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Artifact 4081b21460ce1f65b5904bdca27cf437476b414bf3f031fd4d6dfec58694b591:


/*
** 2015-05-25
**
** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
**
*************************************************************************
**
** This is a utility program designed to aid running regressions tests on
** the SQLite library using data from an external fuzzer, such as American
** Fuzzy Lop (AFL) (http://lcamtuf.coredump.cx/afl/).
**
** This program reads content from an SQLite database file with the following
** schema:
**
**     CREATE TABLE db(
**       dbid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, -- database id
**       dbcontent BLOB            -- database disk file image
**     );
**     CREATE TABLE xsql(
**       sqlid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,   -- SQL script id
**       sqltext TEXT                 -- Text of SQL statements to run
**     );
**     CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS readme(
**       msg TEXT -- Human-readable description of this test collection
**     );
**
** For each database file in the DB table, the SQL text in the XSQL table
** is run against that database.  All README.MSG values are printed prior
** to the start of the test (unless the --quiet option is used).  If the
** DB table is empty, then all entries in XSQL are run against an empty
** in-memory database.
**
** This program is looking for crashes, assertion faults, and/or memory leaks.
** No attempt is made to verify the output.  The assumption is that either all
** of the database files or all of the SQL statements are malformed inputs,
** generated by a fuzzer, that need to be checked to make sure they do not
** present a security risk.
**
** This program also includes some command-line options to help with 
** creation and maintenance of the source content database.  The command
**
**     ./fuzzcheck database.db --load-sql FILE...
**
** Loads all FILE... arguments into the XSQL table.  The --load-db option
** works the same but loads the files into the DB table.  The -m option can
** be used to initialize the README table.  The "database.db" file is created
** if it does not previously exist.  Example:
**
**     ./fuzzcheck new.db --load-sql *.sql
**     ./fuzzcheck new.db --load-db *.db
**     ./fuzzcheck new.db -m 'New test cases'
**
** The three commands above will create the "new.db" file and initialize all
** tables.  Then do "./fuzzcheck new.db" to run the tests.
**
** DEBUGGING HINTS:
**
** If fuzzcheck does crash, it can be run in the debugger and the content
** of the global variable g.zTextName[] will identify the specific XSQL and
** DB values that were running when the crash occurred.
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include "sqlite3.h"
#define ISSPACE(X) isspace((unsigned char)(X))
#define ISDIGIT(X) isdigit((unsigned char)(X))


#ifdef __unix__
# include <signal.h>
# include <unistd.h>
#endif

#ifdef SQLITE_OSS_FUZZ
# include <stddef.h>
# if !defined(_MSC_VER)
#  include <stdint.h>
# endif
#endif

#if defined(_MSC_VER)
typedef unsigned char uint8_t;
#endif

/*
** Files in the virtual file system.
*/
typedef struct VFile VFile;
struct VFile {
  char *zFilename;        /* Filename.  NULL for delete-on-close. From malloc() */
  int sz;                 /* Size of the file in bytes */
  int nRef;               /* Number of references to this file */
  unsigned char *a;       /* Content of the file.  From malloc() */
};
typedef struct VHandle VHandle;
struct VHandle {
  sqlite3_file base;      /* Base class.  Must be first */
  VFile *pVFile;          /* The underlying file */
};

/*
** The value of a database file template, or of an SQL script
*/
typedef struct Blob Blob;
struct Blob {
  Blob *pNext;            /* Next in a list */
  int id;                 /* Id of this Blob */
  int seq;                /* Sequence number */
  int sz;                 /* Size of this Blob in bytes */
  unsigned char a[1];     /* Blob content.  Extra space allocated as needed. */
};

/*
** Maximum number of files in the in-memory virtual filesystem.
*/
#define MX_FILE  10

/*
** Maximum allowed file size
*/
#define MX_FILE_SZ 10000000

/*
** All global variables are gathered into the "g" singleton.
*/
static struct GlobalVars {
  const char *zArgv0;              /* Name of program */
  VFile aFile[MX_FILE];            /* The virtual filesystem */
  int nDb;                         /* Number of template databases */
  Blob *pFirstDb;                  /* Content of first template database */
  int nSql;                        /* Number of SQL scripts */
  Blob *pFirstSql;                 /* First SQL script */
  unsigned int uRandom;            /* Seed for the SQLite PRNG */
  char zTestName[100];             /* Name of current test */
} g;

/*
** Print an error message and quit.
*/
static void fatalError(const char *zFormat, ...){
  va_list ap;
  if( g.zTestName[0] ){
    fprintf(stderr, "%s (%s): ", g.zArgv0, g.zTestName);
  }else{
    fprintf(stderr, "%s: ", g.zArgv0);
  }
  va_start(ap, zFormat);
  vfprintf(stderr, zFormat, ap);
  va_end(ap);
  fprintf(stderr, "\n");
  exit(1);
}

/*
** Timeout handler
*/
#ifdef __unix__
static void timeoutHandler(int NotUsed){
  (void)NotUsed;
  fatalError("timeout\n");
}
#endif

/*
** Set the an alarm to go off after N seconds.  Disable the alarm
** if N==0
*/
static void setAlarm(int N){
#ifdef __unix__
  alarm(N);
#else
  (void)N;
#endif
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
/*
** This an SQL progress handler.  After an SQL statement has run for
** many steps, we want to interrupt it.  This guards against infinite
** loops from recursive common table expressions.
**
** *pVdbeLimitFlag is true if the --limit-vdbe command-line option is used.
** In that case, hitting the progress handler is a fatal error.
*/
static int progressHandler(void *pVdbeLimitFlag){
  if( *(int*)pVdbeLimitFlag ) fatalError("too many VDBE cycles");
  return 1;
}
#endif

/*
** Reallocate memory.  Show and error and quit if unable.
*/
static void *safe_realloc(void *pOld, int szNew){
  void *pNew = realloc(pOld, szNew<=0 ? 1 : szNew);
  if( pNew==0 ) fatalError("unable to realloc for %d bytes", szNew);
  return pNew;
}

/*
** Initialize the virtual file system.
*/
static void formatVfs(void){
  int i;
  for(i=0; i<MX_FILE; i++){
    g.aFile[i].sz = -1;
    g.aFile[i].zFilename = 0;
    g.aFile[i].a = 0;
    g.aFile[i].nRef = 0;
  }
}


/*
** Erase all information in the virtual file system.
*/
static void reformatVfs(void){
  int i;
  for(i=0; i<MX_FILE; i++){
    if( g.aFile[i].sz<0 ) continue;
    if( g.aFile[i].zFilename ){
      free(g.aFile[i].zFilename);
      g.aFile[i].zFilename = 0;
    }
    if( g.aFile[i].nRef>0 ){
      fatalError("file %d still open.  nRef=%d", i, g.aFile[i].nRef);
    }
    g.aFile[i].sz = -1;
    free(g.aFile[i].a);
    g.aFile[i].a = 0;
    g.aFile[i].nRef = 0;
  }
}

