table");
    }else if( c2=='q' && strncmp(azArg[1],"quote",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Quote;
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->colSeparator), p->colSeparator, SEP_Comma);
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->rowSeparator), p->rowSeparator, SEP_Row);
    }else if( c2=='a' && strncmp(azArg[1],"ascii",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Ascii;
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->colSeparator), p->colSeparator, SEP_Unit);
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->rowSeparator), p->rowSeparator, SEP_Record);
    }else if( c2=='m' && strncmp(azArg[1],"markdown",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Markdown;
    }else if( c2=='t' && strncmp(azArg[1],"table",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Table;
    }else if( c2=='b' && strncmp(azArg[1],"box",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Box;
    }else if( c2=='j' && strncmp(azArg[1],"json",n2)==0 ){
      p->mode = MODE_Json;
    }else if( nArg==1 ){
      raw_printf(p->out, "current output mode: %s\n", modeDescr[p->mode]);
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Error: mode should be one of: "
         "ascii box column csv html insert json line list markdown "
         "quote table tabs tcl\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
    p->cMode = p->mode;
  }else

  if( c=='n' && strncmp(azArg[0], "nullvalue", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->nullValue), p->nullValue,
                       "%.*s", (int)ArraySize(p->nullValue)-1, azArg[1]);
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .nullvalue STRING\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  if( c=='o' && strcmp(azArg[0],"oom")==0 ){
    int i;
    for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
      const char *z = azArg[i];
      if( z[0]=='-' && z[1]=='-' ) z++;
      if( strcmp(z,"-repeat")==0 ){
        if( i==nArg-1 ){
          raw_printf(p->out, "missing argument on \"%s\"\n", azArg[i]);
          rc = 1;
        }else{
          oomRepeat = (int)integerValue(azArg[++i]);
        }
      }else if( IsDigit(z[0]) ){
        oomCounter = (int)integerValue(azArg[i]);
      }else{
        raw_printf(p->out, "unknown argument: \"%s\"\n", azArg[i]);
        raw_printf(p->out, "Usage: .oom [--repeat N] [M]\n");
        rc = 1;
      }
    }
    if( rc==0 ){
      raw_printf(p->out, "oomCounter = %d\n", oomCounter);
      raw_printf(p->out, "oomRepeat  = %d\n", oomRepeat);
    }
  }else
#endif /* SQLITE_DEBUG */

  if( c=='o' && strncmp(azArg[0], "open", n)==0 && n>=2 ){
    char *zNewFilename = 0;  /* Name of the database file to open */
    int iName = 1;           /* Index in azArg[] of the filename */
    int newFlag = 0;         /* True to delete file before opening */
    /* Close the existing database */
    session_close_all(p, -1);
    close_db(p->db);
    p->db = 0;
    p->pAuxDb->zDbFilename = 0;
    sqlite3_free(p->pAuxDb->zFreeOnClose);
    p->pAuxDb->zFreeOnClose = 0;
    p->openMode = SHELL_OPEN_UNSPEC;
    p->openFlags = 0;
    p->szMax = 0;
    /* Check for command-line arguments */
    for(iName=1; iName<nArg; iName++){
      const char *z = azArg[iName];
      if( optionMatch(z,"new") ){
        newFlag = 1;
#ifdef SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB
      }else if( optionMatch(z, "zip") ){
        p->openMode = SHELL_OPEN_ZIPFILE;
#endif
      }else if( optionMatch(z, "append") ){
        p->openMode = SHELL_OPEN_APPENDVFS;
      }else if( optionMatch(z, "readonly") ){
        p->openMode = SHELL_OPEN_READONLY;
      }else if( optionMatch(z, "nofollow") ){
        p->openFlags |= SQLITE_OPEN_NOFOLLOW;
      }else if( optionMatch(z, "excl") ){
        p->openFlags |= SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DESERIALIZE
      }else if( optionMatch(z, "deserialize") ){
        p->openMode = SHELL_OPEN_DESERIALIZE;
      }else if( optionMatch(z, "hexdb") ){
        p->openMode = SHELL_OPEN_HEXDB;
      }else if( optionMatch(z, "maxsize") && iName+1<nArg ){
        p->szMax = integerValue(azArg[++iName]);
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_DESERIALIZE */
      }else if( z[0]=='-' ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "unknown option: %s\n", z);
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }else if( zNewFilename ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "extra argument: \"%s\"\n", z);
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }else{
        zNewFilename = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", z);
      }
    }
    /* If a filename is specified, try to open it first */
    if( zNewFilename || p->openMode==SHELL_OPEN_HEXDB ){
      if( newFlag ) shellDeleteFile(zNewFilename);
      p->pAuxDb->zDbFilename = zNewFilename;
      open_db(p, OPEN_DB_KEEPALIVE);
      if( p->db==0 ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: cannot open '%s'\n", zNewFilename);
        sqlite3_free(zNewFilename);
      }else{
        p->pAuxDb->zFreeOnClose = zNewFilename;
      }
    }
    if( p->db==0 ){
      /* As a fall-back open a TEMP database */
      p->pAuxDb->zDbFilename = 0;
      open_db(p, 0);
    }
  }else

  if( (c=='o'
        && (strncmp(azArg[0], "output", n)==0||strncmp(azArg[0], "once", n)==0))
   || (c=='e' && n==5 && strcmp(azArg[0],"excel")==0)
  ){
    char *zFile = 0;
    int bTxtMode = 0;
    int i;
    int eMode = 0;
    int bBOM = 0;
    int bOnce = 0;  /* 0: .output, 1: .once, 2: .excel */

    if( c=='e' ){
      eMode = 'x';
      bOnce = 2;
    }else if( strncmp(azArg[0],"once",n)==0 ){
      bOnce = 1;
    }
    for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
      char *z = azArg[i];
      if( z[0]=='-' ){
        if( z[1]=='-' ) z++;
        if( strcmp(z,"-bom")==0 ){
          bBOM = 1;
        }else if( c!='e' && strcmp(z,"-x")==0 ){
          eMode = 'x';  /* spreadsheet */
        }else if( c!='e' && strcmp(z,"-e")==0 ){
          eMode = 'e';  /* text editor */
        }else{
          utf8_printf(p->out, "ERROR: unknown option: \"%s\".  Usage:\n",
                      azArg[i]);
          showHelp(p->out, azArg[0]);
          rc = 1;
          goto meta_command_exit;
        }
      }else if( zFile==0 && eMode!='e' && eMode!='x' ){
        zFile = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", z);
        if( zFile[0]=='|' ){
          while( i+1<nArg ) zFile = sqlite3_mprintf("%z %s", zFile, azArg[++i]);
          break;
        }
      }else{
        utf8_printf(p->out,"ERROR: extra parameter: \"%s\".  Usage:\n",
                    azArg[i]);
        showHelp(p->out, azArg[0]);
        rc = 1;
        sqlite3_free(zFile);
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
    }
    if( zFile==0 ) zFile = sqlite3_mprintf("stdout");
    if( bOnce ){
      p->outCount = 2;
    }else{
      p->outCount = 0;
    }
    output_reset(p);
#ifndef SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM
    if( eMode=='e' || eMode=='x' ){
      p->doXdgOpen = 1;
      outputModePush(p);
      if( eMode=='x' ){
        /* spreadsheet mode.  Output as CSV. */
        newTempFile(p, "csv");
        ShellClearFlag(p, SHFLG_Echo);
        p->mode = MODE_Csv;
        sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->colSeparator), p->colSeparator, SEP_Comma);
        sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->rowSeparator), p->rowSeparator, SEP_CrLf);
      }else{
        /* text editor mode */
        newTempFile(p, "txt");
        bTxtMode = 1;
      }
      sqlite3_free(zFile);
      zFile = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", p->zTempFile);
    }
#endif /* SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM */
    if( zFile[0]=='|' ){
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_POPEN
      raw_printf(stderr, "Error: pipes are not supported in this OS\n");
      rc = 1;
      p->out = stdout;
#else
      p->out = popen(zFile + 1, "w");
      if( p->out==0 ){
        utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: cannot open pipe \"%s\"\n", zFile + 1);
        p->out = stdout;
        rc = 1;
      }else{
        if( bBOM ) fprintf(p->out,"\357\273\277");
        sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->outfile), p->outfile, "%s", zFile);
      }
#endif
    }else{
      p->out = output_file_open(zFile, bTxtMode);
      if( p->out==0 ){
        if( strcmp(zFile,"off")!=0 ){
          utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: cannot write to \"%s\"\n", zFile);
        }
        p->out = stdout;
        rc = 1;
      } else {
        if( bBOM ) fprintf(p->out,"\357\273\277");
        sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->outfile), p->outfile, "%s", zFile);
      }
    }
    sqlite3_free(zFile);
  }else

  if( c=='p' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "parameter", n)==0 ){
    open_db(p,0);
    if( nArg<=1 ) goto parameter_syntax_error;

    /* .parameter clear
    ** Clear all bind parameters by dropping the TEMP table that holds them.
    */
    if( nArg==2 && strcmp(azArg[1],"clear")==0 ){
      sqlite3_exec(p->db, "DROP TABLE IF EXISTS temp.sqlite_parameters;",
                   0, 0, 0);
    }else

    /* .parameter list
    ** List all bind parameters.
    */
    if( nArg==2 && strcmp(azArg[1],"list")==0 ){
      sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
      int rx;
      int len = 0;
      rx = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db,
             "SELECT max(length(key)) "
             "FROM temp.sqlite_parameters;", -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( rx==SQLITE_OK && sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
        len = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
        if( len>40 ) len = 40;
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      pStmt = 0;
      if( len ){
        rx = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db,
             "SELECT key, quote(value) "
             "FROM temp.sqlite_parameters;", -1, &pStmt, 0);
        while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
          utf8_printf(p->out, "%-*s %s\n", len, sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,0),
                      sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,1));
        }
        sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      }
    }else

    /* .parameter init
    ** Make sure the TEMP table used to hold bind parameters exists.
    ** Create it if necessary.
    */
    if( nArg==2 && strcmp(azArg[1],"init")==0 ){
      bind_table_init(p);
    }else

    /* .parameter set NAME VALUE
    ** Set or reset a bind parameter.  NAME should be the full parameter
    ** name exactly as it appears in the query.  (ex: $abc, @def).  The
    ** VALUE can be in either SQL literal notation, or if not it will be
    ** understood to be a text string.
    */
    if( nArg==4 && strcmp(azArg[1],"set")==0 ){
      int rx;
      char *zSql;
      sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
      const char *zKey = azArg[2];
      const char *zValue = azArg[3];
      bind_table_init(p);
      zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
                  "REPLACE INTO temp.sqlite_parameters(key,value)"
                  "VALUES(%Q,%s);", zKey, zValue);
      if( zSql==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
      pStmt = 0;
      rx = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
      sqlite3_free(zSql);
      if( rx!=SQLITE_OK ){
        sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
        pStmt = 0;
        zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
                   "REPLACE INTO temp.sqlite_parameters(key,value)"
                   "VALUES(%Q,%Q);", zKey, zValue);
        if( zSql==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
        rx = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
        sqlite3_free(zSql);
        if( rx!=SQLITE_OK ){
          utf8_printf(p->out, "Error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
          sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
          pStmt = 0;
          rc = 1;
        }
      }
      sqlite3_step(pStmt);
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    }else

    /* .parameter unset NAME
    ** Remove the NAME binding from the parameter binding table, if it
    ** exists.
    */
    if( nArg==3 && strcmp(azArg[1],"unset")==0 ){
      char *zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
          "DELETE FROM temp.sqlite_parameters WHERE key=%Q", azArg[2]);
      if( zSql==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
      sqlite3_exec(p->db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
      sqlite3_free(zSql);
    }else
    /* If no command name matches, show a syntax error */
    parameter_syntax_error:
    showHelp(p->out, "parameter");
  }else

  if( c=='p' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "print", n)==0 ){
    int i;
    for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
      if( i>1 ) raw_printf(p->out, " ");
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", azArg[i]);
    }
    raw_printf(p->out, "\n");
  }else

