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/*
** 2015-06-06
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
** This module contains C code that generates VDBE code used to process
** the WHERE clause of SQL statements.
**
** This file was split off from where.c on 2015-06-06 in order to reduce the
** size of where.c and make it easier to edit.  This file contains the routines
** that actually generate the bulk of the WHERE loop code.  The original where.c
** file retains the code that does query planning and analysis.
*/
#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include "whereInt.h"

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN

/*
** Return the name of the i-th column of the pIdx index.
*/
static const char *explainIndexColumnName(Index *pIdx, int i){
  i = pIdx->aiColumn[i];
  if( i==XN_EXPR ) return "<expr>";
  if( i==XN_ROWID ) return "rowid";
  return pIdx->pTable->aCol[i].zName;
}

/*
** This routine is a helper for explainIndexRange() below
**
** pStr holds the text of an expression that we are building up one term
** at a time.  This routine adds a new term to the end of the expression.
** Terms are separated by AND so add the "AND" text for second and subsequent
** terms only.
*/
static void explainAppendTerm(
  StrAccum *pStr,             /* The text expression being built */
  Index *pIdx,                /* Index to read column names from */
  int nTerm,                  /* Number of terms */
  int iTerm,                  /* Zero-based index of first term. */
  int bAnd,                   /* Non-zero to append " AND " */
  const char *zOp             /* Name of the operator */
){
  int i;

  assert( nTerm>=1 );
  if( bAnd ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " AND ", 5);

  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "(", 1);
  for(i=0; i<nTerm; i++){
    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ",", 1);
    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(pStr, explainIndexColumnName(pIdx, iTerm+i));
  }
  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);

  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, zOp, 1);

  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "(", 1);
  for(i=0; i<nTerm; i++){
    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ",", 1);
    sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, "?", 1);
  }
  if( nTerm>1 ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);
}

/*
** Argument pLevel describes a strategy for scanning table pTab. This 
** function appends text to pStr that describes the subset of table
** rows scanned by the strategy in the form of an SQL expression.
**
** For example, if the query:
**
**   SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a=1 AND b>2;
**
** is run and there is an index on (a, b), then this function returns a
** string similar to:
**
**   "a=? AND b>?"
*/
static void explainIndexRange(StrAccum *pStr, WhereLoop *pLoop){
  Index *pIndex = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  u16 nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;
  u16 nSkip = pLoop->nSkip;
  int i, j;

  if( nEq==0 && (pLoop->wsFlags&(WHERE_BTM_LIMIT|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT))==0 ) return;
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " (", 2);
  for(i=0; i<nEq; i++){
    const char *z = explainIndexColumnName(pIndex, i);
    if( i ) sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, " AND ", 5);
    sqlite3XPrintf(pStr, i>=nSkip ? "%s=?" : "ANY(%s)", z);
  }

  j = i;
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
    explainAppendTerm(pStr, pIndex, pLoop->u.btree.nBtm, j, i, ">");
    i = 1;
  }
  if( pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){
    explainAppendTerm(pStr, pIndex, pLoop->u.btree.nTop, j, i, "<");
  }
  sqlite3StrAccumAppend(pStr, ")", 1);
}

/*
** This function is a no-op unless currently processing an EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN
** command, or if either SQLITE_DEBUG or SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS was
** defined at compile-time. If it is not a no-op, a single OP_Explain opcode 
** is added to the output to describe the table scan strategy in pLevel.
**
** If an OP_Explain opcode is added to the VM, its address is returned.
** Otherwise, if no OP_Explain is coded, zero is returned.
*/
int sqlite3WhereExplainOneScan(
  Parse *pParse,                  /* Parse context */
  SrcList *pTabList,              /* Table list this loop refers to */
  WhereLevel *pLevel,             /* Scan to write OP_Explain opcode for */
  int iLevel,                     /* Value for "level" column of output */
  int iFrom,                      /* Value for "from" column of output */
  u16 wctrlFlags                  /* Flags passed to sqlite3WhereBegin() */
){
  int ret = 0;
#if !defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS)
  if( pParse->explain==2 )
#endif
  {
    struct SrcList_item *pItem = &pTabList->a[pLevel->iFrom];
    Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;      /* VM being constructed */
    sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;     /* Database handle */
    int iId = pParse->iSelectId;  /* Select id (left-most output column) */
    int isSearch;                 /* True for a SEARCH. False for SCAN. */
    WhereLoop *pLoop;             /* The controlling WhereLoop object */
    u32 flags;                    /* Flags that describe this loop */
    char *zMsg;                   /* Text to add to EQP output */
    StrAccum str;                 /* EQP output string */
    char zBuf[100];               /* Initial space for EQP output string */

    pLoop = pLevel->pWLoop;
    flags = pLoop->wsFlags;
    if( (flags&WHERE_MULTI_OR) || (wctrlFlags&WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE) ) return 0;

    isSearch = (flags&(WHERE_BTM_LIMIT|WHERE_TOP_LIMIT))!=0
            || ((flags&WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0 && (pLoop->u.btree.nEq>0))
            || (wctrlFlags&(WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN|WHERE_ORDERBY_MAX));

    sqlite3StrAccumInit(&str, db, zBuf, sizeof(zBuf), SQLITE_MAX_LENGTH);
    sqlite3StrAccumAppendAll(&str, isSearch ? "SEARCH" : "SCAN");
    if( pItem->pSelect ){
      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " SUBQUERY %d", pItem->iSelectId);
    }else{
      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " TABLE %s", pItem->zName);
    }

    if( pItem->zAlias ){
      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " AS %s", pItem->zAlias);
    }
    if( (flags & (WHERE_IPK|WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE))==0 ){
      const char *zFmt = 0;
      Index *pIdx;

      assert( pLoop->u.btree.pIndex!=0 );
      pIdx = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
      assert( !(flags&WHERE_AUTO_INDEX) || (flags&WHERE_IDX_ONLY) );
      if( !HasRowid(pItem->pTab) && IsPrimaryKeyIndex(pIdx) ){
        if( isSearch ){
          zFmt = "PRIMARY KEY";
        }
      }else if( flags & WHERE_PARTIALIDX ){
        zFmt = "AUTOMATIC PARTIAL COVERING INDEX";
      }else if( flags & WHERE_AUTO_INDEX ){
        zFmt = "AUTOMATIC COVERING INDEX";
      }else if( flags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY ){
        zFmt = "COVERING INDEX %s";
      }else{
        zFmt = "INDEX %s";
      }
      if( zFmt ){
        sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&str, " USING ", 7);
        sqlite3XPrintf(&str, zFmt, pIdx->zName);
        explainIndexRange(&str, pLoop);
      }
    }else if( (flags & WHERE_IPK)!=0 && (flags & WHERE_CONSTRAINT)!=0 ){
      const char *zRangeOp;
      if( flags&(WHERE_COLUMN_EQ|WHERE_COLUMN_IN) ){
        zRangeOp = "=";
      }else if( (flags&WHERE_BOTH_LIMIT)==WHERE_BOTH_LIMIT ){
        zRangeOp = ">? AND rowid<";
      }else if( flags&WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
        zRangeOp = ">";
      }else{
        assert( flags&WHERE_TOP_LIMIT);
        zRangeOp = "<";
      }
      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid%s?)",zRangeOp);
    }
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
    else if( (flags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)!=0 ){
      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " VIRTUAL TABLE INDEX %d:%s",
                  pLoop->u.vtab.idxNum, pLoop->u.vtab.idxStr);
    }
#endif
#ifdef SQLITE_EXPLAIN_ESTIMATED_ROWS
    if( pLoop->nOut>=10 ){
      sqlite3XPrintf(&str, " (~%llu rows)", sqlite3LogEstToInt(pLoop->nOut));
    }else{
      sqlite3StrAccumAppend(&str, " (~1 row)", 9);
    }
#endif
    zMsg = sqlite3StrAccumFinish(&str);
    ret = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Explain, iId, iLevel, iFrom, zMsg,P4_DYNAMIC);
  }
  return ret;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_EXPLAIN */

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS
/*
** Configure the VM passed as the first argument with an
** sqlite3_stmt_scanstatus() entry corresponding to the scan used to 
** implement level pLvl. Argument pSrclist is a pointer to the FROM 
** clause that the scan reads data from.
**
** If argument addrExplain is not 0, it must be the address of an 
** OP_Explain instruction that describes the same loop.
*/
void sqlite3WhereAddScanStatus(
  Vdbe *v,                        /* Vdbe to add scanstatus entry to */
  SrcList *pSrclist,              /* FROM clause pLvl reads data from */
  WhereLevel *pLvl,               /* Level to add scanstatus() entry for */
  int addrExplain                 /* Address of OP_Explain (or 0) */
){
  const char *zObj = 0;
  WhereLoop *pLoop = pLvl->pWLoop;
  if( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0  &&  pLoop->u.btree.pIndex!=0 ){
    zObj = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex->zName;
  }else{
    zObj = pSrclist->a[pLvl->iFrom].zName;
  }
  sqlite3VdbeScanStatus(
      v, addrExplain, pLvl->addrBody, pLvl->addrVisit, pLoop->nOut, zObj
  );
}
#endif


/*
** Disable a term in the WHERE clause.  Except, do not disable the term
** if it controls a LEFT OUTER JOIN and it did not originate in the ON
** or USING clause of that join.
**
** Consider the term t2.z='ok' in the following queries:
**
**   (1)  SELECT * FROM t1 LEFT JOIN t2 ON t1.a=t2.x WHERE t2.z='ok'
**   (2)  SELECT * FROM t1 LEFT JOIN t2 ON t1.a=t2.x AND t2.z='ok'
**   (3)  SELECT * FROM t1, t2 WHERE t1.a=t2.x AND t2.z='ok'
**
** The t2.z='ok' is disabled in the in (2) because it originates
** in the ON clause.  The term is disabled in (3) because it is not part
** of a LEFT OUTER JOIN.  In (1), the term is not disabled.
**
** Disabling a term causes that term to not be tested in the inner loop
** of the join.  Disabling is an optimization.  When terms are satisfied
** by indices, we disable them to prevent redundant tests in the inner
** loop.  We would get the correct results if nothing were ever disabled,
** but joins might run a little slower.  The trick is to disable as much
** as we can without disabling too much.  If we disabled in (1), we'd get
** the wrong answer.  See ticket #813.
**
** If all the children of a term are disabled, then that term is also
** automatically disabled.  In this way, terms get disabled if derived
** virtual terms are tested first.  For example:
**
**      x GLOB 'abc*' AND x>='abc' AND x<'acd'
**      \___________/     \______/     \_____/
**         parent          child1       child2
**
** Only the parent term was in the original WHERE clause.  The child1
** and child2 terms were added by the LIKE optimization.  If both of
** the virtual child terms are valid, then testing of the parent can be 
** skipped.
**
** Usually the parent term is marked as TERM_CODED.  But if the parent
** term was originally TERM_LIKE, then the parent gets TERM_LIKECOND instead.
** The TERM_LIKECOND marking indicates that the term should be coded inside
** a conditional such that is only evaluated on the second pass of a
** LIKE-optimization loop, when scanning BLOBs instead of strings.
*/
static void disableTerm(WhereLevel *pLevel, WhereTerm *pTerm){
  int nLoop = 0;
  while( ALWAYS(pTerm!=0)
      && (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_CODED)==0
      && (pLevel->iLeftJoin==0 || ExprHasProperty(pTerm->pExpr, EP_FromJoin))
      && (pLevel->notReady & pTerm->prereqAll)==0
  ){
    if( nLoop && (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_LIKE)!=0 ){
      pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_LIKECOND;
    }else{
      pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_CODED;
    }
    if( pTerm->iParent<0 ) break;
    pTerm = &pTerm->pWC->a[pTerm->iParent];
    pTerm->nChild--;
    if( pTerm->nChild!=0 ) break;
    nLoop++;
  }
}