/*
** Find a VFile by name
*/
static VFile *findVFile(const char *zName){
  int i;
  if( zName==0 ) return 0;
  for(i=0; i<MX_FILE; i++){
    if( g.aFile[i].zFilename==0 ) continue;   
    if( strcmp(g.aFile[i].zFilename, zName)==0 ) return &g.aFile[i];
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** Find a VFile by name.  Create it if it does not already exist and
** initialize it to the size and content given.
**
** Return NULL only if the filesystem is full.
*/
static VFile *createVFile(const char *zName, int sz, unsigned char *pData){
  VFile *pNew = findVFile(zName);
  int i;
  if( pNew ) return pNew;
  for(i=0; i<MX_FILE && g.aFile[i].sz>=0; i++){}
  if( i>=MX_FILE ) return 0;
  pNew = &g.aFile[i];
  if( zName ){
    int nName = (int)strlen(zName)+1;
    pNew->zFilename = safe_realloc(0, nName);
    memcpy(pNew->zFilename, zName, nName);
  }else{
    pNew->zFilename = 0;
  }
  pNew->nRef = 0;
  pNew->sz = sz;
  pNew->a = safe_realloc(0, sz);
  if( sz>0 ) memcpy(pNew->a, pData, sz);
  return pNew;
}


/*
** Implementation of the "readfile(X)" SQL function.  The entire content
** of the file named X is read and returned as a BLOB.  NULL is returned
** if the file does not exist or is unreadable.
*/
static void readfileFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  const char *zName;
  FILE *in;
  long nIn;
  void *pBuf;

  zName = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
  if( zName==0 ) return;
  in = fopen(zName, "rb");
  if( in==0 ) return;
  fseek(in, 0, SEEK_END);
  nIn = ftell(in);
  rewind(in);
  pBuf = sqlite3_malloc64( nIn );
  if( pBuf && 1==fread(pBuf, nIn, 1, in) ){
    sqlite3_result_blob(context, pBuf, nIn, sqlite3_free);
  }else{
    sqlite3_free(pBuf);
  }
  fclose(in);
}

/*
** Implementation of the "writefile(X,Y)" SQL function.  The argument Y
** is written into file X.  The number of bytes written is returned.  Or
** NULL is returned if something goes wrong, such as being unable to open
** file X for writing.
*/
static void writefileFunc(
  sqlite3_context *context,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  FILE *out;
  const char *z;
  sqlite3_int64 rc;
  const char *zFile;

  (void)argc;
  zFile = (const char*)sqlite3_value_text(argv[0]);
  if( zFile==0 ) return;
  out = fopen(zFile, "wb");
  if( out==0 ) return;
  z = (const char*)sqlite3_value_blob(argv[1]);
  if( z==0 ){
    rc = 0;
  }else{
    rc = fwrite(z, 1, sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[1]), out);
  }
  fclose(out);
  sqlite3_result_int64(context, rc);
}


/*
** Load a list of Blob objects from the database
*/
static void blobListLoadFromDb(
  sqlite3 *db,             /* Read from this database */
  const char *zSql,        /* Query used to extract the blobs */
  int onlyId,              /* Only load where id is this value */
  int *pN,                 /* OUT: Write number of blobs loaded here */
  Blob **ppList            /* OUT: Write the head of the blob list here */
){
  Blob head;
  Blob *p;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
  int n = 0;
  int rc;
  char *z2;

  if( onlyId>0 ){
    z2 = sqlite3_mprintf("%s WHERE rowid=%d", zSql, onlyId);
  }else{
    z2 = sqlite3_mprintf("%s", zSql);
  }
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, z2, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  sqlite3_free(z2);
  if( rc ) fatalError("%s", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
  head.pNext = 0;
  p = &head;
  while( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
    int sz = sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, 1);
    Blob *pNew = safe_realloc(0, sizeof(*pNew)+sz );
    pNew->id = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt, 0);
    pNew->sz = sz;
    pNew->seq = n++;
    pNew->pNext = 0;
    memcpy(pNew->a, sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt,1), sz);
    pNew->a[sz] = 0;
    p->pNext = pNew;
    p = pNew;
  }
  sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
  *pN = n;
  *ppList = head.pNext;
}

/*
** Free a list of Blob objects
*/
static void blobListFree(Blob *p){
  Blob *pNext;
  while( p ){
    pNext = p->pNext;
    free(p);
    p = pNext;
  }
}

/* Return the current wall-clock time */
static sqlite3_int64 timeOfDay(void){
  static sqlite3_vfs *clockVfs = 0;
  sqlite3_int64 t;
  if( clockVfs==0 ){
    clockVfs = sqlite3_vfs_find(0);
    if( clockVfs==0 ) return 0;
  }
  if( clockVfs->iVersion>=1 && clockVfs->xCurrentTimeInt64!=0 ){
    clockVfs->xCurrentTimeInt64(clockVfs, &t);
  }else{
    double r;
    clockVfs->xCurrentTime(clockVfs, &r);
    t = (sqlite3_int64)(r*86400000.0);
  }
  return t;
}

/***************************************************************************
** Code to process combined database+SQL scripts generated by the
** dbsqlfuzz fuzzer.
*/

/* An instance of the following object is passed by pointer as the
** client data to various callbacks.
*/
typedef struct FuzzCtx {
  sqlite3 *db;               /* The database connection */
  sqlite3_int64 iCutoffTime; /* Stop processing at this time. */
  sqlite3_int64 iLastCb;     /* Time recorded for previous progress callback */
  sqlite3_int64 mxInterval;  /* Longest interval between two progress calls */
  unsigned nCb;              /* Number of progress callbacks */
  unsigned mxCb;             /* Maximum number of progress callbacks allowed */
  unsigned execCnt;          /* Number of calls to the sqlite3_exec callback */
  int timeoutHit;            /* True when reaching a timeout */
} FuzzCtx;

/* Verbosity level for the dbsqlfuzz test runner */
static int eVerbosity = 0;

/* True to activate PRAGMA vdbe_debug=on */
static int bVdbeDebug = 0;

/* Timeout for each fuzzing attempt, in milliseconds */
static int giTimeout = 10000;   /* Defaults to 10 seconds */

/* Maximum number of progress handler callbacks */
static unsigned int mxProgressCb = 2000;

/* Maximum string length in SQLite */
static int lengthLimit = 1000000;

/* Maximum byte-code program length in SQLite */
static int vdbeOpLimit = 25000;

/* Maximum size of the in-memory database */
static sqlite3_int64 maxDbSize = 104857600;

/*
** Translate a single byte of Hex into an integer.
** This routine only works if h really is a valid hexadecimal
** character:  0..9a..fA..F
*/
static unsigned char hexToInt(unsigned int h){
#ifdef SQLITE_EBCDIC
  h += 9*(1&~(h>>4));   /* EBCDIC */
#else
  h += 9*(1&(h>>6));    /* ASCII */
#endif
  return h & 0xf;
}

/*
** The first character of buffer zIn[0..nIn-1] is a '['.  This routine
** checked to see if the buffer holds "[NNNN]" or "[+NNNN]" and if it
** does it makes corresponding changes to the *pK value and *pI value
** and returns true.  If the input buffer does not match the patterns,
** no changes are made to either *pK or *pI and this routine returns false.
*/
static int isOffset(
  const unsigned char *zIn,  /* Text input */
  int nIn,                   /* Bytes of input */
  unsigned int *pK,          /* half-byte cursor to adjust */
  unsigned int *pI           /* Input index to adjust */
){
  int i;
  unsigned int k = 0;
  unsigned char c;
  for(i=1; i<nIn && (c = zIn[i])!=']'; i++){
    if( !isxdigit(c) ) return 0;
    k = k*16 + hexToInt(c);
  }
  if( i==nIn ) return 0;
  *pK = 2*k;
  *pI += i;
  return 1;
}