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
  if( c=='p' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "progress", n)==0 ){
    int i;
    int nn = 0;
    p->flgProgress = 0;
    p->mxProgress = 0;
    p->nProgress = 0;
    for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
      const char *z = azArg[i];
      if( z[0]=='-' ){
        z++;
        if( z[0]=='-' ) z++;
        if( strcmp(z,"quiet")==0 || strcmp(z,"q")==0 ){
          p->flgProgress |= SHELL_PROGRESS_QUIET;
          continue;
        }
        if( strcmp(z,"reset")==0 ){
          p->flgProgress |= SHELL_PROGRESS_RESET;
          continue;
        }
        if( strcmp(z,"once")==0 ){
          p->flgProgress |= SHELL_PROGRESS_ONCE;
          continue;
        }
        if( strcmp(z,"limit")==0 ){
          if( i+1>=nArg ){
            utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: missing argument on --limit\n");
            rc = 1;
            goto meta_command_exit;
          }else{
            p->mxProgress = (int)integerValue(azArg[++i]);
          }
          continue;
        }
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: unknown option: \"%s\"\n", azArg[i]);
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }else{
        nn = (int)integerValue(z);
      }
    }
    open_db(p, 0);
    sqlite3_progress_handler(p->db, nn, progress_handler, p);
  }else
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK */

  if( c=='p' && strncmp(azArg[0], "prompt", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg >= 2) {
      strncpy(mainPrompt,azArg[1],(int)ArraySize(mainPrompt)-1);
    }
    if( nArg >= 3) {
      strncpy(continuePrompt,azArg[2],(int)ArraySize(continuePrompt)-1);
    }
  }else

  if( c=='q' && strncmp(azArg[0], "quit", n)==0 ){
    rc = 2;
  }else

  if( c=='r' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "read", n)==0 ){
    FILE *inSaved = p->in;
    int savedLineno = p->lineno;
    if( nArg!=2 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .read FILE\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    if( azArg[1][0]=='|' ){
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_POPEN
      raw_printf(stderr, "Error: pipes are not supported in this OS\n");
      rc = 1;
      p->out = stdout;
#else
      p->in = popen(azArg[1]+1, "r");
      if( p->in==0 ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: cannot open \"%s\"\n", azArg[1]);
        rc = 1;
      }else{
        rc = process_input(p);
        pclose(p->in);
      }
#endif
    }else if( notNormalFile(azArg[1]) || (p->in = fopen(azArg[1], "rb"))==0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: cannot open \"%s\"\n", azArg[1]);
      rc = 1;
    }else{
      rc = process_input(p);
      fclose(p->in);
    }
    p->in = inSaved;
    p->lineno = savedLineno;
  }else

  if( c=='r' && n>=3 && strncmp(azArg[0], "restore", n)==0 ){
    const char *zSrcFile;
    const char *zDb;
    sqlite3 *pSrc;
    sqlite3_backup *pBackup;
    int nTimeout = 0;

    if( nArg==2 ){
      zSrcFile = azArg[1];
      zDb = "main";
    }else if( nArg==3 ){
      zSrcFile = azArg[2];
      zDb = azArg[1];
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .restore ?DB? FILE\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    rc = sqlite3_open(zSrcFile, &pSrc);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: cannot open \"%s\"\n", zSrcFile);
      close_db(pSrc);
      return 1;
    }
    open_db(p, 0);
    pBackup = sqlite3_backup_init(p->db, zDb, pSrc, "main");
    if( pBackup==0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
      close_db(pSrc);
      return 1;
    }
    while( (rc = sqlite3_backup_step(pBackup,100))==SQLITE_OK
          || rc==SQLITE_BUSY  ){
      if( rc==SQLITE_BUSY ){
        if( nTimeout++ >= 3 ) break;
        sqlite3_sleep(100);
      }
    }
    sqlite3_backup_finish(pBackup);
    if( rc==SQLITE_DONE ){
      rc = 0;
    }else if( rc==SQLITE_BUSY || rc==SQLITE_LOCKED ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Error: source database is busy\n");
      rc = 1;
    }else{
      utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
      rc = 1;
    }
    close_db(pSrc);
  }else

  if( c=='s' && strncmp(azArg[0], "scanstats", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      p->scanstatsOn = (u8)booleanValue(azArg[1]);
#ifndef SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS
      raw_printf(stderr, "Warning: .scanstats not available in this build.\n");
#endif
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .scanstats on|off\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  if( c=='s' && strncmp(azArg[0], "schema", n)==0 ){
    ShellText sSelect;
    ShellState data;
    char *zErrMsg = 0;
    const char *zDiv = "(";
    const char *zName = 0;
    int iSchema = 0;
    int bDebug = 0;
    int bNoSystemTabs = 0;
    int ii;

    open_db(p, 0);
    memcpy(&data, p, sizeof(data));
    data.showHeader = 0;
    data.cMode = data.mode = MODE_Semi;
    initText(&sSelect);
    for(ii=1; ii<nArg; ii++){
      if( optionMatch(azArg[ii],"indent") ){
        data.cMode = data.mode = MODE_Pretty;
      }else if( optionMatch(azArg[ii],"debug") ){
        bDebug = 1;
      }else if( optionMatch(azArg[ii],"nosys") ){
        bNoSystemTabs = 1;
      }else if( azArg[ii][0]=='-' ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Unknown option: \"%s\"\n", azArg[ii]);
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }else if( zName==0 ){
        zName = azArg[ii];
      }else{
        raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .schema ?--indent? ?--nosys? ?LIKE-PATTERN?\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
    }
    if( zName!=0 ){
      int isSchema = sqlite3_strlike(zName, "sqlite_master", '\\')==0
                  || sqlite3_strlike(zName, "sqlite_schema", '\\')==0
                  || sqlite3_strlike(zName,"sqlite_temp_master", '\\')==0
                  || sqlite3_strlike(zName,"sqlite_temp_schema", '\\')==0;
      if( isSchema ){
        char *new_argv[2], *new_colv[2];
        new_argv[0] = sqlite3_mprintf(
                      "CREATE TABLE %s (\n"
                      "  type text,\n"
                      "  name text,\n"
                      "  tbl_name text,\n"
                      "  rootpage integer,\n"
                      "  sql text\n"
                      ")", zName);
        new_argv[1] = 0;
        new_colv[0] = "sql";
        new_colv[1] = 0;
        callback(&data, 1, new_argv, new_colv);
        sqlite3_free(new_argv[0]);
      }
    }
    if( zDiv ){
      sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0;
      rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, "SELECT name FROM pragma_database_list",
                              -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( rc ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: %s\n", sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
        sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      appendText(&sSelect, "SELECT sql FROM", 0);
      iSchema = 0;
      while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
        const char *zDb = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0);
        char zScNum[30];
        sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zScNum), zScNum, "%d", ++iSchema);
        appendText(&sSelect, zDiv, 0);
        zDiv = " UNION ALL ";
        appendText(&sSelect, "SELECT shell_add_schema(sql,", 0);
        if( sqlite3_stricmp(zDb, "main")!=0 ){
          appendText(&sSelect, zDb, '\'');
        }else{
          appendText(&sSelect, "NULL", 0);
        }
        appendText(&sSelect, ",name) AS sql, type, tbl_name, name, rowid,", 0);
        appendText(&sSelect, zScNum, 0);
        appendText(&sSelect, " AS snum, ", 0);
        appendText(&sSelect, zDb, '\'');
        appendText(&sSelect, " AS sname FROM ", 0);
        appendText(&sSelect, zDb, quoteChar(zDb));
        appendText(&sSelect, ".sqlite_schema", 0);
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_INTROSPECTION_PRAGMAS
      if( zName ){
        appendText(&sSelect,
           " UNION ALL SELECT shell_module_schema(name),"
           " 'table', name, name, name, 9e+99, 'main' FROM pragma_module_list",
        0);
      }
#endif
      appendText(&sSelect, ") WHERE ", 0);
      if( zName ){
        char *zQarg = sqlite3_mprintf("%Q", zName);
        int bGlob = strchr(zName, '*') != 0 || strchr(zName, '?') != 0 ||
                    strchr(zName, '[') != 0;
        if( strchr(zName, '.') ){
          appendText(&sSelect, "lower(printf('%s.%s',sname,tbl_name))", 0);
        }else{
          appendText(&sSelect, "lower(tbl_name)", 0);
        }
        appendText(&sSelect, bGlob ? " GLOB " : " LIKE ", 0);
        appendText(&sSelect, zQarg, 0);
        if( !bGlob ){
          appendText(&sSelect, " ESCAPE '\\' ", 0);
        }
        appendText(&sSelect, " AND ", 0);
        sqlite3_free(zQarg);
      }
      if( bNoSystemTabs ){
        appendText(&sSelect, "name NOT LIKE 'sqlite_%%' AND ", 0);
      }
      appendText(&sSelect, "sql IS NOT NULL"
                           " ORDER BY snum, rowid", 0);
      if( bDebug ){
        utf8_printf(p->out, "SQL: %s;\n", sSelect.z);
      }else{
        rc = sqlite3_exec(p->db, sSelect.z, callback, &data, &zErrMsg);
      }
      freeText(&sSelect);
    }
    if( zErrMsg ){
      utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: %s\n", zErrMsg);
      sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
      rc = 1;
    }else if( rc != SQLITE_OK ){
      raw_printf(stderr,"Error: querying schema information\n");
      rc = 1;
    }else{
      rc = 0;
    }
  }else

  if( c=='s' && n==11 && strncmp(azArg[0], "selecttrace", n)==0 ){
    unsigned int x = nArg>=2 ? (unsigned int)integerValue(azArg[1]) : 0xffffffff;
    sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_TRACEFLAGS, 1, &x);
  }else

#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_SESSION)
  if( c=='s' && strncmp(azArg[0],"session",n)==0 && n>=3 ){
    struct AuxDb *pAuxDb = p->pAuxDb;
    OpenSession *pSession = &pAuxDb->aSession[0];
    char **azCmd = &azArg[1];
    int iSes = 0;
    int nCmd = nArg - 1;
    int i;
    if( nArg<=1 ) goto session_syntax_error;
    open_db(p, 0);
    if( nArg>=3 ){
      for(iSes=0; iSes<pAuxDb->nSession; iSes++){
        if( strcmp(pAuxDb->aSession[iSes].zName, azArg[1])==0 ) break;
      }
      if( iSes<pAuxDb->nSession ){
        pSession = &pAuxDb->aSession[iSes];
        azCmd++;
        nCmd--;
      }else{
        pSession = &pAuxDb->aSession[0];
        iSes = 0;
      }
    }

    /* .session attach TABLE
    ** Invoke the sqlite3session_attach() interface to attach a particular
    ** table so that it is never filtered.
    */
    if( strcmp(azCmd[0],"attach")==0 ){
      if( nCmd!=2 ) goto session_syntax_error;
      if( pSession->p==0 ){
        session_not_open:
        raw_printf(stderr, "ERROR: No sessions are open\n");
      }else{
        rc = sqlite3session_attach(pSession->p, azCmd[1]);
        if( rc ){
          raw_printf(stderr, "ERROR: sqlite3session_attach() returns %d\n", rc);
          rc = 0;
        }
      }
    }else

    /* .session changeset FILE
    ** .session patchset FILE
    ** Write a changeset or patchset into a file.  The file is overwritten.
    */
    if( strcmp(azCmd[0],"changeset")==0 || strcmp(azCmd[0],"patchset")==0 ){
      FILE *out = 0;
      if( nCmd!=2 ) goto session_syntax_error;
      if( pSession->p==0 ) goto session_not_open;
      out = fopen(azCmd[1], "wb");
      if( out==0 ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "ERROR: cannot open \"%s\" for writing\n",
                    azCmd[1]);
      }else{
        int szChng;
        void *pChng;
        if( azCmd[0][0]=='c' ){
          rc = sqlite3session_changeset(pSession->p, &szChng, &pChng);
        }else{
          rc = sqlite3session_patchset(pSession->p, &szChng, &pChng);
        }
        if( rc ){
          printf("Error: error code %d\n", rc);
          rc = 0;
        }
        if( pChng
          && fwrite(pChng, szChng, 1, out)!=1 ){
          raw_printf(stderr, "ERROR: Failed to write entire %d-byte output\n",
                  szChng);
        }
        sqlite3_free(pChng);
        fclose(out);
      }
    }else

