This directory contains source code for the SQLite "ICU" extension, an integration of the "International Components for Unicode" library with SQLite. Documentation follows. 1. Features 1.1 SQL Scalars upper() and lower() 1.2 Unicode Aware LIKE Operator 1.3 ICU Collation Sequences 1.4 SQL REGEXP Operator 2. Compilation and Usage 3. Bugs, Problems and Security Issues 3.1 The "case_sensitive_like" Pragma 3.2 The SQLITE_MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH Macro 3.3 Collation Sequence Security Issue 1. FEATURES 1.1 SQL Scalars upper() and lower() SQLite's built-in implementations of these two functions only provide case mapping for the 26 letters used in the English language. The ICU based functions provided by this extension provide case mapping, where defined, for the full range of unicode characters. ICU provides two types of case mapping, "general" case mapping and "language specific". Refer to ICU documentation for the differences between the two. Specifically: http://www.icu-project.org/userguide/caseMappings.html http://www.icu-project.org/userguide/posix.html#case_mappings To utilise "general" case mapping, the upper() or lower() scalar functions are invoked with one argument: upper('abc') -> 'ABC' lower('ABC') -> 'abc' To access ICU "language specific" case mapping, upper() or lower() should be invoked with two arguments. The second argument is the name of the locale to use. Passing an empty string ("") or SQL NULL value as the second argument is the same as invoking the 1 argument version of upper() or lower(): lower('I', 'en_us') -> 'i' lower('I', 'tr_tr') -> 'ı' (small dotless i) 1.2 Unicode Aware LIKE Operator Similarly to the upper() and lower() functions, the built-in SQLite LIKE operator understands case equivalence for the 26 letters of the English language alphabet. The implementation of LIKE included in this extension uses the ICU function u_foldCase() to provide case independent comparisons for the full range of unicode characters. The U_FOLD_CASE_DEFAULT flag is passed to u_foldCase(), meaning the dotless 'I' character used in the Turkish language is considered to be in the same equivalence class as the dotted 'I' character used by many languages (including English). 1.3 ICU Collation Sequences A special SQL scalar function, icu_load_collation() is provided that may be used to register ICU collation sequences with SQLite. It is always called with exactly two arguments, the ICU locale identifying the collation sequence to ICU, and the name of the SQLite collation sequence to create. For example, to create an SQLite collation sequence named "turkish" using Turkish language sorting rules, the SQL statement: SELECT icu_load_collation('tr_TR', 'turkish'); Or, for Australian English: SELECT icu_load_collation('en_AU', 'australian'); The identifiers "turkish" and "australian" may then be used as collation sequence identifiers in SQL statements: CREATE TABLE aust_turkish_penpals( australian_penpal_name TEXT COLLATE australian, turkish_penpal_name TEXT COLLATE turkish ); 1.4 SQL REGEXP Operator This extension provides an implementation of the SQL binary comparision operator "REGEXP", based on the regular expression functions provided by the ICU library. The syntax of the operator is as described in SQLite documentation: <string> REGEXP <re-pattern> This extension uses the ICU defaults for regular expression matching behavior. Specifically, this means that: * Matching is case-sensitive, * Regular expression comments are not allowed within patterns, and * The '^' and '$' characters match the beginning and end of the <string> argument, not the beginning and end of lines within the <string> argument. Even more specifically, the value passed to the "flags" parameter of ICU C function uregex_open() is 0. 2 COMPILATION AND USAGE The easiest way to compile and use the ICU extension is to build and use it as a dynamically loadable SQLite extension. To do this using gcc on *nix: gcc -fPIC -shared icu.c `pkg-config --libs --cflags icu-uc icu-io` \ -o libSqliteIcu.so You may need to add "-I" flags so that gcc can find sqlite3ext.h and sqlite3.h. The resulting shared lib, libSqliteIcu.so, may be loaded into sqlite in the same way as any other dynamically loadable extension. 3 BUGS, PROBLEMS AND SECURITY ISSUES 3.1 The "case_sensitive_like" Pragma This extension does not work well with the "case_sensitive_like" pragma. If this pragma is used before the ICU extension is loaded, then the pragma has no effect. If the pragma is used after the ICU extension is loaded, then SQLite ignores the ICU implementation and always uses the built-in LIKE operator. The ICU extension LIKE operator is always case insensitive. 3.2 The SQLITE_MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH Macro Passing very long patterns to the built-in SQLite LIKE operator can cause excessive CPU usage. To curb this problem, SQLite defines the SQLITE_MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH macro as the maximum length of a pattern in bytes (irrespective of encoding). The default value is defined in internal header file "limits.h". The ICU extension LIKE implementation suffers from the same problem and uses the same solution. However, since the ICU extension code does not include the SQLite file "limits.h", modifying the default value therein does not affect the ICU extension. The default value of SQLITE_MAX_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH used by the ICU extension LIKE operator is 50000, defined in source file "icu.c". 3.3 Collation Sequence Security Internally, SQLite assumes that indices stored in database files are sorted according to the collation sequence indicated by the SQL schema. Changing the definition of a collation sequence after an index has been built is therefore equivalent to database corruption. The SQLite library is well tested for robustness in the fact of database corruption. Database corruption may well lead to incorrect answers, but should not cause memory errors.