/*
** Decode the text starting at zIn into a binary database file.
** The maximum length of zIn is nIn bytes.  Compute the binary database
** file contain in space obtained from sqlite3_malloc().
**
** Return the number of bytes of zIn consumed.  Or return -1 if there
** is an error.  One potential error is that the recipe specifies a
** database file larger than MX_FILE_SZ bytes.
**
** Abort on an OOM.
*/
static int decodeDatabase(
  const unsigned char *zIn,      /* Input text to be decoded */
  int nIn,                       /* Bytes of input text */
  unsigned char **paDecode,      /* OUT: decoded database file */
  int *pnDecode                  /* OUT: Size of decoded database */
){
  unsigned char *a;              /* Database under construction */
  int mx = 0;                    /* Current size of the database */
  sqlite3_uint64 nAlloc = 4096;  /* Space allocated in a[] */
  unsigned int i;                /* Next byte of zIn[] to read */
  unsigned int j;                /* Temporary integer */
  unsigned int k;                /* half-byte cursor index for output */
  unsigned int n;                /* Number of bytes of input */
  unsigned char b = 0;
  if( nIn<4 ) return -1;
  n = (unsigned int)nIn;
  a = sqlite3_malloc64( nAlloc );
  if( a==0 ){
    fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory!\n");
    exit(1);
  }
  memset(a, 0, nAlloc);
  for(i=k=0; i<n; i++){
    char c = zIn[i];
    if( isxdigit(c) ){
      k++;
      if( k & 1 ){
        b = hexToInt(c)*16;
      }else{
        b += hexToInt(c);
        j = k/2 - 1;
        if( j>=nAlloc ){
          sqlite3_uint64 newSize;
          if( nAlloc==MX_FILE_SZ || j>=MX_FILE_SZ ){
            if( eVerbosity ){
              fprintf(stderr, "Input database too big: max %d bytes\n",
                      MX_FILE_SZ);
            }
            sqlite3_free(a);
            return -1;
          }
          newSize = nAlloc*2;
          if( newSize<=j ){
            newSize = (j+4096)&~4095;
          }
          if( newSize>MX_FILE_SZ ){
            if( j>=MX_FILE_SZ ){
              sqlite3_free(a);
              return -1;
            }
            newSize = MX_FILE_SZ;
          }
          a = sqlite3_realloc64( a, newSize );
          if( a==0 ){
            fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory!\n");
            exit(1);
          }
          assert( newSize > nAlloc );
          memset(a+nAlloc, 0, newSize - nAlloc);
          nAlloc = newSize;
        }
        if( j>=(unsigned)mx ){
          mx = (j + 4095)&~4095;
          if( mx>MX_FILE_SZ ) mx = MX_FILE_SZ;
        }
        assert( j<nAlloc );
        a[j] = b;
      }
    }else if( zIn[i]=='[' && i<n-3 && isOffset(zIn+i, nIn-i, &k, &i) ){
      continue;
   }else if( zIn[i]=='\n' && i<n-4 && memcmp(zIn+i,"\n--\n",4)==0 ){
      i += 4;
      break;
    }
  }
  *pnDecode = mx;
  *paDecode = a;
  return i;
}

/*
** Progress handler callback.
**
** The argument is the cutoff-time after which all processing should
** stop.  So return non-zero if the cut-off time is exceeded.
*/
static int progress_handler(void *pClientData) {
  FuzzCtx *p = (FuzzCtx*)pClientData;
  sqlite3_int64 iNow = timeOfDay();
  int rc = iNow>=p->iCutoffTime;
  sqlite3_int64 iDiff = iNow - p->iLastCb;
  if( iDiff > p->mxInterval ) p->mxInterval = iDiff;
  p->nCb++;
  if( rc==0 && p->mxCb>0 && p->mxCb<=p->nCb ) rc = 1;
  if( rc && !p->timeoutHit && eVerbosity>=2 ){
    printf("Timeout on progress callback %d\n", p->nCb);
    fflush(stdout);
    p->timeoutHit = 1;
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Disallow debugging pragmas such as "PRAGMA vdbe_debug" and
** "PRAGMA parser_trace" since they can dramatically increase the
** amount of output without actually testing anything useful.
**
** Also block ATTACH and DETACH
*/
static int block_troublesome_sql(
  void *Notused,
  int eCode,
  const char *zArg1,
  const char *zArg2,
  const char *zArg3,
  const char *zArg4
){
  (void)Notused;
  (void)zArg2;
  (void)zArg3;
  (void)zArg4;
  if( eCode==SQLITE_PRAGMA ){
    if( sqlite3_strnicmp("vdbe_", zArg1, 5)==0
     || sqlite3_stricmp("parser_trace", zArg1)==0
     || sqlite3_stricmp("temp_store_directory", zArg1)==0
    ){
      return SQLITE_DENY;
    }
  }else if( (eCode==SQLITE_ATTACH || eCode==SQLITE_DETACH)
            && zArg1 && zArg1[0] ){
    return SQLITE_DENY;
  }
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Run the SQL text
*/
static int runDbSql(sqlite3 *db, const char *zSql){
  int rc;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;
  while( isspace(zSql[0]) ) zSql++;
  if( zSql[0]==0 ) return SQLITE_OK;
  if( eVerbosity>=4 ){
    printf("RUNNING-SQL: [%s]\n", zSql);
    fflush(stdout);
  }
  rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    while( (rc = sqlite3_step(pStmt))==SQLITE_ROW ){
      if( eVerbosity>=5 ){
        int j;
        for(j=0; j<sqlite3_column_count(pStmt); j++){
          if( j ) printf(",");
          switch( sqlite3_column_type(pStmt, j) ){
            case SQLITE_NULL: {
              printf("NULL");
              break;
            }
            case SQLITE_INTEGER:
            case SQLITE_FLOAT: {
              printf("%s", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt, j));
              break;
            }
            case SQLITE_BLOB: {
              int n = sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, j);
              int i;
              const unsigned char *a;
              a = (const unsigned char*)sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt, j);
              printf("x'");
              for(i=0; i<n; i++){
                printf("%02x", a[i]);
              }
              printf("'");
              break;
            }
            case SQLITE_TEXT: {
              int n = sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt, j);
              int i;
              const unsigned char *a;
              a = (const unsigned char*)sqlite3_column_blob(pStmt, j);
              printf("'");
              for(i=0; i<n; i++){
                if( a[i]=='\'' ){
                  printf("''");
                }else{
                  putchar(a[i]);
                }
              }
              printf("'");
              break;
            }
          } /* End switch() */
        } /* End for() */
        printf("\n");
        fflush(stdout);
      } /* End if( eVerbosity>=5 ) */
    } /* End while( SQLITE_ROW */
    if( rc!=SQLITE_DONE && eVerbosity>=4 ){
      printf("SQL-ERROR: (%d) %s\n", rc, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      fflush(stdout);
    }
  }else if( eVerbosity>=4 ){
    printf("SQL-ERROR (%d): %s\n", rc, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
    fflush(stdout);    
  } /* End if( SQLITE_OK ) */
  return sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
}