    /* .session close
    ** Close the identified session
    */
    if( strcmp(azCmd[0], "close")==0 ){
      if( nCmd!=1 ) goto session_syntax_error;
      if( pAuxDb->nSession ){
        session_close(pSession);
        pAuxDb->aSession[iSes] = pAuxDb->aSession[--pAuxDb->nSession];
      }
    }else

    /* .session enable ?BOOLEAN?
    ** Query or set the enable flag
    */
    if( strcmp(azCmd[0], "enable")==0 ){
      int ii;
      if( nCmd>2 ) goto session_syntax_error;
      ii = nCmd==1 ? -1 : booleanValue(azCmd[1]);
      if( pAuxDb->nSession ){
        ii = sqlite3session_enable(pSession->p, ii);
        utf8_printf(p->out, "session %s enable flag = %d\n",
                    pSession->zName, ii);
      }
    }else

    /* .session filter GLOB ....
    ** Set a list of GLOB patterns of table names to be excluded.
    */
    if( strcmp(azCmd[0], "filter")==0 ){
      int ii, nByte;
      if( nCmd<2 ) goto session_syntax_error;
      if( pAuxDb->nSession ){
        for(ii=0; ii<pSession->nFilter; ii++){
          sqlite3_free(pSession->azFilter[ii]);
        }
        sqlite3_free(pSession->azFilter);
        nByte = sizeof(pSession->azFilter[0])*(nCmd-1);
        pSession->azFilter = sqlite3_malloc( nByte );
        if( pSession->azFilter==0 ){
          raw_printf(stderr, "Error: out or memory\n");
          exit(1);
        }
        for(ii=1; ii<nCmd; ii++){
          pSession->azFilter[ii-1] = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", azCmd[ii]);
        }
        pSession->nFilter = ii-1;
      }
    }else

    /* .session indirect ?BOOLEAN?
    ** Query or set the indirect flag
    */
    if( strcmp(azCmd[0], "indirect")==0 ){
      int ii;
      if( nCmd>2 ) goto session_syntax_error;
      ii = nCmd==1 ? -1 : booleanValue(azCmd[1]);
      if( pAuxDb->nSession ){
        ii = sqlite3session_indirect(pSession->p, ii);
        utf8_printf(p->out, "session %s indirect flag = %d\n",
                    pSession->zName, ii);
      }
    }else

    /* .session isempty
    ** Determine if the session is empty
    */
    if( strcmp(azCmd[0], "isempty")==0 ){
      int ii;
      if( nCmd!=1 ) goto session_syntax_error;
      if( pAuxDb->nSession ){
        ii = sqlite3session_isempty(pSession->p);
        utf8_printf(p->out, "session %s isempty flag = %d\n",
                    pSession->zName, ii);
      }
    }else

    /* .session list
    ** List all currently open sessions
    */
    if( strcmp(azCmd[0],"list")==0 ){
      for(i=0; i<pAuxDb->nSession; i++){
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%d %s\n", i, pAuxDb->aSession[i].zName);
      }
    }else

    /* .session open DB NAME
    ** Open a new session called NAME on the attached database DB.
    ** DB is normally "main".
    */
    if( strcmp(azCmd[0],"open")==0 ){
      char *zName;
      if( nCmd!=3 ) goto session_syntax_error;
      zName = azCmd[2];
      if( zName[0]==0 ) goto session_syntax_error;
      for(i=0; i<pAuxDb->nSession; i++){
        if( strcmp(pAuxDb->aSession[i].zName,zName)==0 ){
          utf8_printf(stderr, "Session \"%s\" already exists\n", zName);
          goto meta_command_exit;
        }
      }
      if( pAuxDb->nSession>=ArraySize(pAuxDb->aSession) ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Maximum of %d sessions\n", ArraySize(pAuxDb->aSession));
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      pSession = &pAuxDb->aSession[pAuxDb->nSession];
      rc = sqlite3session_create(p->db, azCmd[1], &pSession->p);
      if( rc ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Cannot open session: error code=%d\n", rc);
        rc = 0;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      pSession->nFilter = 0;
      sqlite3session_table_filter(pSession->p, session_filter, pSession);
      pAuxDb->nSession++;
      pSession->zName = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", zName);
    }else
    /* If no command name matches, show a syntax error */
    session_syntax_error:
    showHelp(p->out, "session");
  }else
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  /* Undocumented commands for internal testing.  Subject to change
  ** without notice. */
  if( c=='s' && n>=10 && strncmp(azArg[0], "selftest-", 9)==0 ){
    if( strncmp(azArg[0]+9, "boolean", n-9)==0 ){
      int i, v;
      for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
        v = booleanValue(azArg[i]);
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%s: %d 0x%x\n", azArg[i], v, v);
      }
    }
    if( strncmp(azArg[0]+9, "integer", n-9)==0 ){
      int i; sqlite3_int64 v;
      for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
        char zBuf[200];
        v = integerValue(azArg[i]);
        sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zBuf),zBuf,"%s: %lld 0x%llx\n", azArg[i],v,v);
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%s", zBuf);
      }
    }
  }else
#endif

  if( c=='s' && n>=4 && strncmp(azArg[0],"selftest",n)==0 ){
    int bIsInit = 0;         /* True to initialize the SELFTEST table */
    int bVerbose = 0;        /* Verbose output */
    int bSelftestExists;     /* True if SELFTEST already exists */
    int i, k;                /* Loop counters */
    int nTest = 0;           /* Number of tests runs */
    int nErr = 0;            /* Number of errors seen */
    ShellText str;           /* Answer for a query */
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt = 0; /* Query against the SELFTEST table */

    open_db(p,0);
    for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
      const char *z = azArg[i];
      if( z[0]=='-' && z[1]=='-' ) z++;
      if( strcmp(z,"-init")==0 ){
        bIsInit = 1;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"-v")==0 ){
        bVerbose++;
      }else
      {
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Unknown option \"%s\" on \"%s\"\n",
                    azArg[i], azArg[0]);
        raw_printf(stderr, "Should be one of: --init -v\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
    }
    if( sqlite3_table_column_metadata(p->db,"main","selftest",0,0,0,0,0,0)
           != SQLITE_OK ){
      bSelftestExists = 0;
    }else{
      bSelftestExists = 1;
    }
    if( bIsInit ){
      createSelftestTable(p);
      bSelftestExists = 1;
    }
    initText(&str);
    appendText(&str, "x", 0);
    for(k=bSelftestExists; k>=0; k--){
      if( k==1 ){
        rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db,
            "SELECT tno,op,cmd,ans FROM selftest ORDER BY tno",
            -1, &pStmt, 0);
      }else{
        rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db,
          "VALUES(0,'memo','Missing SELFTEST table - default checks only',''),"
          "      (1,'run','PRAGMA integrity_check','ok')",
          -1, &pStmt, 0);
      }
      if( rc ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Error querying the selftest table\n");
        rc = 1;
        sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      for(i=1; sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW; i++){
        int tno = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
        const char *zOp = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 1);
        const char *zSql = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 2);
        const char *zAns = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 3);

        k = 0;
        if( bVerbose>0 ){
          char *zQuote = sqlite3_mprintf("%q", zSql);
          printf("%d: %s %s\n", tno, zOp, zSql);
          sqlite3_free(zQuote);
        }
        if( strcmp(zOp,"memo")==0 ){
          utf8_printf(p->out, "%s\n", zSql);
        }else
        if( strcmp(zOp,"run")==0 ){
          char *zErrMsg = 0;
          str.n = 0;
          str.z[0] = 0;
          rc = sqlite3_exec(p->db, zSql, captureOutputCallback, &str, &zErrMsg);
          nTest++;
          if( bVerbose ){
            utf8_printf(p->out, "Result: %s\n", str.z);
          }
          if( rc || zErrMsg ){
            nErr++;
            rc = 1;
            utf8_printf(p->out, "%d: error-code-%d: %s\n", tno, rc, zErrMsg);
            sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
          }else if( strcmp(zAns,str.z)!=0 ){
            nErr++;
            rc = 1;
            utf8_printf(p->out, "%d: Expected: [%s]\n", tno, zAns);
            utf8_printf(p->out, "%d:      Got: [%s]\n", tno, str.z);
          }
        }else
        {
          utf8_printf(stderr,
            "Unknown operation \"%s\" on selftest line %d\n", zOp, tno);
          rc = 1;
          break;
        }
      } /* End loop over rows of content from SELFTEST */
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    } /* End loop over k */
    freeText(&str);
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%d errors out of %d tests\n", nErr, nTest);
  }else

  if( c=='s' && strncmp(azArg[0], "separator", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg<2 || nArg>3 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .separator COL ?ROW?\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
    if( nArg>=2 ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->colSeparator), p->colSeparator,
                       "%.*s", (int)ArraySize(p->colSeparator)-1, azArg[1]);
    }
    if( nArg>=3 ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->rowSeparator), p->rowSeparator,
                       "%.*s", (int)ArraySize(p->rowSeparator)-1, azArg[2]);
    }
  }else

  if( c=='s' && n>=4 && strncmp(azArg[0],"sha3sum",n)==0 ){
    const char *zLike = 0;   /* Which table to checksum. 0 means everything */
    int i;                   /* Loop counter */
    int bSchema = 0;         /* Also hash the schema */
    int bSeparate = 0;       /* Hash each table separately */
    int iSize = 224;         /* Hash algorithm to use */
    int bDebug = 0;          /* Only show the query that would have run */
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;     /* For querying tables names */
    char *zSql;              /* SQL to be run */
    char *zSep;              /* Separator */
    ShellText sSql;          /* Complete SQL for the query to run the hash */
    ShellText sQuery;        /* Set of queries used to read all content */
    open_db(p, 0);
    for(i=1; i<nArg; i++){
      const char *z = azArg[i];
      if( z[0]=='-' ){
        z++;
        if( z[0]=='-' ) z++;
        if( strcmp(z,"schema")==0 ){
          bSchema = 1;
        }else
        if( strcmp(z,"sha3-224")==0 || strcmp(z,"sha3-256")==0
         || strcmp(z,"sha3-384")==0 || strcmp(z,"sha3-512")==0
        ){
          iSize = atoi(&z[5]);
        }else
        if( strcmp(z,"debug")==0 ){
          bDebug = 1;
        }else
        {
          utf8_printf(stderr, "Unknown option \"%s\" on \"%s\"\n",
                      azArg[i], azArg[0]);
          showHelp(p->out, azArg[0]);
          rc = 1;
          goto meta_command_exit;
        }
      }else if( zLike ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .sha3sum ?OPTIONS? ?LIKE-PATTERN?\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }else{
        zLike = z;
        bSeparate = 1;
        if( sqlite3_strlike("sqlite\\_%", zLike, '\\')==0 ) bSchema = 1;
      }
    }
    if( bSchema ){
      zSql = "SELECT lower(name) FROM sqlite_schema"
             " WHERE type='table' AND coalesce(rootpage,0)>1"
             " UNION ALL SELECT 'sqlite_schema'"
             " ORDER BY 1 collate nocase";
    }else{
      zSql = "SELECT lower(name) FROM sqlite_schema"
             " WHERE type='table' AND coalesce(rootpage,0)>1"
             " AND name NOT LIKE 'sqlite_%'"
             " ORDER BY 1 collate nocase";
    }
    sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
    initText(&sQuery);
    initText(&sSql);
    appendText(&sSql, "WITH [sha3sum$query](a,b) AS(",0);
    zSep = "VALUES(";
    while( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
      const char *zTab = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,0);
      if( zLike && sqlite3_strlike(zLike, zTab, 0)!=0 ) continue;
      if( strncmp(zTab, "sqlite_",7)!=0 ){
        appendText(&sQuery,"SELECT * FROM ", 0);
        appendText(&sQuery,zTab,'"');
        appendText(&sQuery," NOT INDEXED;", 0);
      }else if( strcmp(zTab, "sqlite_schema")==0 ){
        appendText(&sQuery,"SELECT type,name,tbl_name,sql FROM sqlite_schema"
                           " ORDER BY name;", 0);
      }else if( strcmp(zTab, "sqlite_sequence")==0 ){
        appendText(&sQuery,"SELECT name,seq FROM sqlite_sequence"
                           " ORDER BY name;", 0);
      }else if( strcmp(zTab, "sqlite_stat1")==0 ){
        appendText(&sQuery,"SELECT tbl,idx,stat FROM sqlite_stat1"
                           " ORDER BY tbl,idx;", 0);
      }else if( strcmp(zTab, "sqlite_stat4")==0 ){
        appendText(&sQuery, "SELECT * FROM ", 0);
        appendText(&sQuery, zTab, 0);
        appendText(&sQuery, " ORDER BY tbl, idx, rowid;\n", 0);
      }
      appendText(&sSql, zSep, 0);
      appendText(&sSql, sQuery.z, '\'');
      sQuery.n = 0;
      appendText(&sSql, ",", 0);
      appendText(&sSql, zTab, '\'');
      zSep = "),(";
    }
    sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    if( bSeparate ){
      zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
          "%s))"
          " SELECT lower(hex(sha3_query(a,%d))) AS hash, b AS label"
          "   FROM [sha3sum$query]",
          sSql.z, iSize);
    }else{
      zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
          "%s))"
          " SELECT lower(hex(sha3_query(group_concat(a,''),%d))) AS hash"
          "   FROM [sha3sum$query]",
          sSql.z, iSize);
    }
    freeText(&sQuery);
    freeText(&sSql);
    if( bDebug ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "%s\n", zSql);
    }else{
      shell_exec(p, zSql, 0);
    }
    sqlite3_free(zSql);
  }else