/*
** Code an OP_Affinity opcode to apply the column affinity string zAff
** to the n registers starting at base. 
**
** As an optimization, SQLITE_AFF_BLOB entries (which are no-ops) at the
** beginning and end of zAff are ignored.  If all entries in zAff are
** SQLITE_AFF_BLOB, then no code gets generated.
**
** This routine makes its own copy of zAff so that the caller is free
** to modify zAff after this routine returns.
*/
static void codeApplyAffinity(Parse *pParse, int base, int n, char *zAff){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  if( zAff==0 ){
    assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
    return;
  }
  assert( v!=0 );

  /* Adjust base and n to skip over SQLITE_AFF_BLOB entries at the beginning
  ** and end of the affinity string.
  */
  while( n>0 && zAff[0]==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
    n--;
    base++;
    zAff++;
  }
  while( n>1 && zAff[n-1]==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
    n--;
  }

  /* Code the OP_Affinity opcode if there is anything left to do. */
  if( n>0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Affinity, base, n, 0, zAff, n);
    sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, base, n);
  }
}

/*
** Expression pRight, which is the RHS of a comparison operation, is 
** either a vector of n elements or, if n==1, a scalar expression.
** Before the comparison operation, affinity zAff is to be applied
** to the pRight values. This function modifies characters within the
** affinity string to SQLITE_AFF_BLOB if either:
**
**   * the comparison will be performed with no affinity, or
**   * the affinity change in zAff is guaranteed not to change the value.
*/
static void updateRangeAffinityStr(
  Expr *pRight,                   /* RHS of comparison */
  int n,                          /* Number of vector elements in comparison */
  char *zAff                      /* Affinity string to modify */
){
  int i;
  for(i=0; i<n; i++){
    Expr *p = sqlite3VectorFieldSubexpr(pRight, i);
    if( sqlite3CompareAffinity(p, zAff[i])==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB
     || sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(p, zAff[i])
    ){
      zAff[i] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
    }
  }
}

/*
** Generate code for a single equality term of the WHERE clause.  An equality
** term can be either X=expr or X IN (...).   pTerm is the term to be 
** coded.
**
** The current value for the constraint is left in a register, the index
** of which is returned.  An attempt is made store the result in iTarget but
** this is only guaranteed for TK_ISNULL and TK_IN constraints.  If the
** constraint is a TK_EQ or TK_IS, then the current value might be left in
** some other register and it is the caller's responsibility to compensate.
**
** For a constraint of the form X=expr, the expression is evaluated in
** straight-line code.  For constraints of the form X IN (...)
** this routine sets up a loop that will iterate over all values of X.
*/
static int codeEqualityTerm(
  Parse *pParse,      /* The parsing context */
  WhereTerm *pTerm,   /* The term of the WHERE clause to be coded */
  WhereLevel *pLevel, /* The level of the FROM clause we are working on */
  int iEq,            /* Index of the equality term within this level */
  int bRev,           /* True for reverse-order IN operations */
  int iTarget         /* Attempt to leave results in this register */
){
  Expr *pX = pTerm->pExpr;
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  int iReg;                  /* Register holding results */

  assert( pLevel->pWLoop->aLTerm[iEq]==pTerm );
  assert( iTarget>0 );
  if( pX->op==TK_EQ || pX->op==TK_IS ){
    iReg = sqlite3ExprCodeTarget(pParse, pX->pRight, iTarget);
  }else if( pX->op==TK_ISNULL ){
    iReg = iTarget;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, iReg);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
  }else{
    int eType = IN_INDEX_NOOP;
    int iTab;
    struct InLoop *pIn;
    WhereLoop *pLoop = pLevel->pWLoop;
    int i;
    int nEq = 0;
    int *aiMap = 0;

    if( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0
      && pLoop->u.btree.pIndex!=0
      && pLoop->u.btree.pIndex->aSortOrder[iEq]
    ){
      testcase( iEq==0 );
      testcase( bRev );
      bRev = !bRev;
    }
    assert( pX->op==TK_IN );
    iReg = iTarget;

    for(i=0; i<iEq; i++){
      if( pLoop->aLTerm[i] && pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
        return iTarget;
      }
    }
    for(i=iEq;i<pLoop->nLTerm; i++){
      if( ALWAYS(pLoop->aLTerm[i]) && pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ) nEq++;
    }

    if( (pX->flags & EP_xIsSelect)==0 || pX->x.pSelect->pEList->nExpr==1 ){
      eType = sqlite3FindInIndex(pParse, pX, IN_INDEX_LOOP, 0, 0);
    }else{
      Select *pSelect = pX->x.pSelect;
      sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
      u16 savedDbOptFlags = db->dbOptFlags;
      ExprList *pOrigRhs = pSelect->pEList;
      ExprList *pOrigLhs = pX->pLeft->x.pList;
      ExprList *pRhs = 0;         /* New Select.pEList for RHS */
      ExprList *pLhs = 0;         /* New pX->pLeft vector */

      for(i=iEq;i<pLoop->nLTerm; i++){
        if( pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ){
          int iField = pLoop->aLTerm[i]->iField - 1;
          Expr *pNewRhs = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrigRhs->a[iField].pExpr, 0);
          Expr *pNewLhs = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pOrigLhs->a[iField].pExpr, 0);

          pRhs = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pRhs, pNewRhs);
          pLhs = sqlite3ExprListAppend(pParse, pLhs, pNewLhs);
        }
      }
      if( !db->mallocFailed ){
        Expr *pLeft = pX->pLeft;

        if( pSelect->pOrderBy ){
          /* If the SELECT statement has an ORDER BY clause, zero the 
          ** iOrderByCol variables. These are set to non-zero when an 
          ** ORDER BY term exactly matches one of the terms of the 
          ** result-set. Since the result-set of the SELECT statement may
          ** have been modified or reordered, these variables are no longer 
          ** set correctly.  Since setting them is just an optimization, 
          ** it's easiest just to zero them here.  */
          ExprList *pOrderBy = pSelect->pOrderBy;
          for(i=0; i<pOrderBy->nExpr; i++){
            pOrderBy->a[i].u.x.iOrderByCol = 0;
          }
        }

        /* Take care here not to generate a TK_VECTOR containing only a
        ** single value. Since the parser never creates such a vector, some
        ** of the subroutines do not handle this case.  */
        if( pLhs->nExpr==1 ){
          pX->pLeft = pLhs->a[0].pExpr;
        }else{
          pLeft->x.pList = pLhs;
          aiMap = (int*)sqlite3DbMallocZero(pParse->db, sizeof(int) * nEq);
          testcase( aiMap==0 );
        }
        pSelect->pEList = pRhs;
        db->dbOptFlags |= SQLITE_QueryFlattener;
        eType = sqlite3FindInIndex(pParse, pX, IN_INDEX_LOOP, 0, aiMap);
        db->dbOptFlags = savedDbOptFlags;
        testcase( aiMap!=0 && aiMap[0]!=0 );
        pSelect->pEList = pOrigRhs;
        pLeft->x.pList = pOrigLhs;
        pX->pLeft = pLeft;
      }
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pLhs);
      sqlite3ExprListDelete(pParse->db, pRhs);
    }

    if( eType==IN_INDEX_INDEX_DESC ){
      testcase( bRev );
      bRev = !bRev;
    }
    iTab = pX->iTable;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, bRev ? OP_Last : OP_Rewind, iTab, 0);
    VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev);
    VdbeCoverageIf(v, !bRev);
    assert( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_MULTI_OR)==0 );

    pLoop->wsFlags |= WHERE_IN_ABLE;
    if( pLevel->u.in.nIn==0 ){
      pLevel->addrNxt = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
    }

    i = pLevel->u.in.nIn;
    pLevel->u.in.nIn += nEq;
    pLevel->u.in.aInLoop =
       sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(pParse->db, pLevel->u.in.aInLoop,
                              sizeof(pLevel->u.in.aInLoop[0])*pLevel->u.in.nIn);
    pIn = pLevel->u.in.aInLoop;
    if( pIn ){
      int iMap = 0;               /* Index in aiMap[] */
      pIn += i;
      for(i=iEq;i<pLoop->nLTerm; i++){
        if( pLoop->aLTerm[i]->pExpr==pX ){
          int iOut = iReg + i - iEq;
          if( eType==IN_INDEX_ROWID ){
            testcase( nEq>1 );  /* Happens with a UNIQUE index on ROWID */
            pIn->addrInTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iTab, iOut);
          }else{
            int iCol = aiMap ? aiMap[iMap++] : 0;
            pIn->addrInTop = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v,OP_Column,iTab, iCol, iOut);
          }
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_IsNull, iOut); VdbeCoverage(v);
          if( i==iEq ){
            pIn->iCur = iTab;
            pIn->eEndLoopOp = bRev ? OP_PrevIfOpen : OP_NextIfOpen;
          }else{
            pIn->eEndLoopOp = OP_Noop;
          }
          pIn++;
        }
      }
    }else{
      pLevel->u.in.nIn = 0;
    }
    sqlite3DbFree(pParse->db, aiMap);
#endif
  }
  disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
  return iReg;
}