/* Invoke this routine to run a single test case */
int runCombinedDbSqlInput(const uint8_t *aData, size_t nByte){
  int rc;                    /* SQLite API return value */
  int iSql;                  /* Index in aData[] of start of SQL */
  unsigned char *aDb = 0;    /* Decoded database content */
  int nDb = 0;               /* Size of the decoded database */
  int i;                     /* Loop counter */
  int j;                     /* Start of current SQL statement */
  char *zSql = 0;            /* SQL text to run */
  int nSql;                  /* Bytes of SQL text */
  FuzzCtx cx;                /* Fuzzing context */

  if( nByte<10 ) return 0;
  if( sqlite3_initialize() ) return 0;
  if( sqlite3_memory_used()!=0 ){
    int nAlloc = 0;
    int nNotUsed = 0;
    sqlite3_status(SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_COUNT, &nAlloc, &nNotUsed, 0);
    fprintf(stderr,"Memory leak in mutator: %lld bytes in %d allocations\n",
            sqlite3_memory_used(), nAlloc);
    exit(1);
  }
  memset(&cx, 0, sizeof(cx));
  iSql = decodeDatabase((unsigned char*)aData, (int)nByte, &aDb, &nDb);
  if( iSql<0 ) return 0;
  nSql = (int)(nByte - iSql);
  if( eVerbosity>=3 ){
    printf(
      "****** %d-byte input, %d-byte database, %d-byte script "
      "******\n", (int)nByte, nDb, nSql);
    fflush(stdout);
  }
  rc = sqlite3_open(0, &cx.db);
  if( rc ) return 1;
  if( bVdbeDebug ){
    sqlite3_exec(cx.db, "PRAGMA vdbe_debug=ON", 0, 0, 0);
  }

  /* Invoke the progress handler frequently to check to see if we
  ** are taking too long.  The progress handler will return true
  ** (which will block further processing) if more than giTimeout seconds have
  ** elapsed since the start of the test.
  */
  cx.iLastCb = timeOfDay();
  cx.iCutoffTime = cx.iLastCb + giTimeout;  /* Now + giTimeout seconds */
  cx.mxCb = mxProgressCb;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
  sqlite3_progress_handler(cx.db, 10, progress_handler, (void*)&cx);
#endif

  /* Set a limit on the maximum size of a prepared statement, and the
  ** maximum length of a string or blob */
  if( vdbeOpLimit>0 ){
    sqlite3_limit(cx.db, SQLITE_LIMIT_VDBE_OP, vdbeOpLimit);
  }
  if( lengthLimit>0 ){
    sqlite3_limit(cx.db, SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH, lengthLimit);
  }

  if( nDb>=20 && aDb[18]==2 && aDb[19]==2 ){
    aDb[18] = aDb[19] = 1;
  }
  rc = sqlite3_deserialize(cx.db, "main", aDb, nDb, nDb,
          SQLITE_DESERIALIZE_RESIZEABLE |
          SQLITE_DESERIALIZE_FREEONCLOSE);
  if( rc ){
    fprintf(stderr, "sqlite3_deserialize() failed with %d\n", rc);
    goto testrun_finished;
  }
  if( maxDbSize>0 ){
    sqlite3_int64 x = maxDbSize;
    sqlite3_file_control(cx.db, "main", SQLITE_FCNTL_SIZE_LIMIT, &x);
  }

  /* For high debugging levels, turn on debug mode */
  if( eVerbosity>=5 ){
    sqlite3_exec(cx.db, "PRAGMA vdbe_debug=ON;", 0, 0, 0);
  }

  /* Block debug pragmas and ATTACH/DETACH.  But wait until after
  ** deserialize to do this because deserialize depends on ATTACH */
  sqlite3_set_authorizer(cx.db, block_troublesome_sql, 0);

  /* Consistent PRNG seed */
  sqlite3_randomness(0,0);

  zSql = sqlite3_malloc( nSql + 1 );
  if( zSql==0 ){
    fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory!\n");
  }else{
    memcpy(zSql, aData+iSql, nSql);
    zSql[nSql] = 0;
    for(i=j=0; zSql[i]; i++){
      if( zSql[i]==';' ){
        char cSaved = zSql[i+1];
        zSql[i+1] = 0;
        if( sqlite3_complete(zSql+j) ){
          rc = runDbSql(cx.db, zSql+j);
          j = i+1;
        }
        zSql[i+1] = cSaved;
        if( rc==SQLITE_INTERRUPT || progress_handler(&cx) ){
          goto testrun_finished;
        }
      }
    }
    if( j<i ){
      runDbSql(cx.db, zSql+j);
    }
  }
testrun_finished:
  sqlite3_free(zSql);
  rc = sqlite3_close(cx.db);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    fprintf(stdout, "sqlite3_close() returns %d\n", rc);
  }
  if( eVerbosity>=2 ){
    fprintf(stdout, "Peak memory usages: %f MB\n",
       sqlite3_memory_highwater(1) / 1000000.0);
  }
  if( sqlite3_memory_used()!=0 ){
    int nAlloc = 0;
    int nNotUsed = 0;
    sqlite3_status(SQLITE_STATUS_MALLOC_COUNT, &nAlloc, &nNotUsed, 0);
    fprintf(stderr,"Memory leak: %lld bytes in %d allocations\n",
            sqlite3_memory_used(), nAlloc);
    exit(1);
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** END of the dbsqlfuzz code
***************************************************************************/

/* Look at a SQL text and try to determine if it begins with a database
** description, such as would be found in a dbsqlfuzz test case.  Return
** true if this does appear to be a dbsqlfuzz test case and false otherwise.
*/
static int isDbSql(unsigned char *a, int n){
  unsigned char buf[12];
  int i;
  if( n>4 && memcmp(a,"\n--\n",4)==0 ) return 1;
  while( n>0 && isspace(a[0]) ){ a++; n--; }
  for(i=0; n>0 && i<8; n--, a++){
    if( isxdigit(a[0]) ) buf[i++] = a[0];
  }
  if( i==8 && memcmp(buf,"53514c69",8)==0 ) return 1;
  return 0;
}