#ifndef SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM
  if( c=='s'
   && (strncmp(azArg[0], "shell", n)==0 || strncmp(azArg[0],"system",n)==0)
  ){
    char *zCmd;
    int i, x;
    if( nArg<2 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .system COMMAND\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    zCmd = sqlite3_mprintf(strchr(azArg[1],' ')==0?"%s":"\"%s\"", azArg[1]);
    for(i=2; i<nArg; i++){
      zCmd = sqlite3_mprintf(strchr(azArg[i],' ')==0?"%z %s":"%z \"%s\"",
                             zCmd, azArg[i]);
    }
    x = system(zCmd);
    sqlite3_free(zCmd);
    if( x ) raw_printf(stderr, "System command returns %d\n", x);
  }else
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_NOHAVE_SYSTEM) */

  if( c=='s' && strncmp(azArg[0], "show", n)==0 ){
    static const char *azBool[] = { "off", "on", "trigger", "full"};
    const char *zOut;
    int i;
    if( nArg!=1 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .show\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%12.12s: %s\n","echo",
                                  azBool[ShellHasFlag(p, SHFLG_Echo)]);
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%12.12s: %s\n","eqp", azBool[p->autoEQP&3]);
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%12.12s: %s\n","explain",
         p->mode==MODE_Explain ? "on" : p->autoExplain ? "auto" : "off");
    utf8_printf(p->out,"%12.12s: %s\n","headers", azBool[p->showHeader!=0]);
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%12.12s: %s\n","mode", modeDescr[p->mode]);
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%12.12s: ", "nullvalue");
      output_c_string(p->out, p->nullValue);
      raw_printf(p->out, "\n");
    utf8_printf(p->out,"%12.12s: %s\n","output",
            strlen30(p->outfile) ? p->outfile : "stdout");
    utf8_printf(p->out,"%12.12s: ", "colseparator");
      output_c_string(p->out, p->colSeparator);
      raw_printf(p->out, "\n");
    utf8_printf(p->out,"%12.12s: ", "rowseparator");
      output_c_string(p->out, p->rowSeparator);
      raw_printf(p->out, "\n");
    switch( p->statsOn ){
      case 0:  zOut = "off";     break;
      default: zOut = "on";      break;
      case 2:  zOut = "stmt";    break;
      case 3:  zOut = "vmstep";  break;
    }
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%12.12s: %s\n","stats", zOut);
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%12.12s: ", "width");
    for (i=0;i<p->nWidth;i++) {
      raw_printf(p->out, "%d ", p->colWidth[i]);
    }
    raw_printf(p->out, "\n");
    utf8_printf(p->out, "%12.12s: %s\n", "filename",
                p->pAuxDb->zDbFilename ? p->pAuxDb->zDbFilename : "");
  }else

  if( c=='s' && strncmp(azArg[0], "stats", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      if( strcmp(azArg[1],"stmt")==0 ){
        p->statsOn = 2;
      }else if( strcmp(azArg[1],"vmstep")==0 ){
        p->statsOn = 3;
      }else{
        p->statsOn = (u8)booleanValue(azArg[1]);
      }
    }else if( nArg==1 ){
      display_stats(p->db, p, 0);
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .stats ?on|off|stmt|vmstep?\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

  if( (c=='t' && n>1 && strncmp(azArg[0], "tables", n)==0)
   || (c=='i' && (strncmp(azArg[0], "indices", n)==0
                 || strncmp(azArg[0], "indexes", n)==0) )
  ){
    sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
    char **azResult;
    int nRow, nAlloc;
    int ii;
    ShellText s;
    initText(&s);
    open_db(p, 0);
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, "PRAGMA database_list", -1, &pStmt, 0);
    if( rc ){
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      return shellDatabaseError(p->db);
    }

    if( nArg>2 && c=='i' ){
      /* It is an historical accident that the .indexes command shows an error
      ** when called with the wrong number of arguments whereas the .tables
      ** command does not. */
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .indexes ?LIKE-PATTERN?\n");
      rc = 1;
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    for(ii=0; sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW; ii++){
      const char *zDbName = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 1);
      if( zDbName==0 ) continue;
      if( s.z && s.z[0] ) appendText(&s, " UNION ALL ", 0);
      if( sqlite3_stricmp(zDbName, "main")==0 ){
        appendText(&s, "SELECT name FROM ", 0);
      }else{
        appendText(&s, "SELECT ", 0);
        appendText(&s, zDbName, '\'');
        appendText(&s, "||'.'||name FROM ", 0);
      }
      appendText(&s, zDbName, '"');
      appendText(&s, ".sqlite_schema ", 0);
      if( c=='t' ){
        appendText(&s," WHERE type IN ('table','view')"
                      "   AND name NOT LIKE 'sqlite_%'"
                      "   AND name LIKE ?1", 0);
      }else{
        appendText(&s," WHERE type='index'"
                      "   AND tbl_name LIKE ?1", 0);
      }
    }
    rc = sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    appendText(&s, " ORDER BY 1", 0);
    rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(p->db, s.z, -1, &pStmt, 0);
    freeText(&s);
    if( rc ) return shellDatabaseError(p->db);

    /* Run the SQL statement prepared by the above block. Store the results
    ** as an array of nul-terminated strings in azResult[].  */
    nRow = nAlloc = 0;
    azResult = 0;
    if( nArg>1 ){
      sqlite3_bind_text(pStmt, 1, azArg[1], -1, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
    }else{
      sqlite3_bind_text(pStmt, 1, "%", -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
    }
    while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
      if( nRow>=nAlloc ){
        char **azNew;
        int n2 = nAlloc*2 + 10;
        azNew = sqlite3_realloc64(azResult, sizeof(azResult[0])*n2);
        if( azNew==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
        nAlloc = n2;
        azResult = azNew;
      }
      azResult[nRow] = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, 0));
      if( 0==azResult[nRow] ) shell_out_of_memory();
      nRow++;
    }
    if( sqlite3_finalize(pStmt)!=SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = shellDatabaseError(p->db);
    }

    /* Pretty-print the contents of array azResult[] to the output */
    if( rc==0 && nRow>0 ){
      int len, maxlen = 0;
      int i, j;
      int nPrintCol, nPrintRow;
      for(i=0; i<nRow; i++){
        len = strlen30(azResult[i]);
        if( len>maxlen ) maxlen = len;
      }
      nPrintCol = 80/(maxlen+2);
      if( nPrintCol<1 ) nPrintCol = 1;
      nPrintRow = (nRow + nPrintCol - 1)/nPrintCol;
      for(i=0; i<nPrintRow; i++){
        for(j=i; j<nRow; j+=nPrintRow){
          char *zSp = j<nPrintRow ? "" : "  ";
          utf8_printf(p->out, "%s%-*s", zSp, maxlen,
                      azResult[j] ? azResult[j]:"");
        }
        raw_printf(p->out, "\n");
      }
    }

    for(ii=0; ii<nRow; ii++) sqlite3_free(azResult[ii]);
    sqlite3_free(azResult);
  }else

  /* Begin redirecting output to the file "testcase-out.txt" */
  if( c=='t' && strcmp(azArg[0],"testcase")==0 ){
    output_reset(p);
    p->out = output_file_open("testcase-out.txt", 0);
    if( p->out==0 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Error: cannot open 'testcase-out.txt'\n");
    }
    if( nArg>=2 ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->zTestcase), p->zTestcase, "%s", azArg[1]);
    }else{
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(p->zTestcase), p->zTestcase, "?");
    }
  }else

#ifndef SQLITE_UNTESTABLE
  if( c=='t' && n>=8 && strncmp(azArg[0], "testctrl", n)==0 ){
    static const struct {
       const char *zCtrlName;   /* Name of a test-control option */
       int ctrlCode;            /* Integer code for that option */
       const char *zUsage;      /* Usage notes */
    } aCtrl[] = {
      { "always",             SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ALWAYS,        "BOOLEAN"        },
      { "assert",             SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ASSERT,        "BOOLEAN"        },
    /*{ "benign_malloc_hooks",SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BENIGN_MALLOC_HOOKS, ""       },*/
    /*{ "bitvec_test",        SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BITVEC_TEST,   ""             },*/
      { "byteorder",          SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BYTEORDER,     ""               },
      { "extra_schema_checks",SQLITE_TESTCTRL_EXTRA_SCHEMA_CHECKS,"BOOLEAN"   },
    /*{ "fault_install",      SQLITE_TESTCTRL_FAULT_INSTALL, ""             },*/
      { "imposter",         SQLITE_TESTCTRL_IMPOSTER, "SCHEMA ON/OFF ROOTPAGE"},
      { "internal_functions", SQLITE_TESTCTRL_INTERNAL_FUNCTIONS, "" },
      { "localtime_fault",    SQLITE_TESTCTRL_LOCALTIME_FAULT,"BOOLEAN"       },
      { "never_corrupt",      SQLITE_TESTCTRL_NEVER_CORRUPT, "BOOLEAN"        },
      { "optimizations",      SQLITE_TESTCTRL_OPTIMIZATIONS, "DISABLE-MASK"   },
#ifdef YYCOVERAGE
      { "parser_coverage",    SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PARSER_COVERAGE, ""             },
#endif
      { "pending_byte",       SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PENDING_BYTE,  "OFFSET  "       },
      { "prng_restore",       SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_RESTORE,  ""               },
      { "prng_save",          SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_SAVE,     ""               },
      { "prng_seed",          SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_SEED,     "SEED ?db?"      },
      { "seek_count",         SQLITE_TESTCTRL_SEEK_COUNT,    ""               },
      { "sorter_mmap",        SQLITE_TESTCTRL_SORTER_MMAP,   "NMAX"           },
      { "tune",               SQLITE_TESTCTRL_TUNE,          "ID VALUE"       },
    };
    int testctrl = -1;
    int iCtrl = -1;
    int rc2 = 0;    /* 0: usage.  1: %d  2: %x  3: no-output */
    int isOk = 0;
    int i, n2;
    const char *zCmd = 0;

    open_db(p, 0);
    zCmd = nArg>=2 ? azArg[1] : "help";

    /* The argument can optionally begin with "-" or "--" */
    if( zCmd[0]=='-' && zCmd[1] ){
      zCmd++;
      if( zCmd[0]=='-' && zCmd[1] ) zCmd++;
    }

    /* --help lists all test-controls */
    if( strcmp(zCmd,"help")==0 ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "Available test-controls:\n");
      for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aCtrl); i++){
        utf8_printf(p->out, "  .testctrl %s %s\n",
                    aCtrl[i].zCtrlName, aCtrl[i].zUsage);
      }
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }

    /* convert testctrl text option to value. allow any unique prefix
    ** of the option name, or a numerical value. */
    n2 = strlen30(zCmd);
    for(i=0; i<ArraySize(aCtrl); i++){
      if( strncmp(zCmd, aCtrl[i].zCtrlName, n2)==0 ){
        if( testctrl<0 ){
          testctrl = aCtrl[i].ctrlCode;
          iCtrl = i;
        }else{
          utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: ambiguous test-control: \"%s\"\n"
                              "Use \".testctrl --help\" for help\n", zCmd);
          rc = 1;
          goto meta_command_exit;
        }
      }
    }
    if( testctrl<0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: unknown test-control: %s\n"
                         "Use \".testctrl --help\" for help\n", zCmd);
    }else{
      switch(testctrl){

        /* sqlite3_test_control(int, db, int) */
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_OPTIMIZATIONS:
          if( nArg==3 ){
            unsigned int opt = (unsigned int)strtol(azArg[2], 0, 0);
            rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, p->db, opt);
            isOk = 3;
          }
          break;

        /* sqlite3_test_control(int) */
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_SAVE:
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_RESTORE:
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BYTEORDER:
          if( nArg==2 ){
            rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl);
            isOk = testctrl==SQLITE_TESTCTRL_BYTEORDER ? 1 : 3;
          }
          break;

        /* sqlite3_test_control(int, uint) */
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PENDING_BYTE:
          if( nArg==3 ){
            unsigned int opt = (unsigned int)integerValue(azArg[2]);
            rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, opt);
            isOk = 3;
          }
          break;

        /* sqlite3_test_control(int, int, sqlite3*) */
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PRNG_SEED:
          if( nArg==3 || nArg==4 ){
            int ii = (int)integerValue(azArg[2]);
            sqlite3 *db;
            if( ii==0 && strcmp(azArg[2],"random")==0 ){
              sqlite3_randomness(sizeof(ii),&ii);
              printf("-- random seed: %d\n", ii);
            }
            if( nArg==3 ){
              db = 0;
            }else{
              db = p->db;
              /* Make sure the schema has been loaded */
              sqlite3_table_column_metadata(db, 0, "x", 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0);
            }
            rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, ii, db);
            isOk = 3;
          }
          break;

        /* sqlite3_test_control(int, int) */
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ASSERT:
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_ALWAYS:
          if( nArg==3 ){
            int opt = booleanValue(azArg[2]);
            rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, opt);
            isOk = 1;
          }
          break;

        /* sqlite3_test_control(int, int) */
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_LOCALTIME_FAULT:
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_NEVER_CORRUPT:
          if( nArg==3 ){
            int opt = booleanValue(azArg[2]);
            rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, opt);
            isOk = 3;
          }
          break;

        /* sqlite3_test_control(sqlite3*) */
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_INTERNAL_FUNCTIONS:
          rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, p->db);
          isOk = 3;
          break;

        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_IMPOSTER:
          if( nArg==5 ){
            rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, p->db,
                          azArg[2],
                          integerValue(azArg[3]),
                          integerValue(azArg[4]));
            isOk = 3;
          }
          break;

        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_SEEK_COUNT: {
          u64 x = 0;
          rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, p->db, &x);
          utf8_printf(p->out, "%llu\n", x);
          isOk = 3;
          break;
        }

#ifdef YYCOVERAGE
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_PARSER_COVERAGE: {
          if( nArg==2 ){
            sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, p->out);
            isOk = 3;
          }
          break;
        }
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_TUNE: {
          if( nArg==4 ){
            int id = (int)integerValue(azArg[2]);
            int val = (int)integerValue(azArg[3]);
            sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, id, &val);
            isOk = 3;
          }else if( nArg==3 ){
            int id = (int)integerValue(azArg[2]);
            sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, -id, &rc2);
            isOk = 1;
          }else if( nArg==2 ){
            int id = 1;
            while(1){
              int val = 0;
              rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, -id, &val);
              if( rc2!=SQLITE_OK ) break;
              if( id>1 ) utf8_printf(p->out, "  ");
              utf8_printf(p->out, "%d: %d", id, val);
              id++;
            }
            if( id>1 ) utf8_printf(p->out, "\n");
            isOk = 3;
          }
          break;
        }
#endif
        case SQLITE_TESTCTRL_SORTER_MMAP:
          if( nArg==3 ){
            int opt = (unsigned int)integerValue(azArg[2]);
            rc2 = sqlite3_test_control(testctrl, p->db, opt);
            isOk = 3;
          }
          break;
      }
    }
    if( isOk==0 && iCtrl>=0 ){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "Usage: .testctrl %s %s\n", zCmd,aCtrl[iCtrl].zUsage);
      rc = 1;
    }else if( isOk==1 ){
      raw_printf(p->out, "%d\n", rc2);
    }else if( isOk==2 ){
      raw_printf(p->out, "0x%08x\n", rc2);
    }
  }else
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_UNTESTABLE) */

  if( c=='t' && n>4 && strncmp(azArg[0], "timeout", n)==0 ){
    open_db(p, 0);
    sqlite3_busy_timeout(p->db, nArg>=2 ? (int)integerValue(azArg[1]) : 0);
  }else

  if( c=='t' && n>=5 && strncmp(azArg[0], "timer", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg==2 ){
      enableTimer = booleanValue(azArg[1]);
      if( enableTimer && !HAS_TIMER ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Error: timer not available on this system.\n");
        enableTimer = 0;
      }
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .timer on|off\n");
      rc = 1;
    }
  }else

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
  if( c=='t' && strncmp(azArg[0], "trace", n)==0 ){
    int mType = 0;
    int jj;
    open_db(p, 0);
    for(jj=1; jj<nArg; jj++){
      const char *z = azArg[jj];
      if( z[0]=='-' ){
        if( optionMatch(z, "expanded") ){
          p->eTraceType = SHELL_TRACE_EXPANDED;
        }
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_NORMALIZE
        else if( optionMatch(z, "normalized") ){
          p->eTraceType = SHELL_TRACE_NORMALIZED;
        }
#endif
        else if( optionMatch(z, "plain") ){
          p->eTraceType = SHELL_TRACE_PLAIN;
        }
        else if( optionMatch(z, "profile") ){
          mType |= SQLITE_TRACE_PROFILE;
        }
        else if( optionMatch(z, "row") ){
          mType |= SQLITE_TRACE_ROW;
        }
        else if( optionMatch(z, "stmt") ){
          mType |= SQLITE_TRACE_STMT;
        }
        else if( optionMatch(z, "close") ){
          mType |= SQLITE_TRACE_CLOSE;
        }
        else {
          raw_printf(stderr, "Unknown option \"%s\" on \".trace\"\n", z);
          rc = 1;
          goto meta_command_exit;
        }
      }else{
        output_file_close(p->traceOut);
        p->traceOut = output_file_open(azArg[1], 0);
      }
    }
    if( p->traceOut==0 ){
      sqlite3_trace_v2(p->db, 0, 0, 0);
    }else{
      if( mType==0 ) mType = SQLITE_TRACE_STMT;
      sqlite3_trace_v2(p->db, mType, sql_trace_callback, p);
    }
  }else
#endif /* !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE) */

#if defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE)
  if( c=='u' && strncmp(azArg[0], "unmodule", n)==0 ){
    int ii;
    int lenOpt;
    char *zOpt;
    if( nArg<2 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .unmodule [--allexcept] NAME ...\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    open_db(p, 0);
    zOpt = azArg[1];
    if( zOpt[0]=='-' && zOpt[1]=='-' && zOpt[2]!=0 ) zOpt++;
    lenOpt = (int)strlen(zOpt);
    if( lenOpt>=3 && strncmp(zOpt, "-allexcept",lenOpt)==0 ){
      assert( azArg[nArg]==0 );
      sqlite3_drop_modules(p->db, nArg>2 ? (const char**)(azArg+2) : 0);
    }else{
      for(ii=1; ii<nArg; ii++){
        sqlite3_create_module(p->db, azArg[ii], 0, 0);
      }
    }
  }else
#endif

#if SQLITE_USER_AUTHENTICATION
  if( c=='u' && strncmp(azArg[0], "user", n)==0 ){
    if( nArg<2 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .user SUBCOMMAND ...\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
    open_db(p, 0);
    if( strcmp(azArg[1],"login")==0 ){
      if( nArg!=4 ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .user login USER PASSWORD\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      rc = sqlite3_user_authenticate(p->db, azArg[2], azArg[3],
                                     strlen30(azArg[3]));
      if( rc ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Authentication failed for user %s\n", azArg[2]);
        rc = 1;
      }
    }else if( strcmp(azArg[1],"add")==0 ){
      if( nArg!=5 ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .user add USER PASSWORD ISADMIN\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      rc = sqlite3_user_add(p->db, azArg[2], azArg[3], strlen30(azArg[3]),
                            booleanValue(azArg[4]));
      if( rc ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "User-Add failed: %d\n", rc);
        rc = 1;
      }
    }else if( strcmp(azArg[1],"edit")==0 ){
      if( nArg!=5 ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .user edit USER PASSWORD ISADMIN\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      rc = sqlite3_user_change(p->db, azArg[2], azArg[3], strlen30(azArg[3]),
                              booleanValue(azArg[4]));
      if( rc ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "User-Edit failed: %d\n", rc);
        rc = 1;
      }
    }else if( strcmp(azArg[1],"delete")==0 ){
      if( nArg!=3 ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .user delete USER\n");
        rc = 1;
        goto meta_command_exit;
      }
      rc = sqlite3_user_delete(p->db, azArg[2]);
      if( rc ){
        raw_printf(stderr, "User-Delete failed: %d\n", rc);
        rc = 1;
      }
    }else{
      raw_printf(stderr, "Usage: .user login|add|edit|delete ...\n");
      rc = 1;
      goto meta_command_exit;
    }
  }else
#endif /* SQLITE_USER_AUTHENTICATION */

  if( c=='v' && strncmp(azArg[0], "version", n)==0 ){
    utf8_printf(p->out, "SQLite %s %s\n" /*extra-version-info*/,
        sqlite3_libversion(), sqlite3_sourceid());
#if SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB
    utf8_printf(p->out, "zlib version %s\n", zlibVersion());
#endif
#define CTIMEOPT_VAL_(opt) #opt
#define CTIMEOPT_VAL(opt) CTIMEOPT_VAL_(opt)
#if defined(__clang__) && defined(__clang_major__)
    utf8_printf(p->out, "clang-" CTIMEOPT_VAL(__clang_major__) "."
                    CTIMEOPT_VAL(__clang_minor__) "."
                    CTIMEOPT_VAL(__clang_patchlevel__) "\n");
#elif defined(_MSC_VER)
    utf8_printf(p->out, "msvc-" CTIMEOPT_VAL(_MSC_VER) "\n");
#elif defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__VERSION__)
    utf8_printf(p->out, "gcc-" __VERSION__ "\n");
#endif
  }else

  if( c=='v' && strncmp(azArg[0], "vfsinfo", n)==0 ){
    const char *zDbName = nArg==2 ? azArg[1] : "main";
    sqlite3_vfs *pVfs = 0;
    if( p->db ){
      sqlite3_file_control(p->db, zDbName, SQLITE_FCNTL_VFS_POINTER, &pVfs);
      if( pVfs ){
        utf8_printf(p->out, "vfs.zName      = \"%s\"\n", pVfs->zName);
        raw_printf(p->out, "vfs.iVersion   = %d\n", pVfs->iVersion);
        raw_printf(p->out, "vfs.szOsFile   = %d\n", pVfs->szOsFile);
        raw_printf(p->out, "vfs.mxPathname = %d\n", pVfs->mxPathname);
      }
    }
  }else

  if( c=='v' && strncmp(azArg[0], "vfslist", n)==0 ){
    sqlite3_vfs *pVfs;
    sqlite3_vfs *pCurrent = 0;
    if( p->db ){
      sqlite3_file_control(p->db, "main", SQLITE_FCNTL_VFS_POINTER, &pCurrent);
    }
    for(pVfs=sqlite3_vfs_find(0); pVfs; pVfs=pVfs->pNext){
      utf8_printf(p->out, "vfs.zName      = \"%s\"%s\n", pVfs->zName,
           pVfs==pCurrent ? "  <--- CURRENT" : "");
      raw_printf(p->out, "vfs.iVersion   = %d\n", pVfs->iVersion);
      raw_printf(p->out, "vfs.szOsFile   = %d\n", pVfs->szOsFile);
      raw_printf(p->out, "vfs.mxPathname = %d\n", pVfs->mxPathname);
      if( pVfs->pNext ){
        raw_printf(p->out, "-----------------------------------\n");
      }
    }
  }else

  if( c=='v' && strncmp(azArg[0], "vfsname", n)==0 ){
    const char *zDbName = nArg==2 ? azArg[1] : "main";
    char *zVfsName = 0;
    if( p->db ){
      sqlite3_file_control(p->db, zDbName, SQLITE_FCNTL_VFSNAME, &zVfsName);
      if( zVfsName ){
        utf8_printf(p->out, "%s\n", zVfsName);
        sqlite3_free(zVfsName);
      }
    }
  }else

  if( c=='w' && strncmp(azArg[0], "wheretrace", n)==0 ){
    unsigned int x = nArg>=2 ? (unsigned int)integerValue(azArg[1]) : 0xffffffff;
    sqlite3_test_control(SQLITE_TESTCTRL_TRACEFLAGS, 3, &x);
  }else

  if( c=='w' && strncmp(azArg[0], "width", n)==0 ){
    int j;
    assert( nArg<=ArraySize(azArg) );
    p->nWidth = nArg-1;
    p->colWidth = realloc(p->colWidth, p->nWidth*sizeof(int)*2);
    if( p->colWidth==0 && p->nWidth>0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
    if( p->nWidth ) p->actualWidth = &p->colWidth[p->nWidth];
    for(j=1; j<nArg; j++){
      p->colWidth[j-1] = (int)integerValue(azArg[j]);
    }
  }else