/*
** Generate code that will evaluate all == and IN constraints for an
** index scan.
**
** For example, consider table t1(a,b,c,d,e,f) with index i1(a,b,c).
** Suppose the WHERE clause is this:  a==5 AND b IN (1,2,3) AND c>5 AND c<10
** The index has as many as three equality constraints, but in this
** example, the third "c" value is an inequality.  So only two 
** constraints are coded.  This routine will generate code to evaluate
** a==5 and b IN (1,2,3).  The current values for a and b will be stored
** in consecutive registers and the index of the first register is returned.
**
** In the example above nEq==2.  But this subroutine works for any value
** of nEq including 0.  If nEq==0, this routine is nearly a no-op.
** The only thing it does is allocate the pLevel->iMem memory cell and
** compute the affinity string.
**
** The nExtraReg parameter is 0 or 1.  It is 0 if all WHERE clause constraints
** are == or IN and are covered by the nEq.  nExtraReg is 1 if there is
** an inequality constraint (such as the "c>=5 AND c<10" in the example) that
** occurs after the nEq quality constraints.
**
** This routine allocates a range of nEq+nExtraReg memory cells and returns
** the index of the first memory cell in that range. The code that
** calls this routine will use that memory range to store keys for
** start and termination conditions of the loop.
** key value of the loop.  If one or more IN operators appear, then
** this routine allocates an additional nEq memory cells for internal
** use.
**
** Before returning, *pzAff is set to point to a buffer containing a
** copy of the column affinity string of the index allocated using
** sqlite3DbMalloc(). Except, entries in the copy of the string associated
** with equality constraints that use BLOB or NONE affinity are set to
** SQLITE_AFF_BLOB. This is to deal with SQL such as the following:
**
**   CREATE TABLE t1(a TEXT PRIMARY KEY, b);
**   SELECT ... FROM t1 AS t2, t1 WHERE t1.a = t2.b;
**
** In the example above, the index on t1(a) has TEXT affinity. But since
** the right hand side of the equality constraint (t2.b) has BLOB/NONE affinity,
** no conversion should be attempted before using a t2.b value as part of
** a key to search the index. Hence the first byte in the returned affinity
** string in this example would be set to SQLITE_AFF_BLOB.
*/
static int codeAllEqualityTerms(
  Parse *pParse,        /* Parsing context */
  WhereLevel *pLevel,   /* Which nested loop of the FROM we are coding */
  int bRev,             /* Reverse the order of IN operators */
  int nExtraReg,        /* Number of extra registers to allocate */
  char **pzAff          /* OUT: Set to point to affinity string */
){
  u16 nEq;                      /* The number of == or IN constraints to code */
  u16 nSkip;                    /* Number of left-most columns to skip */
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;      /* The vm under construction */
  Index *pIdx;                  /* The index being used for this loop */
  WhereTerm *pTerm;             /* A single constraint term */
  WhereLoop *pLoop;             /* The WhereLoop object */
  int j;                        /* Loop counter */
  int regBase;                  /* Base register */
  int nReg;                     /* Number of registers to allocate */
  char *zAff;                   /* Affinity string to return */

  /* This module is only called on query plans that use an index. */
  pLoop = pLevel->pWLoop;
  assert( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)==0 );
  nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;
  nSkip = pLoop->nSkip;
  pIdx = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  assert( pIdx!=0 );

  /* Figure out how many memory cells we will need then allocate them.
  */
  regBase = pParse->nMem + 1;
  nReg = pLoop->u.btree.nEq + nExtraReg;
  pParse->nMem += nReg;

  zAff = sqlite3DbStrDup(pParse->db,sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(pParse->db,pIdx));
  assert( zAff!=0 || pParse->db->mallocFailed );

  if( nSkip ){
    int iIdxCur = pLevel->iIdxCur;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, (bRev?OP_Last:OP_Rewind), iIdxCur);
    VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev==0);
    VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev!=0);
    VdbeComment((v, "begin skip-scan on %s", pIdx->zName));
    j = sqlite3VdbeAddOp0(v, OP_Goto);
    pLevel->addrSkip = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, (bRev?OP_SeekLT:OP_SeekGT),
                            iIdxCur, 0, regBase, nSkip);
    VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev==0);
    VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev!=0);
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, j);
    for(j=0; j<nSkip; j++){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iIdxCur, j, regBase+j);
      testcase( pIdx->aiColumn[j]==XN_EXPR );
      VdbeComment((v, "%s", explainIndexColumnName(pIdx, j)));
    }
  }    

  /* Evaluate the equality constraints
  */
  assert( zAff==0 || (int)strlen(zAff)>=nEq );
  for(j=nSkip; j<nEq; j++){
    int r1;
    pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[j];
    assert( pTerm!=0 );
    /* The following testcase is true for indices with redundant columns. 
    ** Ex: CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a,b,a); SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a=0 AND b=0; */
    testcase( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_CODED)!=0 );
    testcase( pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
    r1 = codeEqualityTerm(pParse, pTerm, pLevel, j, bRev, regBase+j);
    if( r1!=regBase+j ){
      if( nReg==1 ){
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regBase);
        regBase = r1;
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, r1, regBase+j);
      }
    }
    if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
      if( pTerm->pExpr->flags & EP_xIsSelect ){
        /* No affinity ever needs to be (or should be) applied to a value
        ** from the RHS of an "? IN (SELECT ...)" expression. The 
        ** sqlite3FindInIndex() routine has already ensured that the 
        ** affinity of the comparison has been applied to the value.  */
        if( zAff ) zAff[j] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
      }
    }else if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_ISNULL)==0 ){
      Expr *pRight = pTerm->pExpr->pRight;
      if( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_IS)==0 && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight) ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+j, pLevel->addrBrk);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( zAff ){
        if( sqlite3CompareAffinity(pRight, zAff[j])==SQLITE_AFF_BLOB ){
          zAff[j] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
        }
        if( sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(pRight, zAff[j]) ){
          zAff[j] = SQLITE_AFF_BLOB;
        }
      }
    }
  }
  *pzAff = zAff;
  return regBase;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_LIKE_DOESNT_MATCH_BLOBS
/*
** If the most recently coded instruction is a constant range constraint
** (a string literal) that originated from the LIKE optimization, then 
** set P3 and P5 on the OP_String opcode so that the string will be cast
** to a BLOB at appropriate times.
**
** The LIKE optimization trys to evaluate "x LIKE 'abc%'" as a range
** expression: "x>='ABC' AND x<'abd'".  But this requires that the range
** scan loop run twice, once for strings and a second time for BLOBs.
** The OP_String opcodes on the second pass convert the upper and lower
** bound string constants to blobs.  This routine makes the necessary changes
** to the OP_String opcodes for that to happen.
**
** Except, of course, if SQLITE_LIKE_DOESNT_MATCH_BLOBS is defined, then
** only the one pass through the string space is required, so this routine
** becomes a no-op.
*/
static void whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(
  Vdbe *v,                /* prepared statement under construction */
  WhereLevel *pLevel,     /* The loop that contains the LIKE operator */
  WhereTerm *pTerm        /* The upper or lower bound just coded */
){
  if( pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT ){
    VdbeOp *pOp;
    assert( pLevel->iLikeRepCntr>0 );
    pOp = sqlite3VdbeGetOp(v, -1);
    assert( pOp!=0 );
    assert( pOp->opcode==OP_String8 
            || pTerm->pWC->pWInfo->pParse->db->mallocFailed );
    pOp->p3 = (int)(pLevel->iLikeRepCntr>>1);  /* Register holding counter */
    pOp->p5 = (u8)(pLevel->iLikeRepCntr&1);    /* ASC or DESC */
  }
}
#else
# define whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(A,B,C)
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS
/*
** Information is passed from codeCursorHint() down to individual nodes of
** the expression tree (by sqlite3WalkExpr()) using an instance of this
** structure.
*/
struct CCurHint {
  int iTabCur;    /* Cursor for the main table */
  int iIdxCur;    /* Cursor for the index, if pIdx!=0.  Unused otherwise */
  Index *pIdx;    /* The index used to access the table */
};

/*
** This function is called for every node of an expression that is a candidate
** for a cursor hint on an index cursor.  For TK_COLUMN nodes that reference
** the table CCurHint.iTabCur, verify that the same column can be
** accessed through the index.  If it cannot, then set pWalker->eCode to 1.
*/
static int codeCursorHintCheckExpr(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
  struct CCurHint *pHint = pWalker->u.pCCurHint;
  assert( pHint->pIdx!=0 );
  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN
   && pExpr->iTable==pHint->iTabCur
   && sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(pHint->pIdx, pExpr->iColumn)<0
  ){
    pWalker->eCode = 1;
  }
  return WRC_Continue;
}

/*
** Test whether or not expression pExpr, which was part of a WHERE clause,
** should be included in the cursor-hint for a table that is on the rhs
** of a LEFT JOIN. Set Walker.eCode to non-zero before returning if the 
** expression is not suitable.
**
** An expression is unsuitable if it might evaluate to non NULL even if
** a TK_COLUMN node that does affect the value of the expression is set
** to NULL. For example:
**
**   col IS NULL
**   col IS NOT NULL
**   coalesce(col, 1)
**   CASE WHEN col THEN 0 ELSE 1 END
*/
static int codeCursorHintIsOrFunction(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
  if( pExpr->op==TK_IS 
   || pExpr->op==TK_ISNULL || pExpr->op==TK_ISNOT 
   || pExpr->op==TK_NOTNULL || pExpr->op==TK_CASE 
  ){
    pWalker->eCode = 1;
  }else if( pExpr->op==TK_FUNCTION ){
    int d1;
    char d2[4];
    if( 0==sqlite3IsLikeFunction(pWalker->pParse->db, pExpr, &d1, d2) ){
      pWalker->eCode = 1;
    }
  }

  return WRC_Continue;
}


/*
** This function is called on every node of an expression tree used as an
** argument to the OP_CursorHint instruction. If the node is a TK_COLUMN
** that accesses any table other than the one identified by
** CCurHint.iTabCur, then do the following:
**
**   1) allocate a register and code an OP_Column instruction to read 
**      the specified column into the new register, and
**
**   2) transform the expression node to a TK_REGISTER node that reads 
**      from the newly populated register.
**
** Also, if the node is a TK_COLUMN that does access the table idenified
** by pCCurHint.iTabCur, and an index is being used (which we will
** know because CCurHint.pIdx!=0) then transform the TK_COLUMN into
** an access of the index rather than the original table.
*/
static int codeCursorHintFixExpr(Walker *pWalker, Expr *pExpr){
  int rc = WRC_Continue;
  struct CCurHint *pHint = pWalker->u.pCCurHint;
  if( pExpr->op==TK_COLUMN ){
    if( pExpr->iTable!=pHint->iTabCur ){
      Vdbe *v = pWalker->pParse->pVdbe;
      int reg = ++pWalker->pParse->nMem;   /* Register for column value */
      sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(
          v, pExpr->pTab, pExpr->iTable, pExpr->iColumn, reg
      );
      pExpr->op = TK_REGISTER;
      pExpr->iTable = reg;
    }else if( pHint->pIdx!=0 ){
      pExpr->iTable = pHint->iIdxCur;
      pExpr->iColumn = sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(pHint->pIdx, pExpr->iColumn);
      assert( pExpr->iColumn>=0 );
    }
  }else if( pExpr->op==TK_AGG_FUNCTION ){
    /* An aggregate function in the WHERE clause of a query means this must
    ** be a correlated sub-query, and expression pExpr is an aggregate from
    ** the parent context. Do not walk the function arguments in this case.
    **
    ** todo: It should be possible to replace this node with a TK_REGISTER
    ** expression, as the result of the expression must be stored in a 
    ** register at this point. The same holds for TK_AGG_COLUMN nodes. */
    rc = WRC_Prune;
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Insert an OP_CursorHint instruction if it is appropriate to do so.
*/
static void codeCursorHint(
  struct SrcList_item *pTabItem,  /* FROM clause item */
  WhereInfo *pWInfo,    /* The where clause */
  WhereLevel *pLevel,   /* Which loop to provide hints for */
  WhereTerm *pEndRange  /* Hint this end-of-scan boundary term if not NULL */
){
  Parse *pParse = pWInfo->pParse;
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  Expr *pExpr = 0;
  WhereLoop *pLoop = pLevel->pWLoop;
  int iCur;
  WhereClause *pWC;
  WhereTerm *pTerm;
  int i, j;
  struct CCurHint sHint;
  Walker sWalker;

  if( OptimizationDisabled(db, SQLITE_CursorHints) ) return;
  iCur = pLevel->iTabCur;
  assert( iCur==pWInfo->pTabList->a[pLevel->iFrom].iCursor );
  sHint.iTabCur = iCur;
  sHint.iIdxCur = pLevel->iIdxCur;
  sHint.pIdx = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
  memset(&sWalker, 0, sizeof(sWalker));
  sWalker.pParse = pParse;
  sWalker.u.pCCurHint = &sHint;
  pWC = &pWInfo->sWC;
  for(i=0; i<pWC->nTerm; i++){
    pTerm = &pWC->a[i];
    if( pTerm->wtFlags & (TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_CODED) ) continue;
    if( pTerm->prereqAll & pLevel->notReady ) continue;