/* Methods for the VHandle object
*/
static int inmemClose(sqlite3_file *pFile){
  VHandle *p = (VHandle*)pFile;
  VFile *pVFile = p->pVFile;
  pVFile->nRef--;
  if( pVFile->nRef==0 && pVFile->zFilename==0 ){
    pVFile->sz = -1;
    free(pVFile->a);
    pVFile->a = 0;
  }
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
static int inmemRead(
  sqlite3_file *pFile,   /* Read from this open file */
  void *pData,           /* Store content in this buffer */
  int iAmt,              /* Bytes of content */
  sqlite3_int64 iOfst    /* Start reading here */
){
  VHandle *pHandle = (VHandle*)pFile;
  VFile *pVFile = pHandle->pVFile;
  if( iOfst<0 || iOfst>=pVFile->sz ){
    memset(pData, 0, iAmt);
    return SQLITE_IOERR_SHORT_READ;
  }
  if( iOfst+iAmt>pVFile->sz ){
    memset(pData, 0, iAmt);
    iAmt = (int)(pVFile->sz - iOfst);
    memcpy(pData, pVFile->a + iOfst, iAmt);
    return SQLITE_IOERR_SHORT_READ;
  }
  memcpy(pData, pVFile->a + iOfst, iAmt);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
static int inmemWrite(
  sqlite3_file *pFile,   /* Write to this file */
  const void *pData,     /* Content to write */
  int iAmt,              /* bytes to write */
  sqlite3_int64 iOfst    /* Start writing here */
){
  VHandle *pHandle = (VHandle*)pFile;
  VFile *pVFile = pHandle->pVFile;
  if( iOfst+iAmt > pVFile->sz ){
    if( iOfst+iAmt >= MX_FILE_SZ ){
      return SQLITE_FULL;
    }
    pVFile->a = safe_realloc(pVFile->a, (int)(iOfst+iAmt));
    if( iOfst > pVFile->sz ){
      memset(pVFile->a + pVFile->sz, 0, (int)(iOfst - pVFile->sz));
    }
    pVFile->sz = (int)(iOfst + iAmt);
  }
  memcpy(pVFile->a + iOfst, pData, iAmt);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
static int inmemTruncate(sqlite3_file *pFile, sqlite3_int64 iSize){
  VHandle *pHandle = (VHandle*)pFile;
  VFile *pVFile = pHandle->pVFile;
  if( pVFile->sz>iSize && iSize>=0 ) pVFile->sz = (int)iSize;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
static int inmemSync(sqlite3_file *pFile, int flags){
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
static int inmemFileSize(sqlite3_file *pFile, sqlite3_int64 *pSize){
  *pSize = ((VHandle*)pFile)->pVFile->sz;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
static int inmemLock(sqlite3_file *pFile, int type){
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
static int inmemUnlock(sqlite3_file *pFile, int type){
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
static int inmemCheckReservedLock(sqlite3_file *pFile, int *pOut){
  *pOut = 0;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
static int inmemFileControl(sqlite3_file *pFile, int op, void *pArg){
  return SQLITE_NOTFOUND;
}
static int inmemSectorSize(sqlite3_file *pFile){
  return 512;
}
static int inmemDeviceCharacteristics(sqlite3_file *pFile){
  return
      SQLITE_IOCAP_SAFE_APPEND |
      SQLITE_IOCAP_UNDELETABLE_WHEN_OPEN |
      SQLITE_IOCAP_POWERSAFE_OVERWRITE;
}


/* Method table for VHandle
*/
static sqlite3_io_methods VHandleMethods = {
  /* iVersion  */    1,
  /* xClose    */    inmemClose,
  /* xRead     */    inmemRead,
  /* xWrite    */    inmemWrite,
  /* xTruncate */    inmemTruncate,
  /* xSync     */    inmemSync,
  /* xFileSize */    inmemFileSize,
  /* xLock     */    inmemLock,
  /* xUnlock   */    inmemUnlock,
  /* xCheck... */    inmemCheckReservedLock,
  /* xFileCtrl */    inmemFileControl,
  /* xSectorSz */    inmemSectorSize,
  /* xDevchar  */    inmemDeviceCharacteristics,
  /* xShmMap   */    0,
  /* xShmLock  */    0,
  /* xShmBarrier */  0,
  /* xShmUnmap */    0,
  /* xFetch    */    0,
  /* xUnfetch  */    0
};

/*
** Open a new file in the inmem VFS.  All files are anonymous and are
** delete-on-close.
*/
static int inmemOpen(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs,
  const char *zFilename,
  sqlite3_file *pFile,
  int openFlags,
  int *pOutFlags
){
  VFile *pVFile = createVFile(zFilename, 0, (unsigned char*)"");
  VHandle *pHandle = (VHandle*)pFile;
  if( pVFile==0 ){
    return SQLITE_FULL;
  }
  pHandle->pVFile = pVFile;
  pVFile->nRef++;
  pFile->pMethods = &VHandleMethods;
  if( pOutFlags ) *pOutFlags = openFlags;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Delete a file by name
*/
static int inmemDelete(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs,
  const char *zFilename,
  int syncdir
){
  VFile *pVFile = findVFile(zFilename);
  if( pVFile==0 ) return SQLITE_OK;
  if( pVFile->nRef==0 ){
    free(pVFile->zFilename);
    pVFile->zFilename = 0;
    pVFile->sz = -1;
    free(pVFile->a);
    pVFile->a = 0;
    return SQLITE_OK;
  }
  return SQLITE_IOERR_DELETE;
}

/* Check for the existance of a file
*/
static int inmemAccess(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs,
  const char *zFilename,
  int flags,
  int *pResOut
){
  VFile *pVFile = findVFile(zFilename);
  *pResOut =  pVFile!=0;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/* Get the canonical pathname for a file
*/
static int inmemFullPathname(
  sqlite3_vfs *pVfs,
  const char *zFilename,
  int nOut,
  char *zOut
){
  sqlite3_snprintf(nOut, zOut, "%s", zFilename);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/* Always use the same random see, for repeatability.
*/
static int inmemRandomness(sqlite3_vfs *NotUsed, int nBuf, char *zBuf){
  memset(zBuf, 0, nBuf);
  memcpy(zBuf, &g.uRandom, nBuf<sizeof(g.uRandom) ? nBuf : sizeof(g.uRandom));
  return nBuf;
}

/*
** Register the VFS that reads from the g.aFile[] set of files.
*/
static void inmemVfsRegister(int makeDefault){
  static sqlite3_vfs inmemVfs;
  sqlite3_vfs *pDefault = sqlite3_vfs_find(0);
  inmemVfs.iVersion = 3;
  inmemVfs.szOsFile = sizeof(VHandle);
  inmemVfs.mxPathname = 200;
  inmemVfs.zName = "inmem";
  inmemVfs.xOpen = inmemOpen;
  inmemVfs.xDelete = inmemDelete;
  inmemVfs.xAccess = inmemAccess;
  inmemVfs.xFullPathname = inmemFullPathname;
  inmemVfs.xRandomness = inmemRandomness;
  inmemVfs.xSleep = pDefault->xSleep;
  inmemVfs.xCurrentTimeInt64 = pDefault->xCurrentTimeInt64;
  sqlite3_vfs_register(&inmemVfs, makeDefault);
};

/*
** Allowed values for the runFlags parameter to runSql()
*/
#define SQL_TRACE  0x0001     /* Print each SQL statement as it is prepared */
#define SQL_OUTPUT 0x0002     /* Show the SQL output */