  {
    utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: unknown command or invalid arguments: "
      " \"%s\". Enter \".help\" for help\n", azArg[0]);
    rc = 1;
  }

meta_command_exit:
  if( p->outCount ){
    p->outCount--;
    if( p->outCount==0 ) output_reset(p);
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Return TRUE if a semicolon occurs anywhere in the first N characters
** of string z[].
*/
static int line_contains_semicolon(const char *z, int N){
  int i;
  for(i=0; i<N; i++){  if( z[i]==';' ) return 1; }
  return 0;
}

/*
** Test to see if a line consists entirely of whitespace.
*/
static int _all_whitespace(const char *z){
  for(; *z; z++){
    if( IsSpace(z[0]) ) continue;
    if( *z=='/' && z[1]=='*' ){
      z += 2;
      while( *z && (*z!='*' || z[1]!='/') ){ z++; }
      if( *z==0 ) return 0;
      z++;
      continue;
    }
    if( *z=='-' && z[1]=='-' ){
      z += 2;
      while( *z && *z!='\n' ){ z++; }
      if( *z==0 ) return 1;
      continue;
    }
    return 0;
  }
  return 1;
}

/*
** Return TRUE if the line typed in is an SQL command terminator other
** than a semi-colon.  The SQL Server style "go" command is understood
** as is the Oracle "/".
*/
static int line_is_command_terminator(const char *zLine){
  while( IsSpace(zLine[0]) ){ zLine++; };
  if( zLine[0]=='/' && _all_whitespace(&zLine[1]) ){
    return 1;  /* Oracle */
  }
  if( ToLower(zLine[0])=='g' && ToLower(zLine[1])=='o'
         && _all_whitespace(&zLine[2]) ){
    return 1;  /* SQL Server */
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** We need a default sqlite3_complete() implementation to use in case
** the shell is compiled with SQLITE_OMIT_COMPLETE.  The default assumes
** any arbitrary text is a complete SQL statement.  This is not very
** user-friendly, but it does seem to work.
*/
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_COMPLETE
#define sqlite3_complete(x) 1
#endif

/*
** Return true if zSql is a complete SQL statement.  Return false if it
** ends in the middle of a string literal or C-style comment.
*/
static int line_is_complete(char *zSql, int nSql){
  int rc;
  if( zSql==0 ) return 1;
  zSql[nSql] = ';';
  zSql[nSql+1] = 0;
  rc = sqlite3_complete(zSql);
  zSql[nSql] = 0;
  return rc;
}

/*
** Run a single line of SQL.  Return the number of errors.
*/
static int runOneSqlLine(ShellState *p, char *zSql, FILE *in, int startline){
  int rc;
  char *zErrMsg = 0;

  open_db(p, 0);
  if( ShellHasFlag(p,SHFLG_Backslash) ) resolve_backslashes(zSql);
  if( p->flgProgress & SHELL_PROGRESS_RESET ) p->nProgress = 0;
  BEGIN_TIMER;
  rc = shell_exec(p, zSql, &zErrMsg);
  END_TIMER;
  if( rc || zErrMsg ){
    char zPrefix[100];
    if( in!=0 || !stdin_is_interactive ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zPrefix), zPrefix,
                       "Error: near line %d:", startline);
    }else{
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(zPrefix), zPrefix, "Error:");
    }
    if( zErrMsg!=0 ){
      utf8_printf(stderr, "%s %s\n", zPrefix, zErrMsg);
      sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
      zErrMsg = 0;
    }else{
      utf8_printf(stderr, "%s %s\n", zPrefix, sqlite3_errmsg(p->db));
    }
    return 1;
  }else if( ShellHasFlag(p, SHFLG_CountChanges) ){
    raw_printf(p->out, "changes: %3lld   total_changes: %lld\n",
            sqlite3_changes64(p->db), sqlite3_total_changes64(p->db));
  }
  return 0;
}


/*
** Read input from *in and process it.  If *in==0 then input
** is interactive - the user is typing it it.  Otherwise, input
** is coming from a file or device.  A prompt is issued and history
** is saved only if input is interactive.  An interrupt signal will
** cause this routine to exit immediately, unless input is interactive.
**
** Return the number of errors.
*/
static int process_input(ShellState *p){
  char *zLine = 0;          /* A single input line */
  char *zSql = 0;           /* Accumulated SQL text */
  int nLine;                /* Length of current line */
  int nSql = 0;             /* Bytes of zSql[] used */
  int nAlloc = 0;           /* Allocated zSql[] space */
  int nSqlPrior = 0;        /* Bytes of zSql[] used by prior line */
  int rc;                   /* Error code */
  int errCnt = 0;           /* Number of errors seen */
  int startline = 0;        /* Line number for start of current input */

  p->lineno = 0;
  while( errCnt==0 || !bail_on_error || (p->in==0 && stdin_is_interactive) ){
    fflush(p->out);
    zLine = one_input_line(p->in, zLine, nSql>0);
    if( zLine==0 ){
      /* End of input */
      if( p->in==0 && stdin_is_interactive ) printf("\n");
      break;
    }
    if( seenInterrupt ){
      if( p->in!=0 ) break;
      seenInterrupt = 0;
    }
    p->lineno++;
    if( nSql==0 && _all_whitespace(zLine) ){
      if( ShellHasFlag(p, SHFLG_Echo) ) printf("%s\n", zLine);
      continue;
    }
    if( zLine && (zLine[0]=='.' || zLine[0]=='#') && nSql==0 ){
      if( ShellHasFlag(p, SHFLG_Echo) ) printf("%s\n", zLine);
      if( zLine[0]=='.' ){
        rc = do_meta_command(zLine, p);
        if( rc==2 ){ /* exit requested */
          break;
        }else if( rc ){
          errCnt++;
        }
      }
      continue;
    }
    if( line_is_command_terminator(zLine) && line_is_complete(zSql, nSql) ){
      memcpy(zLine,";",2);
    }
    nLine = strlen30(zLine);
    if( nSql+nLine+2>=nAlloc ){
      nAlloc = nSql+nLine+100;
      zSql = realloc(zSql, nAlloc);
      if( zSql==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
    }
    nSqlPrior = nSql;
    if( nSql==0 ){
      int i;
      for(i=0; zLine[i] && IsSpace(zLine[i]); i++){}
      assert( nAlloc>0 && zSql!=0 );
      memcpy(zSql, zLine+i, nLine+1-i);
      startline = p->lineno;
      nSql = nLine-i;
    }else{
      zSql[nSql++] = '\n';
      memcpy(zSql+nSql, zLine, nLine+1);
      nSql += nLine;
    }
    if( nSql && line_contains_semicolon(&zSql[nSqlPrior], nSql-nSqlPrior)
                && sqlite3_complete(zSql) ){
      errCnt += runOneSqlLine(p, zSql, p->in, startline);
      nSql = 0;
      if( p->outCount ){
        output_reset(p);
        p->outCount = 0;
      }else{
        clearTempFile(p);
      }
    }else if( nSql && _all_whitespace(zSql) ){
      if( ShellHasFlag(p, SHFLG_Echo) ) printf("%s\n", zSql);
      nSql = 0;
    }
  }
  if( nSql && !_all_whitespace(zSql) ){
    errCnt += runOneSqlLine(p, zSql, p->in, startline);
  }
  free(zSql);
  free(zLine);
  return errCnt>0;
}

/*
** Return a pathname which is the user's home directory.  A
** 0 return indicates an error of some kind.
*/
static char *find_home_dir(int clearFlag){
  static char *home_dir = NULL;
  if( clearFlag ){
    free(home_dir);
    home_dir = 0;
    return 0;
  }
  if( home_dir ) return home_dir;

#if !defined(_WIN32) && !defined(WIN32) && !defined(_WIN32_WCE) \
     && !defined(__RTP__) && !defined(_WRS_KERNEL)
  {
    struct passwd *pwent;
    uid_t uid = getuid();
    if( (pwent=getpwuid(uid)) != NULL) {
      home_dir = pwent->pw_dir;
    }
  }
#endif

#if defined(_WIN32_WCE)
  /* Windows CE (arm-wince-mingw32ce-gcc) does not provide getenv()
   */
  home_dir = "/";
#else

#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)
  if (!home_dir) {
    home_dir = getenv("USERPROFILE");
  }
#endif

  if (!home_dir) {
    home_dir = getenv("HOME");
  }

#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)
  if (!home_dir) {
    char *zDrive, *zPath;
    int n;
    zDrive = getenv("HOMEDRIVE");
    zPath = getenv("HOMEPATH");
    if( zDrive && zPath ){
      n = strlen30(zDrive) + strlen30(zPath) + 1;
      home_dir = malloc( n );
      if( home_dir==0 ) return 0;
      sqlite3_snprintf(n, home_dir, "%s%s", zDrive, zPath);
      return home_dir;
    }
    home_dir = "c:\\";
  }
#endif

#endif /* !_WIN32_WCE */

  if( home_dir ){
    int n = strlen30(home_dir) + 1;
    char *z = malloc( n );
    if( z ) memcpy(z, home_dir, n);
    home_dir = z;
  }

  return home_dir;
}

/*
** Read input from the file given by sqliterc_override.  Or if that
** parameter is NULL, take input from ~/.sqliterc
**
** Returns the number of errors.
*/
static void process_sqliterc(
  ShellState *p,                  /* Configuration data */
  const char *sqliterc_override   /* Name of config file. NULL to use default */
){
  char *home_dir = NULL;
  const char *sqliterc = sqliterc_override;
  char *zBuf = 0;
  FILE *inSaved = p->in;
  int savedLineno = p->lineno;

  if (sqliterc == NULL) {
    home_dir = find_home_dir(0);
    if( home_dir==0 ){
      raw_printf(stderr, "-- warning: cannot find home directory;"
                      " cannot read ~/.sqliterc\n");
      return;
    }
    zBuf = sqlite3_mprintf("%s/.sqliterc",home_dir);
    sqliterc = zBuf;
  }
  p->in = fopen(sqliterc,"rb");
  if( p->in ){
    if( stdin_is_interactive ){
      utf8_printf(stderr,"-- Loading resources from %s\n",sqliterc);
    }
    if( process_input(p) && bail_on_error ) exit(1);
    fclose(p->in);
  }else if( sqliterc_override!=0 ){
    utf8_printf(stderr,"cannot open: \"%s\"\n", sqliterc);
    if( bail_on_error ) exit(1);
  }
  p->in = inSaved;
  p->lineno = savedLineno;
  sqlite3_free(zBuf);
}