    /* Any terms specified as part of the ON(...) clause for any LEFT 
    ** JOIN for which the current table is not the rhs are omitted
    ** from the cursor-hint. 
    **
    ** If this table is the rhs of a LEFT JOIN, "IS" or "IS NULL" terms 
    ** that were specified as part of the WHERE clause must be excluded.
    ** This is to address the following:
    **
    **   SELECT ... t1 LEFT JOIN t2 ON (t1.a=t2.b) WHERE t2.c IS NULL;
    **
    ** Say there is a single row in t2 that matches (t1.a=t2.b), but its
    ** t2.c values is not NULL. If the (t2.c IS NULL) constraint is 
    ** pushed down to the cursor, this row is filtered out, causing
    ** SQLite to synthesize a row of NULL values. Which does match the
    ** WHERE clause, and so the query returns a row. Which is incorrect.
    **
    ** For the same reason, WHERE terms such as:
    **
    **   WHERE 1 = (t2.c IS NULL)
    **
    ** are also excluded. See codeCursorHintIsOrFunction() for details.
    */
    if( pTabItem->fg.jointype & JT_LEFT ){
      Expr *pExpr = pTerm->pExpr;
      if( !ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) 
       || pExpr->iRightJoinTable!=pTabItem->iCursor
      ){
        sWalker.eCode = 0;
        sWalker.xExprCallback = codeCursorHintIsOrFunction;
        sqlite3WalkExpr(&sWalker, pTerm->pExpr);
        if( sWalker.eCode ) continue;
      }
    }else{
      if( ExprHasProperty(pTerm->pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ) continue;
    }

    /* All terms in pWLoop->aLTerm[] except pEndRange are used to initialize
    ** the cursor.  These terms are not needed as hints for a pure range
    ** scan (that has no == terms) so omit them. */
    if( pLoop->u.btree.nEq==0 && pTerm!=pEndRange ){
      for(j=0; j<pLoop->nLTerm && pLoop->aLTerm[j]!=pTerm; j++){}
      if( j<pLoop->nLTerm ) continue;
    }

    /* No subqueries or non-deterministic functions allowed */
    if( sqlite3ExprContainsSubquery(pTerm->pExpr) ) continue;

    /* For an index scan, make sure referenced columns are actually in
    ** the index. */
    if( sHint.pIdx!=0 ){
      sWalker.eCode = 0;
      sWalker.xExprCallback = codeCursorHintCheckExpr;
      sqlite3WalkExpr(&sWalker, pTerm->pExpr);
      if( sWalker.eCode ) continue;
    }

    /* If we survive all prior tests, that means this term is worth hinting */
    pExpr = sqlite3ExprAnd(db, pExpr, sqlite3ExprDup(db, pTerm->pExpr, 0));
  }
  if( pExpr!=0 ){
    sWalker.xExprCallback = codeCursorHintFixExpr;
    sqlite3WalkExpr(&sWalker, pExpr);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_CursorHint, 
                      (sHint.pIdx ? sHint.iIdxCur : sHint.iTabCur), 0, 0,
                      (const char*)pExpr, P4_EXPR);
  }
}
#else
# define codeCursorHint(A,B,C,D)  /* No-op */
#endif /* SQLITE_ENABLE_CURSOR_HINTS */

/*
** Cursor iCur is open on an intkey b-tree (a table). Register iRowid contains
** a rowid value just read from cursor iIdxCur, open on index pIdx. This
** function generates code to do a deferred seek of cursor iCur to the 
** rowid stored in register iRowid.
**
** Normally, this is just:
**
**   OP_DeferredSeek $iCur $iRowid
**
** However, if the scan currently being coded is a branch of an OR-loop and
** the statement currently being coded is a SELECT, then P3 of OP_DeferredSeek
** is set to iIdxCur and P4 is set to point to an array of integers
** containing one entry for each column of the table cursor iCur is open 
** on. For each table column, if the column is the i'th column of the 
** index, then the corresponding array entry is set to (i+1). If the column
** does not appear in the index at all, the array entry is set to 0.
*/
static void codeDeferredSeek(
  WhereInfo *pWInfo,              /* Where clause context */
  Index *pIdx,                    /* Index scan is using */
  int iCur,                       /* Cursor for IPK b-tree */
  int iIdxCur                     /* Index cursor */
){
  Parse *pParse = pWInfo->pParse; /* Parse context */
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;        /* Vdbe to generate code within */

  assert( iIdxCur>0 );
  assert( pIdx->aiColumn[pIdx->nColumn-1]==-1 );
  
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_DeferredSeek, iIdxCur, 0, iCur);
  if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE)
   && DbMaskAllZero(sqlite3ParseToplevel(pParse)->writeMask)
  ){
    int i;
    Table *pTab = pIdx->pTable;
    int *ai = (int*)sqlite3DbMallocZero(pParse->db, sizeof(int)*(pTab->nCol+1));
    if( ai ){
      ai[0] = pTab->nCol;
      for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn-1; i++){
        assert( pIdx->aiColumn[i]<pTab->nCol );
        if( pIdx->aiColumn[i]>=0 ) ai[pIdx->aiColumn[i]+1] = i+1;
      }
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP4(v, -1, (char*)ai, P4_INTARRAY);
    }
  }
}

/*
** If the expression passed as the second argument is a vector, generate
** code to write the first nReg elements of the vector into an array
** of registers starting with iReg.
**
** If the expression is not a vector, then nReg must be passed 1. In
** this case, generate code to evaluate the expression and leave the
** result in register iReg.
*/
static void codeExprOrVector(Parse *pParse, Expr *p, int iReg, int nReg){
  assert( nReg>0 );
  if( p && sqlite3ExprIsVector(p) ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_SUBQUERY
    if( (p->flags & EP_xIsSelect) ){
      Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
      int iSelect = sqlite3CodeSubselect(pParse, p, 0, 0);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Copy, iSelect, iReg, nReg-1);
    }else
#endif
    {
      int i;
      ExprList *pList = p->x.pList;
      assert( nReg<=pList->nExpr );
      for(i=0; i<nReg; i++){
        sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pList->a[i].pExpr, iReg+i);
      }
    }
  }else{
    assert( nReg==1 );
    sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, p, iReg);
  }
}

/* An instance of the IdxExprTrans object carries information about a
** mapping from an expression on table columns into a column in an index
** down through the Walker.
*/
typedef struct IdxExprTrans {
  Expr *pIdxExpr;    /* The index expression */
  int iTabCur;       /* The cursor of the corresponding table */
  int iIdxCur;       /* The cursor for the index */
  int iIdxCol;       /* The column for the index */
} IdxExprTrans;

/* The walker node callback used to transform matching expressions into
** a reference to an index column for an index on an expression.
**
** If pExpr matches, then transform it into a reference to the index column
** that contains the value of pExpr.
*/
static int whereIndexExprTransNode(Walker *p, Expr *pExpr){
  IdxExprTrans *pX = p->u.pIdxTrans;
  if( sqlite3ExprCompare(0, pExpr, pX->pIdxExpr, pX->iTabCur)==0 ){
    pExpr->op = TK_COLUMN;
    pExpr->iTable = pX->iIdxCur;
    pExpr->iColumn = pX->iIdxCol;
    pExpr->pTab = 0;
    return WRC_Prune;
  }else{
    return WRC_Continue;
  }
}

/*
** For an indexes on expression X, locate every instance of expression X
** in pExpr and change that subexpression into a reference to the appropriate
** column of the index.
*/
static void whereIndexExprTrans(
  Index *pIdx,      /* The Index */
  int iTabCur,      /* Cursor of the table that is being indexed */
  int iIdxCur,      /* Cursor of the index itself */
  WhereInfo *pWInfo /* Transform expressions in this WHERE clause */
){
  int iIdxCol;               /* Column number of the index */
  ExprList *aColExpr;        /* Expressions that are indexed */
  Walker w;
  IdxExprTrans x;
  aColExpr = pIdx->aColExpr;
  if( aColExpr==0 ) return;  /* Not an index on expressions */
  memset(&w, 0, sizeof(w));
  w.xExprCallback = whereIndexExprTransNode;
  w.u.pIdxTrans = &x;
  x.iTabCur = iTabCur;
  x.iIdxCur = iIdxCur;
  for(iIdxCol=0; iIdxCol<aColExpr->nExpr; iIdxCol++){
    if( pIdx->aiColumn[iIdxCol]!=XN_EXPR ) continue;
    assert( aColExpr->a[iIdxCol].pExpr!=0 );
    x.iIdxCol = iIdxCol;
    x.pIdxExpr = aColExpr->a[iIdxCol].pExpr;
    sqlite3WalkExpr(&w, pWInfo->pWhere);
    sqlite3WalkExprList(&w, pWInfo->pOrderBy);
    sqlite3WalkExprList(&w, pWInfo->pResultSet);
  }
}

/*
** Generate code for the start of the iLevel-th loop in the WHERE clause
** implementation described by pWInfo.
*/
Bitmask sqlite3WhereCodeOneLoopStart(
  WhereInfo *pWInfo,   /* Complete information about the WHERE clause */
  int iLevel,          /* Which level of pWInfo->a[] should be coded */
  Bitmask notReady     /* Which tables are currently available */
){
  int j, k;            /* Loop counters */
  int iCur;            /* The VDBE cursor for the table */
  int addrNxt;         /* Where to jump to continue with the next IN case */
  int omitTable;       /* True if we use the index only */
  int bRev;            /* True if we need to scan in reverse order */
  WhereLevel *pLevel;  /* The where level to be coded */
  WhereLoop *pLoop;    /* The WhereLoop object being coded */
  WhereClause *pWC;    /* Decomposition of the entire WHERE clause */
  WhereTerm *pTerm;               /* A WHERE clause term */
  Parse *pParse;                  /* Parsing context */
  sqlite3 *db;                    /* Database connection */
  Vdbe *v;                        /* The prepared stmt under constructions */
  struct SrcList_item *pTabItem;  /* FROM clause term being coded */
  int addrBrk;                    /* Jump here to break out of the loop */
  int addrHalt;                   /* addrBrk for the outermost loop */
  int addrCont;                   /* Jump here to continue with next cycle */
  int iRowidReg = 0;        /* Rowid is stored in this register, if not zero */
  int iReleaseReg = 0;      /* Temp register to free before returning */
  Index *pIdx = 0;          /* Index used by loop (if any) */
  int iLoop;                /* Iteration of constraint generator loop */

  pParse = pWInfo->pParse;
  v = pParse->pVdbe;
  pWC = &pWInfo->sWC;
  db = pParse->db;
  pLevel = &pWInfo->a[iLevel];
  pLoop = pLevel->pWLoop;
  pTabItem = &pWInfo->pTabList->a[pLevel->iFrom];
  iCur = pTabItem->iCursor;
  pLevel->notReady = notReady & ~sqlite3WhereGetMask(&pWInfo->sMaskSet, iCur);
  bRev = (pWInfo->revMask>>iLevel)&1;
  omitTable = (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IDX_ONLY)!=0 
           && (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE)==0;
  VdbeModuleComment((v, "Begin WHERE-loop%d: %s",iLevel,pTabItem->pTab->zName));