/*
** Run multiple commands of SQL.  Similar to sqlite3_exec(), but does not
** stop if an error is encountered.
*/
static void runSql(sqlite3 *db, const char *zSql, unsigned  runFlags){
  const char *zMore;
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;

  while( zSql && zSql[0] ){
    zMore = 0;
    pStmt = 0;
    sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zSql, -1, &pStmt, &zMore);
    if( zMore==zSql ) break;
    if( runFlags & SQL_TRACE ){
      const char *z = zSql;
      int n;
      while( z<zMore && ISSPACE(z[0]) ) z++;
      n = (int)(zMore - z);
      while( n>0 && ISSPACE(z[n-1]) ) n--;
      if( n==0 ) break;
      if( pStmt==0 ){
        printf("TRACE: %.*s (error: %s)\n", n, z, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      }else{
        printf("TRACE: %.*s\n", n, z);
      }
    }
    zSql = zMore;
    if( pStmt ){
      if( (runFlags & SQL_OUTPUT)==0 ){
        while( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){}
      }else{
        int nCol = -1;
        while( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
          int i;
          if( nCol<0 ){
            nCol = sqlite3_column_count(pStmt);
          }else if( nCol>0 ){
            printf("--------------------------------------------\n");
          }
          for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
            int eType = sqlite3_column_type(pStmt,i);
            printf("%s = ", sqlite3_column_name(pStmt,i));
            switch( eType ){
              case SQLITE_NULL: {
                printf("NULL\n");
                break;
              }
              case SQLITE_INTEGER: {
                printf("INT %s\n", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,i));
                break;
              }
              case SQLITE_FLOAT: {
                printf("FLOAT %s\n", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,i));
                break;
              }
              case SQLITE_TEXT: {
                printf("TEXT [%s]\n", sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,i));
                break;
              }
              case SQLITE_BLOB: {
                printf("BLOB (%d bytes)\n", sqlite3_column_bytes(pStmt,i));
                break;
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }         
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    }
  }
}

/*
** Rebuild the database file.
**
**    (1)  Remove duplicate entries
**    (2)  Put all entries in order
**    (3)  Vacuum
*/
static void rebuild_database(sqlite3 *db){
  int rc;
  rc = sqlite3_exec(db, 
     "BEGIN;\n"
     "CREATE TEMP TABLE dbx AS SELECT DISTINCT dbcontent FROM db;\n"
     "DELETE FROM db;\n"
     "INSERT INTO db(dbid, dbcontent) "
        " SELECT NULL, dbcontent FROM dbx ORDER BY 2;\n"
     "DROP TABLE dbx;\n"
     "CREATE TEMP TABLE sx AS SELECT DISTINCT sqltext FROM xsql;\n"
     "DELETE FROM xsql;\n"
     "INSERT INTO xsql(sqlid,sqltext) "
        " SELECT NULL, sqltext FROM sx ORDER BY 2;\n"
     "DROP TABLE sx;\n"
     "COMMIT;\n"
     "PRAGMA page_size=1024;\n"
     "VACUUM;\n", 0, 0, 0);
  if( rc ) fatalError("cannot rebuild: %s", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
}

/*
** Return the value of a hexadecimal digit.  Return -1 if the input
** is not a hex digit.
*/
static int hexDigitValue(char c){
  if( c>='0' && c<='9' ) return c - '0';
  if( c>='a' && c<='f' ) return c - 'a' + 10;
  if( c>='A' && c<='F' ) return c - 'A' + 10;
  return -1;
}

/*
** Interpret zArg as an integer value, possibly with suffixes.
*/
static int integerValue(const char *zArg){
  sqlite3_int64 v = 0;
  static const struct { char *zSuffix; int iMult; } aMult[] = {
    { "KiB", 1024 },
    { "MiB", 1024*1024 },
    { "GiB", 1024*1024*1024 },
    { "KB",  1000 },
    { "MB",  1000000 },
    { "GB",  1000000000 },
    { "K",   1000 },
    { "M",   1000000 },
    { "G",   1000000000 },
  };
  int i;
  int isNeg = 0;
  if( zArg[0]=='-' ){
    isNeg = 1;
    zArg++;
  }else if( zArg[0]=='+' ){
    zArg++;
  }
  if( zArg[0]=='0' && zArg[1]=='x' ){
    int x;
    zArg += 2;
    while( (x = hexDigitValue(zArg[0]))>=0 ){
      v = (v<<4) + x;
      zArg++;
    }
  }else{
    while( ISDIGIT(zArg[0]) ){
      v = v*10 + zArg[0] - '0';
      zArg++;
    }
  }
  for(i=0; i<sizeof(aMult)/sizeof(aMult[0]); i++){
    if( sqlite3_stricmp(aMult[i].zSuffix, zArg)==0 ){
      v *= aMult[i].iMult;
      break;
    }
  }
  if( v>0x7fffffff ) fatalError("parameter too large - max 2147483648");
  return (int)(isNeg? -v : v);
}

/*
** Return the number of "v" characters in a string.  Return 0 if there
** are any characters in the string other than "v".
*/
static int numberOfVChar(const char *z){
  int N = 0;
  while( z[0] && z[0]=='v' ){
    z++;
    N++;
  }
  return z[0]==0 ? N : 0;
}

/*
** Print sketchy documentation for this utility program
*/
static void showHelp(void){
  printf("Usage: %s [options] SOURCE-DB ?ARGS...?\n", g.zArgv0);
  printf(
"Read databases and SQL scripts from SOURCE-DB and execute each script against\n"
"each database, checking for crashes and memory leaks.\n"
"Options:\n"
"  --cell-size-check    Set the PRAGMA cell_size_check=ON\n"
"  --dbid N             Use only the database where dbid=N\n"
"  --export-db DIR      Write databases to files(s) in DIR. Works with --dbid\n"
"  --export-sql DIR     Write SQL to file(s) in DIR. Also works with --sqlid\n"
"  --help               Show this help text\n"
"  --info               Show information about SOURCE-DB w/o running tests\n"
"  --limit-mem N        Limit memory used by test SQLite instance to N bytes\n"
"  --limit-vdbe         Panic if any test runs for more than 100,000 cycles\n"
"  --load-sql ARGS...   Load SQL scripts fron files into SOURCE-DB\n"
"  --load-db ARGS...    Load template databases from files into SOURCE_DB\n"
"  -m TEXT              Add a description to the database\n"
"  --native-vfs         Use the native VFS for initially empty database files\n"
"  --native-malloc      Turn off MEMSYS3/5 and Lookaside\n"
"  --oss-fuzz           Enable OSS-FUZZ testing\n"
"  --prng-seed N        Seed value for the PRGN inside of SQLite\n"
"  -q|--quiet           Reduced output\n"
"  --rebuild            Rebuild and vacuum the database file\n"
"  --result-trace       Show the results of each SQL command\n"
"  --sqlid N            Use only SQL where sqlid=N\n"
"  --timeout N          Abort if any single test needs more than N seconds\n"
"  -v|--verbose         Increased output.  Repeat for more output.\n"
  );
}