/*
** Show available command line options
*/
static const char zOptions[] =
#if defined(SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE)
  "   -A ARGS...           run \".archive ARGS\" and exit\n"
#endif
  "   -append              append the database to the end of the file\n"
  "   -ascii               set output mode to 'ascii'\n"
  "   -bail                stop after hitting an error\n"
  "   -batch               force batch I/O\n"
  "   -box                 set output mode to 'box'\n"
  "   -column              set output mode to 'column'\n"
  "   -cmd COMMAND         run \"COMMAND\" before reading stdin\n"
  "   -csv                 set output mode to 'csv'\n"
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_DESERIALIZE)
  "   -deserialize         open the database using sqlite3_deserialize()\n"
#endif
  "   -echo                print commands before execution\n"
  "   -init FILENAME       read/process named file\n"
  "   -[no]header          turn headers on or off\n"
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3) || defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5)
  "   -heap SIZE           Size of heap for memsys3 or memsys5\n"
#endif
  "   -help                show this message\n"
  "   -html                set output mode to HTML\n"
  "   -interactive         force interactive I/O\n"
  "   -json                set output mode to 'json'\n"
  "   -line                set output mode to 'line'\n"
  "   -list                set output mode to 'list'\n"
  "   -lookaside SIZE N    use N entries of SZ bytes for lookaside memory\n"
  "   -markdown            set output mode to 'markdown'\n"
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_DESERIALIZE)
  "   -maxsize N           maximum size for a --deserialize database\n"
#endif
  "   -memtrace            trace all memory allocations and deallocations\n"
  "   -mmap N              default mmap size set to N\n"
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_MULTIPLEX
  "   -multiplex           enable the multiplexor VFS\n"
#endif
  "   -newline SEP         set output row separator. Default: '\\n'\n"
  "   -nofollow            refuse to open symbolic links to database files\n"
  "   -nullvalue TEXT      set text string for NULL values. Default ''\n"
  "   -pagecache SIZE N    use N slots of SZ bytes each for page cache memory\n"
  "   -quote               set output mode to 'quote'\n"
  "   -readonly            open the database read-only\n"
  "   -separator SEP       set output column separator. Default: '|'\n"
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
  "   -sorterref SIZE      sorter references threshold size\n"
#endif
  "   -stats               print memory stats before each finalize\n"
  "   -table               set output mode to 'table'\n"
  "   -tabs                set output mode to 'tabs'\n"
  "   -version             show SQLite version\n"
  "   -vfs NAME            use NAME as the default VFS\n"
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_VFSTRACE
  "   -vfstrace            enable tracing of all VFS calls\n"
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB
  "   -zip                 open the file as a ZIP Archive\n"
#endif
;
static void usage(int showDetail){
  utf8_printf(stderr,
      "Usage: %s [OPTIONS] FILENAME [SQL]\n"
      "FILENAME is the name of an SQLite database. A new database is created\n"
      "if the file does not previously exist.\n", Argv0);
  if( showDetail ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "OPTIONS include:\n%s", zOptions);
  }else{
    raw_printf(stderr, "Use the -help option for additional information\n");
  }
  exit(1);
}

/*
** Internal check:  Verify that the SQLite is uninitialized.  Print a
** error message if it is initialized.
*/
static void verify_uninitialized(void){
  if( sqlite3_config(-1)==SQLITE_MISUSE ){
    utf8_printf(stdout, "WARNING: attempt to configure SQLite after"
                        " initialization.\n");
  }
}

/*
** Initialize the state information in data
*/
static void main_init(ShellState *data) {
  memset(data, 0, sizeof(*data));
  data->normalMode = data->cMode = data->mode = MODE_List;
  data->autoExplain = 1;
  data->pAuxDb = &data->aAuxDb[0];
  memcpy(data->colSeparator,SEP_Column, 2);
  memcpy(data->rowSeparator,SEP_Row, 2);
  data->showHeader = 0;
  data->shellFlgs = SHFLG_Lookaside;
  verify_uninitialized();
  sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_URI, 1);
  sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_LOG, shellLog, data);
  sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_MULTITHREAD);
  sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(mainPrompt), mainPrompt,"sqlite> ");
  sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(continuePrompt), continuePrompt,"   ...> ");
}

/*
** Output text to the console in a font that attracts extra attention.
*/
#ifdef _WIN32
static void printBold(const char *zText){
#if !SQLITE_OS_WINRT
  HANDLE out = GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE);
  CONSOLE_SCREEN_BUFFER_INFO defaultScreenInfo;
  GetConsoleScreenBufferInfo(out, &defaultScreenInfo);
  SetConsoleTextAttribute(out,
         FOREGROUND_RED|FOREGROUND_INTENSITY
  );
#endif
  printf("%s", zText);
#if !SQLITE_OS_WINRT
  SetConsoleTextAttribute(out, defaultScreenInfo.wAttributes);
#endif
}
#else
static void printBold(const char *zText){
  printf("\033[1m%s\033[0m", zText);
}
#endif

/*
** Get the argument to an --option.  Throw an error and die if no argument
** is available.
*/
static char *cmdline_option_value(int argc, char **argv, int i){
  if( i==argc ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "%s: Error: missing argument to %s\n",
            argv[0], argv[argc-1]);
    exit(1);
  }
  return argv[i];
}

#ifndef SQLITE_SHELL_IS_UTF8
#  if (defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)) \
   && (defined(_MSC_VER) || (defined(UNICODE) && defined(__GNUC__)))
#    define SQLITE_SHELL_IS_UTF8          (0)
#  else
#    define SQLITE_SHELL_IS_UTF8          (1)
#  endif
#endif

#if SQLITE_SHELL_IS_UTF8
int SQLITE_CDECL main(int argc, char **argv){
#else
int SQLITE_CDECL wmain(int argc, wchar_t **wargv){
  char **argv;
#endif
  char *zErrMsg = 0;
  ShellState data;
  const char *zInitFile = 0;
  int i;
  int rc = 0;
  int warnInmemoryDb = 0;
  int readStdin = 1;
  int nCmd = 0;
  char **azCmd = 0;
  const char *zVfs = 0;           /* Value of -vfs command-line option */
#if !SQLITE_SHELL_IS_UTF8
  char **argvToFree = 0;
  int argcToFree = 0;
#endif

  setBinaryMode(stdin, 0);
  setvbuf(stderr, 0, _IONBF, 0); /* Make sure stderr is unbuffered */
  stdin_is_interactive = isatty(0);
  stdout_is_console = isatty(1);

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
  registerOomSimulator();
#endif

#if !defined(_WIN32_WCE)
  if( getenv("SQLITE_DEBUG_BREAK") ){
    if( isatty(0) && isatty(2) ){
      fprintf(stderr,
          "attach debugger to process %d and press any key to continue.\n",
          GETPID());
      fgetc(stdin);
    }else{
#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)
#if SQLITE_OS_WINRT
      __debugbreak();
#else
      DebugBreak();
#endif
#elif defined(SIGTRAP)
      raise(SIGTRAP);
#endif
    }
  }
#endif

#if USE_SYSTEM_SQLITE+0!=1
  if( strncmp(sqlite3_sourceid(),SQLITE_SOURCE_ID,60)!=0 ){
    utf8_printf(stderr, "SQLite header and source version mismatch\n%s\n%s\n",
            sqlite3_sourceid(), SQLITE_SOURCE_ID);
    exit(1);
  }
#endif
  main_init(&data);

  /* On Windows, we must translate command-line arguments into UTF-8.
  ** The SQLite memory allocator subsystem has to be enabled in order to
  ** do this.  But we want to run an sqlite3_shutdown() afterwards so that
  ** subsequent sqlite3_config() calls will work.  So copy all results into
  ** memory that does not come from the SQLite memory allocator.
  */
#if !SQLITE_SHELL_IS_UTF8
  sqlite3_initialize();
  argvToFree = malloc(sizeof(argv[0])*argc*2);
  argcToFree = argc;
  argv = argvToFree + argc;
  if( argv==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
  for(i=0; i<argc; i++){
    char *z = sqlite3_win32_unicode_to_utf8(wargv[i]);
    int n;
    if( z==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
    n = (int)strlen(z);
    argv[i] = malloc( n+1 );
    if( argv[i]==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
    memcpy(argv[i], z, n+1);
    argvToFree[i] = argv[i];
    sqlite3_free(z);
  }
  sqlite3_shutdown();
#endif

  assert( argc>=1 && argv && argv[0] );
  Argv0 = argv[0];

  /* Make sure we have a valid signal handler early, before anything
  ** else is done.
  */
#ifdef SIGINT
  signal(SIGINT, interrupt_handler);
#elif (defined(_WIN32) || defined(WIN32)) && !defined(_WIN32_WCE)
  SetConsoleCtrlHandler(ConsoleCtrlHandler, TRUE);
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_SHELL_DBNAME_PROC
  {
    /* If the SQLITE_SHELL_DBNAME_PROC macro is defined, then it is the name
    ** of a C-function that will provide the name of the database file.  Use
    ** this compile-time option to embed this shell program in larger
    ** applications. */
    extern void SQLITE_SHELL_DBNAME_PROC(const char**);
    SQLITE_SHELL_DBNAME_PROC(&data.pAuxDb->zDbFilename);
    warnInmemoryDb = 0;
  }
#endif

  /* Do an initial pass through the command-line argument to locate
  ** the name of the database file, the name of the initialization file,
  ** the size of the alternative malloc heap,
  ** and the first command to execute.
  */
  verify_uninitialized();
  for(i=1; i<argc; i++){
    char *z;
    z = argv[i];
    if( z[0]!='-' ){
      if( data.aAuxDb->zDbFilename==0 ){
        data.aAuxDb->zDbFilename = z;
      }else{
        /* Excesss arguments are interpreted as SQL (or dot-commands) and
        ** mean that nothing is read from stdin */
        readStdin = 0;
        nCmd++;
        azCmd = realloc(azCmd, sizeof(azCmd[0])*nCmd);
        if( azCmd==0 ) shell_out_of_memory();
        azCmd[nCmd-1] = z;
      }
    }
    if( z[1]=='-' ) z++;
    if( strcmp(z,"-separator")==0
     || strcmp(z,"-nullvalue")==0
     || strcmp(z,"-newline")==0
     || strcmp(z,"-cmd")==0
    ){
      (void)cmdline_option_value(argc, argv, ++i);
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-init")==0 ){
      zInitFile = cmdline_option_value(argc, argv, ++i);
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-batch")==0 ){
      /* Need to check for batch mode here to so we can avoid printing
      ** informational messages (like from process_sqliterc) before
      ** we do the actual processing of arguments later in a second pass.
      */
      stdin_is_interactive = 0;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-heap")==0 ){
#if defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3) || defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5)
      const char *zSize;
      sqlite3_int64 szHeap;

      zSize = cmdline_option_value(argc, argv, ++i);
      szHeap = integerValue(zSize);
      if( szHeap>0x7fff0000 ) szHeap = 0x7fff0000;
      sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP, malloc((int)szHeap), (int)szHeap, 64);
#else
      (void)cmdline_option_value(argc, argv, ++i);
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-pagecache")==0 ){
      sqlite3_int64 n, sz;
      sz = integerValue(cmdline_option_value(argc,argv,++i));
      if( sz>70000 ) sz = 70000;
      if( sz<0 ) sz = 0;
      n = integerValue(cmdline_option_value(argc,argv,++i));
      if( sz>0 && n>0 && 0xffffffffffffLL/sz<n ){
        n = 0xffffffffffffLL/sz;
      }
      sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_PAGECACHE,
                    (n>0 && sz>0) ? malloc(n*sz) : 0, sz, n);
      data.shellFlgs |= SHFLG_Pagecache;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-lookaside")==0 ){
      int n, sz;
      sz = (int)integerValue(cmdline_option_value(argc,argv,++i));
      if( sz<0 ) sz = 0;
      n = (int)integerValue(cmdline_option_value(argc,argv,++i));
      if( n<0 ) n = 0;
      sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE, sz, n);
      if( sz*n==0 ) data.shellFlgs &= ~SHFLG_Lookaside;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_VFSTRACE
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-vfstrace")==0 ){
      extern int vfstrace_register(
         const char *zTraceName,
         const char *zOldVfsName,
         int (*xOut)(const char*,void*),
         void *pOutArg,
         int makeDefault
      );
      vfstrace_register("trace",0,(int(*)(const char*,void*))fputs,stderr,1);
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_MULTIPLEX
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-multiplex")==0 ){
      extern int sqlite3_multiple_initialize(const char*,int);
      sqlite3_multiplex_initialize(0, 1);
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-mmap")==0 ){
      sqlite3_int64 sz = integerValue(cmdline_option_value(argc,argv,++i));
      sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_MMAP_SIZE, sz, sz);
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-sorterref")==0 ){
      sqlite3_int64 sz = integerValue(cmdline_option_value(argc,argv,++i));
      sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_SORTERREF_SIZE, (int)sz);
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-vfs")==0 ){
      zVfs = cmdline_option_value(argc, argv, ++i);
#ifdef SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-zip")==0 ){
      data.openMode = SHELL_OPEN_ZIPFILE;
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-append")==0 ){
      data.openMode = SHELL_OPEN_APPENDVFS;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DESERIALIZE
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-deserialize")==0 ){
      data.openMode = SHELL_OPEN_DESERIALIZE;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-maxsize")==0 && i+1<argc ){
      data.szMax = integerValue(argv[++i]);
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-readonly")==0 ){
      data.openMode = SHELL_OPEN_READONLY;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-nofollow")==0 ){
      data.openFlags = SQLITE_OPEN_NOFOLLOW;
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB)
    }else if( strncmp(z, "-A",2)==0 ){
      /* All remaining command-line arguments are passed to the ".archive"
      ** command, so ignore them */
      break;
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(z, "-memtrace")==0 ){
      sqlite3MemTraceActivate(stderr);
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-bail")==0 ){
      bail_on_error = 1;
    }
  }
  verify_uninitialized();