  /* Create labels for the "break" and "continue" instructions
  ** for the current loop.  Jump to addrBrk to break out of a loop.
  ** Jump to cont to go immediately to the next iteration of the
  ** loop.
  **
  ** When there is an IN operator, we also have a "addrNxt" label that
  ** means to continue with the next IN value combination.  When
  ** there are no IN operators in the constraints, the "addrNxt" label
  ** is the same as "addrBrk".
  */
  addrBrk = pLevel->addrBrk = pLevel->addrNxt = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
  addrCont = pLevel->addrCont = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);

  /* If this is the right table of a LEFT OUTER JOIN, allocate and
  ** initialize a memory cell that records if this table matches any
  ** row of the left table of the join.
  */
  if( pLevel->iFrom>0 && (pTabItem[0].fg.jointype & JT_LEFT)!=0 ){
    pLevel->iLeftJoin = ++pParse->nMem;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, pLevel->iLeftJoin);
    VdbeComment((v, "init LEFT JOIN no-match flag"));
  }

  /* Compute a safe address to jump to if we discover that the table for
  ** this loop is empty and can never contribute content. */
  for(j=iLevel; j>0 && pWInfo->a[j].iLeftJoin==0; j--){}
  addrHalt = pWInfo->a[j].addrBrk;

  /* Special case of a FROM clause subquery implemented as a co-routine */
  if( pTabItem->fg.viaCoroutine ){
    int regYield = pTabItem->regReturn;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_InitCoroutine, regYield, 0, pTabItem->addrFillSub);
    pLevel->p2 =  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Yield, regYield, addrBrk);
    VdbeCoverage(v);
    VdbeComment((v, "next row of \"%s\"", pTabItem->pTab->zName));
    pLevel->op = OP_Goto;
  }else

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  if(  (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_VIRTUALTABLE)!=0 ){
    /* Case 1:  The table is a virtual-table.  Use the VFilter and VNext
    **          to access the data.
    */
    int iReg;   /* P3 Value for OP_VFilter */
    int addrNotFound;
    int nConstraint = pLoop->nLTerm;
    int iIn;    /* Counter for IN constraints */

    sqlite3ExprCachePush(pParse);
    iReg = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nConstraint+2);
    addrNotFound = pLevel->addrBrk;
    for(j=0; j<nConstraint; j++){
      int iTarget = iReg+j+2;
      pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[j];
      if( NEVER(pTerm==0) ) continue;
      if( pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN ){
        codeEqualityTerm(pParse, pTerm, pLevel, j, bRev, iTarget);
        addrNotFound = pLevel->addrNxt;
      }else{
        Expr *pRight = pTerm->pExpr->pRight;
        codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, iTarget, 1);
      }
    }
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, pLoop->u.vtab.idxNum, iReg);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, nConstraint, iReg+1);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_VFilter, iCur, addrNotFound, iReg,
                      pLoop->u.vtab.idxStr,
                      pLoop->u.vtab.needFree ? P4_DYNAMIC : P4_STATIC);
    VdbeCoverage(v);
    pLoop->u.vtab.needFree = 0;
    pLevel->p1 = iCur;
    pLevel->op = pWInfo->eOnePass ? OP_Noop : OP_VNext;
    pLevel->p2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
    iIn = pLevel->u.in.nIn;
    for(j=nConstraint-1; j>=0; j--){
      pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[j];
      if( j<16 && (pLoop->u.vtab.omitMask>>j)&1 ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
      }else if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_IN)!=0 ){
        Expr *pCompare;  /* The comparison operator */
        Expr *pRight;    /* RHS of the comparison */
        VdbeOp *pOp;     /* Opcode to access the value of the IN constraint */

        /* Reload the constraint value into reg[iReg+j+2].  The same value
        ** was loaded into the same register prior to the OP_VFilter, but
        ** the xFilter implementation might have changed the datatype or
        ** encoding of the value in the register, so it *must* be reloaded. */
        assert( pLevel->u.in.aInLoop!=0 || db->mallocFailed );
        if( !db->mallocFailed ){
          assert( iIn>0 );
          pOp = sqlite3VdbeGetOp(v, pLevel->u.in.aInLoop[--iIn].addrInTop);
          assert( pOp->opcode==OP_Column || pOp->opcode==OP_Rowid );
          assert( pOp->opcode!=OP_Column || pOp->p3==iReg+j+2 );
          assert( pOp->opcode!=OP_Rowid || pOp->p2==iReg+j+2 );
          testcase( pOp->opcode==OP_Rowid );
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, pOp->opcode, pOp->p1, pOp->p2, pOp->p3);
        }

        /* Generate code that will continue to the next row if 
        ** the IN constraint is not satisfied */
        pCompare = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_EQ, 0, 0);
        assert( pCompare!=0 || db->mallocFailed );
        if( pCompare ){
          pCompare->pLeft = pTerm->pExpr->pLeft;
          pCompare->pRight = pRight = sqlite3Expr(db, TK_REGISTER, 0);
          if( pRight ){
            pRight->iTable = iReg+j+2;
            sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pCompare, pLevel->addrCont, 0);
          }
          pCompare->pLeft = 0;
          sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pCompare);
        }
      }
    }
    /* These registers need to be preserved in case there is an IN operator
    ** loop.  So we could deallocate the registers here (and potentially
    ** reuse them later) if (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IN_ABLE)==0.  But it seems
    ** simpler and safer to simply not reuse the registers.
    **
    **    sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, iReg, nConstraint+2);
    */
    sqlite3ExprCachePop(pParse);
  }else
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE */

  if( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IPK)!=0
   && (pLoop->wsFlags & (WHERE_COLUMN_IN|WHERE_COLUMN_EQ))!=0
  ){
    /* Case 2:  We can directly reference a single row using an
    **          equality comparison against the ROWID field.  Or
    **          we reference multiple rows using a "rowid IN (...)"
    **          construct.
    */
    assert( pLoop->u.btree.nEq==1 );
    pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[0];
    assert( pTerm!=0 );
    assert( pTerm->pExpr!=0 );
    assert( omitTable==0 );
    testcase( pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
    iReleaseReg = ++pParse->nMem;
    iRowidReg = codeEqualityTerm(pParse, pTerm, pLevel, 0, bRev, iReleaseReg);
    if( iRowidReg!=iReleaseReg ) sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, iReleaseReg);
    addrNxt = pLevel->addrNxt;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_SeekRowid, iCur, addrNxt, iRowidReg);
    VdbeCoverage(v);
    sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, iRowidReg, 1);
    sqlite3ExprCacheStore(pParse, iCur, -1, iRowidReg);
    VdbeComment((v, "pk"));
    pLevel->op = OP_Noop;
  }else if( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_IPK)!=0
         && (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_COLUMN_RANGE)!=0
  ){
    /* Case 3:  We have an inequality comparison against the ROWID field.
    */
    int testOp = OP_Noop;
    int start;
    int memEndValue = 0;
    WhereTerm *pStart, *pEnd;

    assert( omitTable==0 );
    j = 0;
    pStart = pEnd = 0;
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ) pStart = pLoop->aLTerm[j++];
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ) pEnd = pLoop->aLTerm[j++];
    assert( pStart!=0 || pEnd!=0 );
    if( bRev ){
      pTerm = pStart;
      pStart = pEnd;
      pEnd = pTerm;
    }
    codeCursorHint(pTabItem, pWInfo, pLevel, pEnd);
    if( pStart ){
      Expr *pX;             /* The expression that defines the start bound */
      int r1, rTemp;        /* Registers for holding the start boundary */
      int op;               /* Cursor seek operation */

      /* The following constant maps TK_xx codes into corresponding 
      ** seek opcodes.  It depends on a particular ordering of TK_xx
      */
      const u8 aMoveOp[] = {
           /* TK_GT */  OP_SeekGT,
           /* TK_LE */  OP_SeekLE,
           /* TK_LT */  OP_SeekLT,
           /* TK_GE */  OP_SeekGE
      };
      assert( TK_LE==TK_GT+1 );      /* Make sure the ordering.. */
      assert( TK_LT==TK_GT+2 );      /*  ... of the TK_xx values... */
      assert( TK_GE==TK_GT+3 );      /*  ... is correcct. */