int main(int argc, char **argv){
  sqlite3_int64 iBegin;        /* Start time of this program */
  int quietFlag = 0;           /* True if --quiet or -q */
  int verboseFlag = 0;         /* True if --verbose or -v */
  char *zInsSql = 0;           /* SQL statement for --load-db or --load-sql */
  int iFirstInsArg = 0;        /* First argv[] for --load-db or --load-sql */
  sqlite3 *db = 0;             /* The open database connection */
  sqlite3_stmt *pStmt;         /* A prepared statement */
  int rc;                      /* Result code from SQLite interface calls */
  Blob *pSql;                  /* For looping over SQL scripts */
  Blob *pDb;                   /* For looping over template databases */
  int i;                       /* Loop index for the argv[] loop */
  int onlySqlid = -1;          /* --sqlid */
  int onlyDbid = -1;           /* --dbid */
  int nativeFlag = 0;          /* --native-vfs */
  int rebuildFlag = 0;         /* --rebuild */
  int vdbeLimitFlag = 0;       /* --limit-vdbe */
  int infoFlag = 0;            /* --info */
  int timeoutTest = 0;         /* undocumented --timeout-test flag */
  int runFlags = 0;            /* Flags sent to runSql() */
  char *zMsg = 0;              /* Add this message */
  int nSrcDb = 0;              /* Number of source databases */
  char **azSrcDb = 0;          /* Array of source database names */
  int iSrcDb;                  /* Loop over all source databases */
  int nTest = 0;               /* Total number of tests performed */
  char *zDbName = "";          /* Appreviated name of a source database */
  const char *zFailCode = 0;   /* Value of the TEST_FAILURE env variable */
  int cellSzCkFlag = 0;        /* --cell-size-check */
  int sqlFuzz = 0;             /* True for SQL fuzz. False for DB fuzz */
  int iTimeout = 120;          /* Default 120-second timeout */
  int nMem = 0;                /* Memory limit */
  int nMemThisDb = 0;          /* Memory limit set by the CONFIG table */
  char *zExpDb = 0;            /* Write Databases to files in this directory */
  char *zExpSql = 0;           /* Write SQL to files in this directory */
  void *pHeap = 0;             /* Heap for use by SQLite */
  int ossFuzz = 0;             /* enable OSS-FUZZ testing */
  int ossFuzzThisDb = 0;       /* ossFuzz value for this particular database */
  int nativeMalloc = 0;        /* Turn off MEMSYS3/5 and lookaside if true */
  sqlite3_vfs *pDfltVfs;       /* The default VFS */
  int openFlags4Data;          /* Flags for sqlite3_open_v2() */
  int nV;                      /* How much to increase verbosity with -vvvv */

  sqlite3_initialize();
  iBegin = timeOfDay();
#ifdef __unix__
  signal(SIGALRM, timeoutHandler);
#endif
  g.zArgv0 = argv[0];
  openFlags4Data = SQLITE_OPEN_READONLY;
  zFailCode = getenv("TEST_FAILURE");
  pDfltVfs = sqlite3_vfs_find(0);
  inmemVfsRegister(1);
  for(i=1; i<argc; i++){
    const char *z = argv[i];
    if( z[0]=='-' ){
      z++;
      if( z[0]=='-' ) z++;
      if( strcmp(z,"cell-size-check")==0 ){
        cellSzCkFlag = 1;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"dbid")==0 ){
        if( i>=argc-1 ) fatalError("missing arguments on %s", argv[i]);
        onlyDbid = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"export-db")==0 ){
        if( i>=argc-1 ) fatalError("missing arguments on %s", argv[i]);
        zExpDb = argv[++i];
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"export-sql")==0 ){
        if( i>=argc-1 ) fatalError("missing arguments on %s", argv[i]);
        zExpSql = argv[++i];
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"help")==0 ){
        showHelp();
        return 0;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"info")==0 ){
        infoFlag = 1;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"limit-mem")==0 ){
#if !defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3) && !defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5)
        fatalError("the %s option requires -DSQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5 or _MEMSYS3",
                   argv[i]);
#else
        if( i>=argc-1 ) fatalError("missing arguments on %s", argv[i]);
        nMem = integerValue(argv[++i]);
#endif
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"limit-vdbe")==0 ){
        vdbeLimitFlag = 1;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"load-sql")==0 ){
        zInsSql = "INSERT INTO xsql(sqltext)VALUES(CAST(readfile(?1) AS text))";
        iFirstInsArg = i+1;
        openFlags4Data = SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE|SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE;
        break;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"load-db")==0 ){
        zInsSql = "INSERT INTO db(dbcontent) VALUES(readfile(?1))";
        iFirstInsArg = i+1;
        openFlags4Data = SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE|SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE;
        break;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"m")==0 ){
        if( i>=argc-1 ) fatalError("missing arguments on %s", argv[i]);
        zMsg = argv[++i];
        openFlags4Data = SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE|SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"native-malloc")==0 ){
        nativeMalloc = 1;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"native-vfs")==0 ){
        nativeFlag = 1;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"oss-fuzz")==0 ){
        ossFuzz = 1;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"prng-seed")==0 ){
        if( i>=argc-1 ) fatalError("missing arguments on %s", argv[i]);
        g.uRandom = atoi(argv[++i]);
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"quiet")==0 || strcmp(z,"q")==0 ){
        quietFlag = 1;
        verboseFlag = 0;
        eVerbosity = 0;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"rebuild")==0 ){
        rebuildFlag = 1;
        openFlags4Data = SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"result-trace")==0 ){
        runFlags |= SQL_OUTPUT;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"sqlid")==0 ){
        if( i>=argc-1 ) fatalError("missing arguments on %s", argv[i]);
        onlySqlid = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"timeout")==0 ){
        if( i>=argc-1 ) fatalError("missing arguments on %s", argv[i]);
        iTimeout = integerValue(argv[++i]);
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"timeout-test")==0 ){
        timeoutTest = 1;
#ifndef __unix__
        fatalError("timeout is not available on non-unix systems");
#endif
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"verbose")==0 ){
        quietFlag = 0;
        verboseFlag++;
        eVerbosity++;
        if( verboseFlag>1 ) runFlags |= SQL_TRACE;
      }else
      if( (nV = numberOfVChar(z))>=1 ){
        quietFlag = 0;
        verboseFlag += nV;
        eVerbosity += nV;
        if( verboseFlag>1 ) runFlags |= SQL_TRACE;
      }else
      if( strcmp(z,"version")==0 ){
        int ii;
        const char *zz;
        printf("SQLite %s %s\n", sqlite3_libversion(), sqlite3_sourceid());
        for(ii=0; (zz = sqlite3_compileoption_get(ii))!=0; ii++){
          printf("%s\n", zz);
        }
        return 0;
      }else
      {
        fatalError("unknown option: %s", argv[i]);
      }
    }else{
      nSrcDb++;
      azSrcDb = safe_realloc(azSrcDb, nSrcDb*sizeof(azSrcDb[0]));
      azSrcDb[nSrcDb-1] = argv[i];
    }
  }
  if( nSrcDb==0 ) fatalError("no source database specified");
  if( nSrcDb>1 ){
    if( zMsg ){
      fatalError("cannot change the description of more than one database");
    }
    if( zInsSql ){
      fatalError("cannot import into more than one database");
    }
  }

  /* Process each source database separately */
  for(iSrcDb=0; iSrcDb<nSrcDb; iSrcDb++){
    rc = sqlite3_open_v2(azSrcDb[iSrcDb], &db,
                         openFlags4Data, pDfltVfs->zName);
    if( rc ){
      fatalError("cannot open source database %s - %s",
      azSrcDb[iSrcDb], sqlite3_errmsg(db));
    }