#ifdef SQLITE_SHELL_INIT_PROC
  {
    /* If the SQLITE_SHELL_INIT_PROC macro is defined, then it is the name
    ** of a C-function that will perform initialization actions on SQLite that
    ** occur just before or after sqlite3_initialize(). Use this compile-time
    ** option to embed this shell program in larger applications. */
    extern void SQLITE_SHELL_INIT_PROC(void);
    SQLITE_SHELL_INIT_PROC();
  }
#else
  /* All the sqlite3_config() calls have now been made. So it is safe
  ** to call sqlite3_initialize() and process any command line -vfs option. */
  sqlite3_initialize();
#endif

  if( zVfs ){
    sqlite3_vfs *pVfs = sqlite3_vfs_find(zVfs);
    if( pVfs ){
      sqlite3_vfs_register(pVfs, 1);
    }else{
      utf8_printf(stderr, "no such VFS: \"%s\"\n", argv[i]);
      exit(1);
    }
  }

  if( data.pAuxDb->zDbFilename==0 ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MEMORYDB
    data.pAuxDb->zDbFilename = ":memory:";
    warnInmemoryDb = argc==1;
#else
    utf8_printf(stderr,"%s: Error: no database filename specified\n", Argv0);
    return 1;
#endif
  }
  data.out = stdout;
  sqlite3_appendvfs_init(0,0,0);

  /* Go ahead and open the database file if it already exists.  If the
  ** file does not exist, delay opening it.  This prevents empty database
  ** files from being created if a user mistypes the database name argument
  ** to the sqlite command-line tool.
  */
  if( access(data.pAuxDb->zDbFilename, 0)==0 ){
    open_db(&data, 0);
  }

  /* Process the initialization file if there is one.  If no -init option
  ** is given on the command line, look for a file named ~/.sqliterc and
  ** try to process it.
  */
  process_sqliterc(&data,zInitFile);

  /* Make a second pass through the command-line argument and set
  ** options.  This second pass is delayed until after the initialization
  ** file is processed so that the command-line arguments will override
  ** settings in the initialization file.
  */
  for(i=1; i<argc; i++){
    char *z = argv[i];
    if( z[0]!='-' ) continue;
    if( z[1]=='-' ){ z++; }
    if( strcmp(z,"-init")==0 ){
      i++;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-html")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_Html;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-list")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_List;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-quote")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_Quote;
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(data.colSeparator), data.colSeparator, SEP_Comma);
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(data.rowSeparator), data.rowSeparator, SEP_Row);
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-line")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_Line;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-column")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_Column;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-json")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_Json;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-markdown")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_Markdown;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-table")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_Table;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-box")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_Box;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-csv")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_Csv;
      memcpy(data.colSeparator,",",2);
#ifdef SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-zip")==0 ){
      data.openMode = SHELL_OPEN_ZIPFILE;
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-append")==0 ){
      data.openMode = SHELL_OPEN_APPENDVFS;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_DESERIALIZE
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-deserialize")==0 ){
      data.openMode = SHELL_OPEN_DESERIALIZE;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-maxsize")==0 && i+1<argc ){
      data.szMax = integerValue(argv[++i]);
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-readonly")==0 ){
      data.openMode = SHELL_OPEN_READONLY;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-nofollow")==0 ){
      data.openFlags |= SQLITE_OPEN_NOFOLLOW;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-ascii")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_Ascii;
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(data.colSeparator), data.colSeparator, SEP_Unit);
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(data.rowSeparator), data.rowSeparator, SEP_Record);
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-tabs")==0 ){
      data.mode = MODE_List;
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(data.colSeparator), data.colSeparator, SEP_Tab);
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(data.rowSeparator), data.rowSeparator, SEP_Row);
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-separator")==0 ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(data.colSeparator), data.colSeparator,
                       "%s",cmdline_option_value(argc,argv,++i));
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-newline")==0 ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(data.rowSeparator), data.rowSeparator,
                       "%s",cmdline_option_value(argc,argv,++i));
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-nullvalue")==0 ){
      sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(data.nullValue), data.nullValue,
                       "%s",cmdline_option_value(argc,argv,++i));
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-header")==0 ){
      data.showHeader = 1;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-noheader")==0 ){
      data.showHeader = 0;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-echo")==0 ){
      ShellSetFlag(&data, SHFLG_Echo);
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-eqp")==0 ){
      data.autoEQP = AUTOEQP_on;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-eqpfull")==0 ){
      data.autoEQP = AUTOEQP_full;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-stats")==0 ){
      data.statsOn = 1;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-scanstats")==0 ){
      data.scanstatsOn = 1;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-backslash")==0 ){
      /* Undocumented command-line option: -backslash
      ** Causes C-style backslash escapes to be evaluated in SQL statements
      ** prior to sending the SQL into SQLite.  Useful for injecting
      ** crazy bytes in the middle of SQL statements for testing and debugging.
      */
      ShellSetFlag(&data, SHFLG_Backslash);
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-bail")==0 ){
      /* No-op.  The bail_on_error flag should already be set. */
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-version")==0 ){
      printf("%s %s\n", sqlite3_libversion(), sqlite3_sourceid());
      return 0;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-interactive")==0 ){
      stdin_is_interactive = 1;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-batch")==0 ){
      stdin_is_interactive = 0;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-heap")==0 ){
      i++;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-pagecache")==0 ){
      i+=2;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-lookaside")==0 ){
      i+=2;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-mmap")==0 ){
      i++;
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-memtrace")==0 ){
      i++;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_SORTER_REFERENCES
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-sorterref")==0 ){
      i++;
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-vfs")==0 ){
      i++;
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_VFSTRACE
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-vfstrace")==0 ){
      i++;
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_MULTIPLEX
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-multiplex")==0 ){
      i++;
#endif
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-help")==0 ){
      usage(1);
    }else if( strcmp(z,"-cmd")==0 ){
      /* Run commands that follow -cmd first and separately from commands
      ** that simply appear on the command-line.  This seems goofy.  It would
      ** be better if all commands ran in the order that they appear.  But
      ** we retain the goofy behavior for historical compatibility. */
      if( i==argc-1 ) break;
      z = cmdline_option_value(argc,argv,++i);
      if( z[0]=='.' ){
        rc = do_meta_command(z, &data);
        if( rc && bail_on_error ) return rc==2 ? 0 : rc;
      }else{
        open_db(&data, 0);
        rc = shell_exec(&data, z, &zErrMsg);
        if( zErrMsg!=0 ){
          utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: %s\n", zErrMsg);
          if( bail_on_error ) return rc!=0 ? rc : 1;
        }else if( rc!=0 ){
          utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: unable to process SQL \"%s\"\n", z);
          if( bail_on_error ) return rc;
        }
      }
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE) && defined(SQLITE_HAVE_ZLIB)
    }else if( strncmp(z, "-A", 2)==0 ){
      if( nCmd>0 ){
        utf8_printf(stderr, "Error: cannot mix regular SQL or dot-commands"
                            " with \"%s\"\n", z);
        return 1;
      }
      open_db(&data, OPEN_DB_ZIPFILE);
      if( z[2] ){
        argv[i] = &z[2];
        arDotCommand(&data, 1, argv+(i-1), argc-(i-1));
      }else{
        arDotCommand(&data, 1, argv+i, argc-i);
      }
      readStdin = 0;
      break;
#endif
    }else{
      utf8_printf(stderr,"%s: Error: unknown option: %s\n", Argv0, z);
      raw_printf(stderr,"Use -help for a list of options.\n");
      return 1;
    }
    data.cMode = data.mode;
  }

  if( !readStdin ){
    /* Run all arguments that do not begin with '-' as if they were separate
    ** command-line inputs, except for the argToSkip argument which contains
    ** the database filename.
    */
    for(i=0; i<nCmd; i++){
      if( azCmd[i][0]=='.' ){
        rc = do_meta_command(azCmd[i], &data);
        if( rc ){
          free(azCmd);
          return rc==2 ? 0 : rc;
        }
      }else{
        open_db(&data, 0);
        rc = shell_exec(&data, azCmd[i], &zErrMsg);
        if( zErrMsg || rc ){
          if( zErrMsg!=0 ){
            utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: %s\n", zErrMsg);
          }else{
            utf8_printf(stderr,"Error: unable to process SQL: %s\n", azCmd[i]);
          }
          sqlite3_free(zErrMsg);
          free(azCmd);
          return rc!=0 ? rc : 1;
        }
      }
    }
  }else{
    /* Run commands received from standard input
    */
    if( stdin_is_interactive ){
      char *zHome;
      char *zHistory;
      int nHistory;
      printf(
        "SQLite version %s %.19s\n" /*extra-version-info*/
        "Enter \".help\" for usage hints.\n",
        sqlite3_libversion(), sqlite3_sourceid()
      );
      if( warnInmemoryDb ){
        printf("Connected to a ");
        printBold("transient in-memory database");
        printf(".\nUse \".open FILENAME\" to reopen on a "
               "persistent database.\n");
      }
      zHistory = getenv("SQLITE_HISTORY");
      if( zHistory ){
        zHistory = strdup(zHistory);
      }else if( (zHome = find_home_dir(0))!=0 ){
        nHistory = strlen30(zHome) + 20;
        if( (zHistory = malloc(nHistory))!=0 ){
          sqlite3_snprintf(nHistory, zHistory,"%s/.sqlite_history", zHome);
        }
      }
      if( zHistory ){ shell_read_history(zHistory); }
#if HAVE_READLINE || HAVE_EDITLINE
      rl_attempted_completion_function = readline_completion;
#elif HAVE_LINENOISE
      linenoiseSetCompletionCallback(linenoise_completion);
#endif
      data.in = 0;
      rc = process_input(&data);
      if( zHistory ){
        shell_stifle_history(2000);
        shell_write_history(zHistory);
        free(zHistory);
      }
    }else{
      data.in = stdin;
      rc = process_input(&data);
    }
  }
  free(azCmd);
  set_table_name(&data, 0);
  if( data.db ){
    session_close_all(&data, -1);
    close_db(data.db);
  }
  for(i=0; i<ArraySize(data.aAuxDb); i++){
    sqlite3_free(data.aAuxDb[i].zFreeOnClose);
    if( data.aAuxDb[i].db ){
      session_close_all(&data, i);
      close_db(data.aAuxDb[i].db);
    }
  }
  find_home_dir(1);
  output_reset(&data);
  data.doXdgOpen = 0;
  clearTempFile(&data);
#if !SQLITE_SHELL_IS_UTF8
  for(i=0; i<argcToFree; i++) free(argvToFree[i]);
  free(argvToFree);
#endif
  free(data.colWidth);
  /* Clear the global data structure so that valgrind will detect memory
  ** leaks */
  memset(&data, 0, sizeof(data));
  return rc;
}