      assert( (pStart->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
      testcase( pStart->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      pX = pStart->pExpr;
      assert( pX!=0 );
      testcase( pStart->leftCursor!=iCur ); /* transitive constraints */
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->pRight) ){
        r1 = rTemp = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
        codeExprOrVector(pParse, pX->pRight, r1, 1);
        op = aMoveOp[(pX->op - TK_GT) | 0x0001];
      }else{
        r1 = sqlite3ExprCodeTemp(pParse, pX->pRight, &rTemp);
        disableTerm(pLevel, pStart);
        op = aMoveOp[(pX->op - TK_GT)];
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, op, iCur, addrBrk, r1);
      VdbeComment((v, "pk"));
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_GT);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_LE);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_LT);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, pX->op==TK_GE);
      sqlite3ExprCacheAffinityChange(pParse, r1, 1);
      sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, rTemp);
    }else{
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, bRev ? OP_Last : OP_Rewind, iCur, addrHalt);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev==0);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev!=0);
    }
    if( pEnd ){
      Expr *pX;
      pX = pEnd->pExpr;
      assert( pX!=0 );
      assert( (pEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );
      testcase( pEnd->leftCursor!=iCur ); /* Transitive constraints */
      testcase( pEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      memEndValue = ++pParse->nMem;
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pX->pRight, memEndValue, 1);
      if( 0==sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->pRight) 
       && (pX->op==TK_LT || pX->op==TK_GT) 
      ){
        testOp = bRev ? OP_Le : OP_Ge;
      }else{
        testOp = bRev ? OP_Lt : OP_Gt;
      }
      if( 0==sqlite3ExprIsVector(pX->pRight) ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pEnd);
      }
    }
    start = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
    pLevel->op = bRev ? OP_Prev : OP_Next;
    pLevel->p1 = iCur;
    pLevel->p2 = start;
    assert( pLevel->p5==0 );
    if( testOp!=OP_Noop ){
      iRowidReg = ++pParse->nMem;
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iCur, iRowidReg);
      sqlite3ExprCacheStore(pParse, iCur, -1, iRowidReg);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, testOp, memEndValue, addrBrk, iRowidReg);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, testOp==OP_Le);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, testOp==OP_Lt);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, testOp==OP_Ge);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, testOp==OP_Gt);
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC | SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
    }
  }else if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_INDEXED ){
    /* Case 4: A scan using an index.
    **
    **         The WHERE clause may contain zero or more equality 
    **         terms ("==" or "IN" operators) that refer to the N
    **         left-most columns of the index. It may also contain
    **         inequality constraints (>, <, >= or <=) on the indexed
    **         column that immediately follows the N equalities. Only 
    **         the right-most column can be an inequality - the rest must
    **         use the "==" and "IN" operators. For example, if the 
    **         index is on (x,y,z), then the following clauses are all 
    **         optimized:
    **
    **            x=5
    **            x=5 AND y=10
    **            x=5 AND y<10
    **            x=5 AND y>5 AND y<10
    **            x=5 AND y=5 AND z<=10
    **
    **         The z<10 term of the following cannot be used, only
    **         the x=5 term:
    **
    **            x=5 AND z<10
    **
    **         N may be zero if there are inequality constraints.
    **         If there are no inequality constraints, then N is at
    **         least one.
    **
    **         This case is also used when there are no WHERE clause
    **         constraints but an index is selected anyway, in order
    **         to force the output order to conform to an ORDER BY.
    */  
    static const u8 aStartOp[] = {
      0,
      0,
      OP_Rewind,           /* 2: (!start_constraints && startEq &&  !bRev) */
      OP_Last,             /* 3: (!start_constraints && startEq &&   bRev) */
      OP_SeekGT,           /* 4: (start_constraints  && !startEq && !bRev) */
      OP_SeekLT,           /* 5: (start_constraints  && !startEq &&  bRev) */
      OP_SeekGE,           /* 6: (start_constraints  &&  startEq && !bRev) */
      OP_SeekLE            /* 7: (start_constraints  &&  startEq &&  bRev) */
    };
    static const u8 aEndOp[] = {
      OP_IdxGE,            /* 0: (end_constraints && !bRev && !endEq) */
      OP_IdxGT,            /* 1: (end_constraints && !bRev &&  endEq) */
      OP_IdxLE,            /* 2: (end_constraints &&  bRev && !endEq) */
      OP_IdxLT,            /* 3: (end_constraints &&  bRev &&  endEq) */
    };
    u16 nEq = pLoop->u.btree.nEq;     /* Number of == or IN terms */
    u16 nBtm = pLoop->u.btree.nBtm;   /* Length of BTM vector */
    u16 nTop = pLoop->u.btree.nTop;   /* Length of TOP vector */
    int regBase;                 /* Base register holding constraint values */
    WhereTerm *pRangeStart = 0;  /* Inequality constraint at range start */
    WhereTerm *pRangeEnd = 0;    /* Inequality constraint at range end */
    int startEq;                 /* True if range start uses ==, >= or <= */
    int endEq;                   /* True if range end uses ==, >= or <= */
    int start_constraints;       /* Start of range is constrained */
    int nConstraint;             /* Number of constraint terms */
    int iIdxCur;                 /* The VDBE cursor for the index */
    int nExtraReg = 0;           /* Number of extra registers needed */
    int op;                      /* Instruction opcode */
    char *zStartAff;             /* Affinity for start of range constraint */
    char *zEndAff = 0;           /* Affinity for end of range constraint */
    u8 bSeekPastNull = 0;        /* True to seek past initial nulls */
    u8 bStopAtNull = 0;          /* Add condition to terminate at NULLs */

    pIdx = pLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
    iIdxCur = pLevel->iIdxCur;
    assert( nEq>=pLoop->nSkip );

    /* If this loop satisfies a sort order (pOrderBy) request that 
    ** was passed to this function to implement a "SELECT min(x) ..." 
    ** query, then the caller will only allow the loop to run for
    ** a single iteration. This means that the first row returned
    ** should not have a NULL value stored in 'x'. If column 'x' is
    ** the first one after the nEq equality constraints in the index,
    ** this requires some special handling.
    */
    assert( pWInfo->pOrderBy==0
         || pWInfo->pOrderBy->nExpr==1
         || (pWInfo->wctrlFlags&WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN)==0 );
    if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags&WHERE_ORDERBY_MIN)!=0
     && pWInfo->nOBSat>0
     && (pIdx->nKeyCol>nEq)
    ){
      assert( pLoop->nSkip==0 );
      bSeekPastNull = 1;
      nExtraReg = 1;
    }

    /* Find any inequality constraint terms for the start and end 
    ** of the range. 
    */
    j = nEq;
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_BTM_LIMIT ){
      pRangeStart = pLoop->aLTerm[j++];
      nExtraReg = MAX(nExtraReg, pLoop->u.btree.nBtm);
      /* Like optimization range constraints always occur in pairs */
      assert( (pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT)==0 || 
              (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT)!=0 );
    }
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_TOP_LIMIT ){
      pRangeEnd = pLoop->aLTerm[j++];
      nExtraReg = MAX(nExtraReg, pLoop->u.btree.nTop);
#ifndef SQLITE_LIKE_DOESNT_MATCH_BLOBS
      if( (pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT)!=0 ){
        assert( pRangeStart!=0 );                     /* LIKE opt constraints */
        assert( pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_LIKEOPT );   /* occur in pairs */
        pLevel->iLikeRepCntr = (u32)++pParse->nMem;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 1, (int)pLevel->iLikeRepCntr);
        VdbeComment((v, "LIKE loop counter"));
        pLevel->addrLikeRep = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
        /* iLikeRepCntr actually stores 2x the counter register number.  The
        ** bottom bit indicates whether the search order is ASC or DESC. */
        testcase( bRev );
        testcase( pIdx->aSortOrder[nEq]==SQLITE_SO_DESC );
        assert( (bRev & ~1)==0 );
        pLevel->iLikeRepCntr <<=1;
        pLevel->iLikeRepCntr |= bRev ^ (pIdx->aSortOrder[nEq]==SQLITE_SO_DESC);
      }
#endif
      if( pRangeStart==0 ){
        j = pIdx->aiColumn[nEq];
        if( (j>=0 && pIdx->pTable->aCol[j].notNull==0) || j==XN_EXPR ){
          bSeekPastNull = 1;
        }
      }
    }
    assert( pRangeEnd==0 || (pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0 );

    /* If we are doing a reverse order scan on an ascending index, or
    ** a forward order scan on a descending index, interchange the 
    ** start and end terms (pRangeStart and pRangeEnd).
    */
    if( (nEq<pIdx->nKeyCol && bRev==(pIdx->aSortOrder[nEq]==SQLITE_SO_ASC))
     || (bRev && pIdx->nKeyCol==nEq)
    ){
      SWAP(WhereTerm *, pRangeEnd, pRangeStart);
      SWAP(u8, bSeekPastNull, bStopAtNull);
      SWAP(u8, nBtm, nTop);
    }

    /* Generate code to evaluate all constraint terms using == or IN
    ** and store the values of those terms in an array of registers
    ** starting at regBase.
    */
    codeCursorHint(pTabItem, pWInfo, pLevel, pRangeEnd);
    regBase = codeAllEqualityTerms(pParse,pLevel,bRev,nExtraReg,&zStartAff);
    assert( zStartAff==0 || sqlite3Strlen30(zStartAff)>=nEq );
    if( zStartAff && nTop ){
      zEndAff = sqlite3DbStrDup(db, &zStartAff[nEq]);
    }
    addrNxt = pLevel->addrNxt;

    testcase( pRangeStart && (pRangeStart->eOperator & WO_LE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeStart && (pRangeStart->eOperator & WO_GE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeEnd && (pRangeEnd->eOperator & WO_LE)!=0 );
    testcase( pRangeEnd && (pRangeEnd->eOperator & WO_GE)!=0 );
    startEq = !pRangeStart || pRangeStart->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
    endEq =   !pRangeEnd || pRangeEnd->eOperator & (WO_LE|WO_GE);
    start_constraints = pRangeStart || nEq>0;

    /* Seek the index cursor to the start of the range. */
    nConstraint = nEq;
    if( pRangeStart ){
      Expr *pRight = pRangeStart->pExpr->pRight;
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, regBase+nEq, nBtm);
      whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(v, pLevel, pRangeStart);
      if( (pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0
       && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight)
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+nEq, addrNxt);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( zStartAff ){
        updateRangeAffinityStr(pRight, nBtm, &zStartAff[nEq]);
      }  
      nConstraint += nBtm;
      testcase( pRangeStart->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pRight)==0 ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pRangeStart);
      }else{
        startEq = 1;
      }
      bSeekPastNull = 0;
    }else if( bSeekPastNull ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, regBase+nEq);
      nConstraint++;
      startEq = 0;
      start_constraints = 1;
    }
    codeApplyAffinity(pParse, regBase, nConstraint - bSeekPastNull, zStartAff);
    if( pLoop->nSkip>0 && nConstraint==pLoop->nSkip ){
      /* The skip-scan logic inside the call to codeAllEqualityConstraints()
      ** above has already left the cursor sitting on the correct row,
      ** so no further seeking is needed */
    }else{
      op = aStartOp[(start_constraints<<2) + (startEq<<1) + bRev];
      assert( op!=0 );
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, op, iIdxCur, addrNxt, regBase, nConstraint);
      VdbeCoverage(v);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_Rewind);  testcase( op==OP_Rewind );
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_Last);    testcase( op==OP_Last );
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_SeekGT);  testcase( op==OP_SeekGT );
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_SeekGE);  testcase( op==OP_SeekGE );
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_SeekLE);  testcase( op==OP_SeekLE );
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_SeekLT);  testcase( op==OP_SeekLT );
    }

    /* Load the value for the inequality constraint at the end of the
    ** range (if any).
    */
    nConstraint = nEq;
    if( pRangeEnd ){
      Expr *pRight = pRangeEnd->pExpr->pRight;
      sqlite3ExprCacheRemove(pParse, regBase+nEq, 1);
      codeExprOrVector(pParse, pRight, regBase+nEq, nTop);
      whereLikeOptimizationStringFixup(v, pLevel, pRangeEnd);
      if( (pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VNULL)==0
       && sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(pRight)
      ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IsNull, regBase+nEq, addrNxt);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }
      if( zEndAff ){
        updateRangeAffinityStr(pRight, nTop, zEndAff);
        codeApplyAffinity(pParse, regBase+nEq, nTop, zEndAff);
      }else{
        assert( pParse->db->mallocFailed );
      }
      nConstraint += nTop;
      testcase( pRangeEnd->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );

      if( sqlite3ExprIsVector(pRight)==0 ){
        disableTerm(pLevel, pRangeEnd);
      }else{
        endEq = 1;
      }
    }else if( bStopAtNull ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, regBase+nEq);
      endEq = 0;
      nConstraint++;
    }
    sqlite3DbFree(db, zStartAff);
    sqlite3DbFree(db, zEndAff);

    /* Top of the loop body */
    pLevel->p2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);

    /* Check if the index cursor is past the end of the range. */
    if( nConstraint ){
      op = aEndOp[bRev*2 + endEq];
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, op, iIdxCur, addrNxt, regBase, nConstraint);
      testcase( op==OP_IdxGT );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxGT );
      testcase( op==OP_IdxGE );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxGE );
      testcase( op==OP_IdxLT );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxLT );
      testcase( op==OP_IdxLE );  VdbeCoverageIf(v, op==OP_IdxLE );
    }

    /* Seek the table cursor, if required */
    if( omitTable ){
      /* pIdx is a covering index.  No need to access the main table. */
    }else if( HasRowid(pIdx->pTable) ){
      if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_SEEK_TABLE) || (
          (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_SEEK_UNIQ_TABLE) 
       && (pWInfo->eOnePass==ONEPASS_SINGLE)
      )){
        iRowidReg = ++pParse->nMem;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxRowid, iIdxCur, iRowidReg);
        sqlite3ExprCacheStore(pParse, iCur, -1, iRowidReg);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iCur, 0, iRowidReg);
        VdbeCoverage(v);
      }else{
        codeDeferredSeek(pWInfo, pIdx, iCur, iIdxCur);
      }
    }else if( iCur!=iIdxCur ){
      Index *pPk = sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pIdx->pTable);
      iRowidReg = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, pPk->nKeyCol);
      for(j=0; j<pPk->nKeyCol; j++){
        k = sqlite3ColumnOfIndex(pIdx, pPk->aiColumn[j]);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iIdxCur, k, iRowidReg+j);
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, iCur, addrCont,
                           iRowidReg, pPk->nKeyCol); VdbeCoverage(v);
    }

    /* If pIdx is an index on one or more expressions, then look through
    ** all the expressions in pWInfo and try to transform matching expressions
    ** into reference to index columns.
    */
    whereIndexExprTrans(pIdx, iCur, iIdxCur, pWInfo);


    /* Record the instruction used to terminate the loop. */
    if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_ONEROW ){
      pLevel->op = OP_Noop;
    }else if( bRev ){
      pLevel->op = OP_Prev;
    }else{
      pLevel->op = OP_Next;
    }
    pLevel->p1 = iIdxCur;
    pLevel->p3 = (pLoop->wsFlags&WHERE_UNQ_WANTED)!=0 ? 1:0;
    if( (pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_CONSTRAINT)==0 ){
      pLevel->p5 = SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_FULLSCAN_STEP;
    }else{
      assert( pLevel->p5==0 );
    }
    if( omitTable ) pIdx = 0;
  }else

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_OR_OPTIMIZATION
  if( pLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_MULTI_OR ){
    /* Case 5:  Two or more separately indexed terms connected by OR
    **
    ** Example:
    **
    **   CREATE TABLE t1(a,b,c,d);
    **   CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(a);
    **   CREATE INDEX i2 ON t1(b);
    **   CREATE INDEX i3 ON t1(c);
    **
    **   SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE a=5 OR b=7 OR (c=11 AND d=13)
    **
    ** In the example, there are three indexed terms connected by OR.
    ** The top of the loop looks like this:
    **
    **          Null       1                # Zero the rowset in reg 1
    **
    ** Then, for each indexed term, the following. The arguments to
    ** RowSetTest are such that the rowid of the current row is inserted
    ** into the RowSet. If it is already present, control skips the
    ** Gosub opcode and jumps straight to the code generated by WhereEnd().
    **
    **        sqlite3WhereBegin(<term>)
    **          RowSetTest                  # Insert rowid into rowset
    **          Gosub      2 A
    **        sqlite3WhereEnd()
    **
    ** Following the above, code to terminate the loop. Label A, the target
    ** of the Gosub above, jumps to the instruction right after the Goto.
    **
    **          Null       1                # Zero the rowset in reg 1
    **          Goto       B                # The loop is finished.
    **
    **       A: <loop body>                 # Return data, whatever.
    **
    **          Return     2                # Jump back to the Gosub
    **
    **       B: <after the loop>
    **
    ** Added 2014-05-26: If the table is a WITHOUT ROWID table, then
    ** use an ephemeral index instead of a RowSet to record the primary
    ** keys of the rows we have already seen.
    **
    */
    WhereClause *pOrWc;    /* The OR-clause broken out into subterms */
    SrcList *pOrTab;       /* Shortened table list or OR-clause generation */
    Index *pCov = 0;             /* Potential covering index (or NULL) */
    int iCovCur = pParse->nTab++;  /* Cursor used for index scans (if any) */

    int regReturn = ++pParse->nMem;           /* Register used with OP_Gosub */
    int regRowset = 0;                        /* Register for RowSet object */
    int regRowid = 0;                         /* Register holding rowid */
    int iLoopBody = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);  /* Start of loop body */
    int iRetInit;                             /* Address of regReturn init */
    int untestedTerms = 0;             /* Some terms not completely tested */
    int ii;                            /* Loop counter */
    u16 wctrlFlags;                    /* Flags for sub-WHERE clause */
    Expr *pAndExpr = 0;                /* An ".. AND (...)" expression */
    Table *pTab = pTabItem->pTab;

    pTerm = pLoop->aLTerm[0];
    assert( pTerm!=0 );
    assert( pTerm->eOperator & WO_OR );
    assert( (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_ORINFO)!=0 );
    pOrWc = &pTerm->u.pOrInfo->wc;
    pLevel->op = OP_Return;
    pLevel->p1 = regReturn;

    /* Set up a new SrcList in pOrTab containing the table being scanned
    ** by this loop in the a[0] slot and all notReady tables in a[1..] slots.
    ** This becomes the SrcList in the recursive call to sqlite3WhereBegin().
    */
    if( pWInfo->nLevel>1 ){
      int nNotReady;                 /* The number of notReady tables */
      struct SrcList_item *origSrc;     /* Original list of tables */
      nNotReady = pWInfo->nLevel - iLevel - 1;
      pOrTab = sqlite3StackAllocRaw(db,
                            sizeof(*pOrTab)+ nNotReady*sizeof(pOrTab->a[0]));
      if( pOrTab==0 ) return notReady;
      pOrTab->nAlloc = (u8)(nNotReady + 1);
      pOrTab->nSrc = pOrTab->nAlloc;
      memcpy(pOrTab->a, pTabItem, sizeof(*pTabItem));
      origSrc = pWInfo->pTabList->a;
      for(k=1; k<=nNotReady; k++){
        memcpy(&pOrTab->a[k], &origSrc[pLevel[k].iFrom], sizeof(pOrTab->a[k]));
      }
    }else{
      pOrTab = pWInfo->pTabList;
    }

    /* Initialize the rowset register to contain NULL. An SQL NULL is 
    ** equivalent to an empty rowset.  Or, create an ephemeral index
    ** capable of holding primary keys in the case of a WITHOUT ROWID.
    **
    ** Also initialize regReturn to contain the address of the instruction 
    ** immediately following the OP_Return at the bottom of the loop. This
    ** is required in a few obscure LEFT JOIN cases where control jumps
    ** over the top of the loop into the body of it. In this case the 
    ** correct response for the end-of-loop code (the OP_Return) is to 
    ** fall through to the next instruction, just as an OP_Next does if
    ** called on an uninitialized cursor.
    */
    if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_DUPLICATES_OK)==0 ){
      if( HasRowid(pTab) ){
        regRowset = ++pParse->nMem;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, regRowset);
      }else{
        Index *pPk = sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab);
        regRowset = pParse->nTab++;
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, regRowset, pPk->nKeyCol);
        sqlite3VdbeSetP4KeyInfo(pParse, pPk);
      }
      regRowid = ++pParse->nMem;
    }
    iRetInit = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 0, regReturn);

    /* If the original WHERE clause is z of the form:  (x1 OR x2 OR ...) AND y
    ** Then for every term xN, evaluate as the subexpression: xN AND z
    ** That way, terms in y that are factored into the disjunction will
    ** be picked up by the recursive calls to sqlite3WhereBegin() below.
    **
    ** Actually, each subexpression is converted to "xN AND w" where w is
    ** the "interesting" terms of z - terms that did not originate in the
    ** ON or USING clause of a LEFT JOIN, and terms that are usable as 
    ** indices.
    **
    ** This optimization also only applies if the (x1 OR x2 OR ...) term
    ** is not contained in the ON clause of a LEFT JOIN.
    ** See ticket http://www.sqlite.org/src/info/f2369304e4
    */
    if( pWC->nTerm>1 ){
      int iTerm;
      for(iTerm=0; iTerm<pWC->nTerm; iTerm++){
        Expr *pExpr = pWC->a[iTerm].pExpr;
        if( &pWC->a[iTerm] == pTerm ) continue;
        if( ExprHasProperty(pExpr, EP_FromJoin) ) continue;
        testcase( pWC->a[iTerm].wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
        testcase( pWC->a[iTerm].wtFlags & TERM_CODED );
        if( (pWC->a[iTerm].wtFlags & (TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_CODED))!=0 ) continue;
        if( (pWC->a[iTerm].eOperator & WO_ALL)==0 ) continue;
        testcase( pWC->a[iTerm].wtFlags & TERM_ORINFO );
        pExpr = sqlite3ExprDup(db, pExpr, 0);
        pAndExpr = sqlite3ExprAnd(db, pAndExpr, pExpr);
      }
      if( pAndExpr ){
        pAndExpr = sqlite3PExpr(pParse, TK_AND|TKFLG_DONTFOLD, 0, pAndExpr);
      }
    }

    /* Run a separate WHERE clause for each term of the OR clause.  After
    ** eliminating duplicates from other WHERE clauses, the action for each
    ** sub-WHERE clause is to to invoke the main loop body as a subroutine.
    */
    wctrlFlags =  WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE | (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_SEEK_TABLE);
    for(ii=0; ii<pOrWc->nTerm; ii++){
      WhereTerm *pOrTerm = &pOrWc->a[ii];
      if( pOrTerm->leftCursor==iCur || (pOrTerm->eOperator & WO_AND)!=0 ){
        WhereInfo *pSubWInfo;           /* Info for single OR-term scan */
        Expr *pOrExpr = pOrTerm->pExpr; /* Current OR clause term */
        int jmp1 = 0;                   /* Address of jump operation */
        if( pAndExpr && !ExprHasProperty(pOrExpr, EP_FromJoin) ){
          pAndExpr->pLeft = pOrExpr;
          pOrExpr = pAndExpr;
        }
        /* Loop through table entries that match term pOrTerm. */
        WHERETRACE(0xffff, ("Subplan for OR-clause:\n"));
        pSubWInfo = sqlite3WhereBegin(pParse, pOrTab, pOrExpr, 0, 0,
                                      wctrlFlags, iCovCur);
        assert( pSubWInfo || pParse->nErr || db->mallocFailed );
        if( pSubWInfo ){
          WhereLoop *pSubLoop;
          int addrExplain = sqlite3WhereExplainOneScan(
              pParse, pOrTab, &pSubWInfo->a[0], iLevel, pLevel->iFrom, 0
          );
          sqlite3WhereAddScanStatus(v, pOrTab, &pSubWInfo->a[0], addrExplain);

          /* This is the sub-WHERE clause body.  First skip over
          ** duplicate rows from prior sub-WHERE clauses, and record the
          ** rowid (or PRIMARY KEY) for the current row so that the same
          ** row will be skipped in subsequent sub-WHERE clauses.
          */
          if( (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_DUPLICATES_OK)==0 ){
            int r;
            int iSet = ((ii==pOrWc->nTerm-1)?-1:ii);
            if( HasRowid(pTab) ){
              r = sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumn(pParse, pTab, -1, iCur, regRowid, 0);
              jmp1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_RowSetTest, regRowset, 0,
                                           r,iSet);
              VdbeCoverage(v);
            }else{
              Index *pPk = sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab);
              int nPk = pPk->nKeyCol;
              int iPk;

              /* Read the PK into an array of temp registers. */
              r = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nPk);
              for(iPk=0; iPk<nPk; iPk++){
                int iCol = pPk->aiColumn[iPk];
                sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnToReg(pParse, pTab, iCol, iCur, r+iPk);
              }

              /* Check if the temp table already contains this key. If so,
              ** the row has already been included in the result set and
              ** can be ignored (by jumping past the Gosub below). Otherwise,
              ** insert the key into the temp table and proceed with processing
              ** the row.
              **
              ** Use some of the same optimizations as OP_RowSetTest: If iSet
              ** is zero, assume that the key cannot already be present in
              ** the temp table. And if iSet is -1, assume that there is no 
              ** need to insert the key into the temp table, as it will never 
              ** be tested for.  */ 
              if( iSet ){
                jmp1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_Found, regRowset, 0, r, nPk);
                VdbeCoverage(v);
              }
              if( iSet>=0 ){
                sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, r, nPk, regRowid);
                sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_IdxInsert, regRowset, regRowid,
                                     r, nPk);
                if( iSet ) sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT);
              }

              /* Release the array of temp registers */
              sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, r, nPk);
            }
          }

          /* Invoke the main loop body as a subroutine */
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Gosub, regReturn, iLoopBody);

          /* Jump here (skipping the main loop body subroutine) if the
          ** current sub-WHERE row is a duplicate from prior sub-WHEREs. */
          if( jmp1 ) sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, jmp1);

          /* The pSubWInfo->untestedTerms flag means that this OR term
          ** contained one or more AND term from a notReady table.  The
          ** terms from the notReady table could not be tested and will
          ** need to be tested later.
          */
          if( pSubWInfo->untestedTerms ) untestedTerms = 1;

          /* If all of the OR-connected terms are optimized using the same
          ** index, and the index is opened using the same cursor number
          ** by each call to sqlite3WhereBegin() made by this loop, it may
          ** be possible to use that index as a covering index.
          **
          ** If the call to sqlite3WhereBegin() above resulted in a scan that
          ** uses an index, and this is either the first OR-connected term
          ** processed or the index is the same as that used by all previous
          ** terms, set pCov to the candidate covering index. Otherwise, set 
          ** pCov to NULL to indicate that no candidate covering index will 
          ** be available.
          */
          pSubLoop = pSubWInfo->a[0].pWLoop;
          assert( (pSubLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_AUTO_INDEX)==0 );
          if( (pSubLoop->wsFlags & WHERE_INDEXED)!=0
           && (ii==0 || pSubLoop->u.btree.pIndex==pCov)
           && (HasRowid(pTab) || !IsPrimaryKeyIndex(pSubLoop->u.btree.pIndex))
          ){
            assert( pSubWInfo->a[0].iIdxCur==iCovCur );
            pCov = pSubLoop->u.btree.pIndex;
          }else{
            pCov = 0;
          }

          /* Finish the loop through table entries that match term pOrTerm. */
          sqlite3WhereEnd(pSubWInfo);
        }
      }
    }
    pLevel->u.pCovidx = pCov;
    if( pCov ) pLevel->iIdxCur = iCovCur;
    if( pAndExpr ){
      pAndExpr->pLeft = 0;
      sqlite3ExprDelete(db, pAndExpr);
    }
    sqlite3VdbeChangeP1(v, iRetInit, sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v));
    sqlite3VdbeGoto(v, pLevel->addrBrk);
    sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, iLoopBody);

    if( pWInfo->nLevel>1 ) sqlite3StackFree(db, pOrTab);
    if( !untestedTerms ) disableTerm(pLevel, pTerm);
  }else
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_OR_OPTIMIZATION */

  {
    /* Case 6:  There is no usable index.  We must do a complete
    **          scan of the entire table.
    */
    static const u8 aStep[] = { OP_Next, OP_Prev };
    static const u8 aStart[] = { OP_Rewind, OP_Last };
    assert( bRev==0 || bRev==1 );
    if( pTabItem->fg.isRecursive ){
      /* Tables marked isRecursive have only a single row that is stored in
      ** a pseudo-cursor.  No need to Rewind or Next such cursors. */
      pLevel->op = OP_Noop;
    }else{
      codeCursorHint(pTabItem, pWInfo, pLevel, 0);
      pLevel->op = aStep[bRev];
      pLevel->p1 = iCur;
      pLevel->p2 = 1 + sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, aStart[bRev], iCur, addrHalt);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev==0);
      VdbeCoverageIf(v, bRev!=0);
      pLevel->p5 = SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_FULLSCAN_STEP;
    }
  }

#ifdef SQLITE_ENABLE_STMT_SCANSTATUS
  pLevel->addrVisit = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
#endif

  /* Insert code to test every subexpression that can be completely
  ** computed using the current set of tables.
  **
  ** This loop may run between one and three times, depending on the
  ** constraints to be generated. The value of stack variable iLoop
  ** determines the constraints coded by each iteration, as follows:
  **
  ** iLoop==1: Code only expressions that are entirely covered by pIdx.
  ** iLoop==2: Code remaining expressions that do not contain correlated
  **           sub-queries.  
  ** iLoop==3: Code all remaining expressions.
  **
  ** An effort is made to skip unnecessary iterations of the loop.
  */
  iLoop = (pIdx ? 1 : 2);
  do{
    int iNext = 0;                /* Next value for iLoop */
    for(pTerm=pWC->a, j=pWC->nTerm; j>0; j--, pTerm++){
      Expr *pE;
      int skipLikeAddr = 0;
      testcase( pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      testcase( pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_CODED );
      if( pTerm->wtFlags & (TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_CODED) ) continue;
      if( (pTerm->prereqAll & pLevel->notReady)!=0 ){
        testcase( pWInfo->untestedTerms==0
            && (pWInfo->wctrlFlags & WHERE_OR_SUBCLAUSE)!=0 );
        pWInfo->untestedTerms = 1;
        continue;
      }
      pE = pTerm->pExpr;
      assert( pE!=0 );
      if( pLevel->iLeftJoin && !ExprHasProperty(pE, EP_FromJoin) ){
        continue;
      }
      
      if( iLoop==1 && !sqlite3ExprCoveredByIndex(pE, pLevel->iTabCur, pIdx) ){
        iNext = 2;
        continue;
      }
      if( iLoop<3 && (pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_VARSELECT) ){
        if( iNext==0 ) iNext = 3;
        continue;
      }

      if( pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_LIKECOND ){
        /* If the TERM_LIKECOND flag is set, that means that the range search
        ** is sufficient to guarantee that the LIKE operator is true, so we
        ** can skip the call to the like(A,B) function.  But this only works
        ** for strings.  So do not skip the call to the function on the pass
        ** that compares BLOBs. */
#ifdef SQLITE_LIKE_DOESNT_MATCH_BLOBS
        continue;
#else
        u32 x = pLevel->iLikeRepCntr;
        assert( x>0 );
        skipLikeAddr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, (x&1)?OP_IfNot:OP_If, (int)(x>>1));
        VdbeCoverage(v);
#endif
      }
#ifdef WHERETRACE_ENABLED /* 0xffff */
      if( sqlite3WhereTrace ){
        VdbeNoopComment((v, "WhereTerm[%d] (%p) priority=%d",
                         pWC->nTerm-j, pTerm, iLoop));
      }
#endif
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pE, addrCont, SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
      if( skipLikeAddr ) sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, skipLikeAddr);
      pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_CODED;
    }
    iLoop = iNext;
  }while( iLoop>0 );

  /* Insert code to test for implied constraints based on transitivity
  ** of the "==" operator.
  **
  ** Example: If the WHERE clause contains "t1.a=t2.b" and "t2.b=123"
  ** and we are coding the t1 loop and the t2 loop has not yet coded,
  ** then we cannot use the "t1.a=t2.b" constraint, but we can code
  ** the implied "t1.a=123" constraint.
  */
  for(pTerm=pWC->a, j=pWC->nTerm; j>0; j--, pTerm++){
    Expr *pE, sEAlt;
    WhereTerm *pAlt;
    if( pTerm->wtFlags & (TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_CODED) ) continue;
    if( (pTerm->eOperator & (WO_EQ|WO_IS))==0 ) continue;
    if( (pTerm->eOperator & WO_EQUIV)==0 ) continue;
    if( pTerm->leftCursor!=iCur ) continue;
    if( pLevel->iLeftJoin ) continue;
    pE = pTerm->pExpr;
    assert( !ExprHasProperty(pE, EP_FromJoin) );
    assert( (pTerm->prereqRight & pLevel->notReady)!=0 );
    pAlt = sqlite3WhereFindTerm(pWC, iCur, pTerm->u.leftColumn, notReady,
                    WO_EQ|WO_IN|WO_IS, 0);
    if( pAlt==0 ) continue;
    if( pAlt->wtFlags & (TERM_CODED) ) continue;
    testcase( pAlt->eOperator & WO_EQ );
    testcase( pAlt->eOperator & WO_IS );
    testcase( pAlt->eOperator & WO_IN );
    VdbeModuleComment((v, "begin transitive constraint"));
    sEAlt = *pAlt->pExpr;
    sEAlt.pLeft = pE->pLeft;
    sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, &sEAlt, addrCont, SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
  }

  /* For a LEFT OUTER JOIN, generate code that will record the fact that
  ** at least one row of the right table has matched the left table.  
  */
  if( pLevel->iLeftJoin ){
    pLevel->addrFirst = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 1, pLevel->iLeftJoin);
    VdbeComment((v, "record LEFT JOIN hit"));
    sqlite3ExprCacheClear(pParse);
    for(pTerm=pWC->a, j=0; j<pWC->nTerm; j++, pTerm++){
      testcase( pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_VIRTUAL );
      testcase( pTerm->wtFlags & TERM_CODED );
      if( pTerm->wtFlags & (TERM_VIRTUAL|TERM_CODED) ) continue;
      if( (pTerm->prereqAll & pLevel->notReady)!=0 ){
        assert( pWInfo->untestedTerms );
        continue;
      }
      assert( pTerm->pExpr );
      sqlite3ExprIfFalse(pParse, pTerm->pExpr, addrCont, SQLITE_JUMPIFNULL);
      pTerm->wtFlags |= TERM_CODED;
    }
  }

  return pLevel->notReady;
}