    /* Print the description, if there is one */
    if( infoFlag ){
      int n;
      zDbName = azSrcDb[iSrcDb];
      i = (int)strlen(zDbName) - 1;
      while( i>0 && zDbName[i-1]!='/' && zDbName[i-1]!='\\' ){ i--; }
      zDbName += i;
      sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "SELECT msg FROM readme", -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( pStmt && sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
        printf("%s: %s", zDbName, sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,0));
      }else{
        printf("%s: (empty \"readme\")", zDbName);
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "SELECT count(*) FROM db", -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( pStmt
       && sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW
       && (n = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,0))>0
      ){
        printf(" - %d DBs", n);
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "SELECT count(*) FROM xsql", -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( pStmt
       && sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW
       && (n = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,0))>0
      ){
        printf(" - %d scripts", n);
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      printf("\n");
      sqlite3_close(db);
      continue;
    }

    rc = sqlite3_exec(db,
       "CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS db(\n"
       "  dbid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, -- database id\n"
       "  dbcontent BLOB            -- database disk file image\n"
       ");\n"
       "CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS xsql(\n"
       "  sqlid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,   -- SQL script id\n"
       "  sqltext TEXT                 -- Text of SQL statements to run\n"
       ");"
       "CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS readme(\n"
       "  msg TEXT -- Human-readable description of this file\n"
       ");", 0, 0, 0);
    if( rc ) fatalError("cannot create schema: %s", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
    if( zMsg ){
      char *zSql;
      zSql = sqlite3_mprintf(
               "DELETE FROM readme; INSERT INTO readme(msg) VALUES(%Q)", zMsg);
      rc = sqlite3_exec(db, zSql, 0, 0, 0);
      sqlite3_free(zSql);
      if( rc ) fatalError("cannot change description: %s", sqlite3_errmsg(db));
    }
    ossFuzzThisDb = ossFuzz;

    /* If the CONFIG(name,value) table exists, read db-specific settings
    ** from that table */
    if( sqlite3_table_column_metadata(db,0,"config",0,0,0,0,0,0)==SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "SELECT name, value FROM config",
                                  -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( rc ) fatalError("cannot prepare query of CONFIG table: %s",
                          sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      while( SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pStmt) ){
        const char *zName = (const char *)sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,0);
        if( zName==0 ) continue;
        if( strcmp(zName, "oss-fuzz")==0 ){
          ossFuzzThisDb = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,1);
          if( verboseFlag ) printf("Config: oss-fuzz=%d\n", ossFuzzThisDb);
        }
        if( strcmp(zName, "limit-mem")==0 && !nativeMalloc ){
#if !defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS3) && !defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5)
          fatalError("the limit-mem option requires -DSQLITE_ENABLE_MEMSYS5"
                     " or _MEMSYS3");
#else
          nMemThisDb = sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,1);
          if( verboseFlag ) printf("Config: limit-mem=%d\n", nMemThisDb);
#endif
        }
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    }

    if( zInsSql ){
      sqlite3_create_function(db, "readfile", 1, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                              readfileFunc, 0, 0);
      rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zInsSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( rc ) fatalError("cannot prepare statement [%s]: %s",
                          zInsSql, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      rc = sqlite3_exec(db, "BEGIN", 0, 0, 0);
      if( rc ) fatalError("cannot start a transaction");
      for(i=iFirstInsArg; i<argc; i++){
        sqlite3_bind_text(pStmt, 1, argv[i], -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
        sqlite3_step(pStmt);
        rc = sqlite3_reset(pStmt);
        if( rc ) fatalError("insert failed for %s", argv[i]);
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      rc = sqlite3_exec(db, "COMMIT", 0, 0, 0);
      if( rc ) fatalError("cannot commit the transaction: %s",
                          sqlite3_errmsg(db));
      rebuild_database(db);
      sqlite3_close(db);
      return 0;
    }
    rc = sqlite3_exec(db, "PRAGMA query_only=1;", 0, 0, 0);
    if( rc ) fatalError("cannot set database to query-only");
    if( zExpDb!=0 || zExpSql!=0 ){
      sqlite3_create_function(db, "writefile", 2, SQLITE_UTF8, 0,
                              writefileFunc, 0, 0);
      if( zExpDb!=0 ){
        const char *zExDb = 
          "SELECT writefile(printf('%s/db%06d.db',?1,dbid),dbcontent),"
          "       dbid, printf('%s/db%06d.db',?1,dbid), length(dbcontent)"
          "  FROM db WHERE ?2<0 OR dbid=?2;";
        rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zExDb, -1, &pStmt, 0);
        if( rc ) fatalError("cannot prepare statement [%s]: %s",
                            zExDb, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
        sqlite3_bind_text64(pStmt, 1, zExpDb, strlen(zExpDb),
                            SQLITE_STATIC, SQLITE_UTF8);
        sqlite3_bind_int(pStmt, 2, onlyDbid);
        while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
          printf("write db-%d (%d bytes) into %s\n",
             sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,1),
             sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,3),
             sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,2));
        }
        sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      }
      if( zExpSql!=0 ){
        const char *zExSql = 
          "SELECT writefile(printf('%s/sql%06d.txt',?1,sqlid),sqltext),"
          "       sqlid, printf('%s/sql%06d.txt',?1,sqlid), length(sqltext)"
          "  FROM xsql WHERE ?2<0 OR sqlid=?2;";
        rc = sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, zExSql, -1, &pStmt, 0);
        if( rc ) fatalError("cannot prepare statement [%s]: %s",
                            zExSql, sqlite3_errmsg(db));
        sqlite3_bind_text64(pStmt, 1, zExpSql, strlen(zExpSql),
                            SQLITE_STATIC, SQLITE_UTF8);
        sqlite3_bind_int(pStmt, 2, onlySqlid);
        while( sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
          printf("write sql-%d (%d bytes) into %s\n",
             sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,1),
             sqlite3_column_int(pStmt,3),
             sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,2));
        }
        sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
      }
      sqlite3_close(db);
      return 0;
    }
  
    /* Load all SQL script content and all initial database images from the
    ** source db
    */
    blobListLoadFromDb(db, "SELECT sqlid, sqltext FROM xsql", onlySqlid,
                           &g.nSql, &g.pFirstSql);
    if( g.nSql==0 ) fatalError("need at least one SQL script");
    blobListLoadFromDb(db, "SELECT dbid, dbcontent FROM db", onlyDbid,
                       &g.nDb, &g.pFirstDb);
    if( g.nDb==0 ){
      g.pFirstDb = safe_realloc(0, sizeof(Blob));
      memset(g.pFirstDb, 0, sizeof(Blob));
      g.pFirstDb->id = 1;
      g.pFirstDb->seq = 0;
      g.nDb = 1;
      sqlFuzz = 1;
    }
  
    /* Print the description, if there is one */
    if( !quietFlag ){
      zDbName = azSrcDb[iSrcDb];
      i = (int)strlen(zDbName) - 1;
      while( i>0 && zDbName[i-1]!='/' && zDbName[i-1]!='\\' ){ i--; }
      zDbName += i;
      sqlite3_prepare_v2(db, "SELECT msg FROM readme", -1, &pStmt, 0);
      if( pStmt && sqlite3_step(pStmt)==SQLITE_ROW ){
        printf("%s: %s\n", zDbName, sqlite3_column_text(pStmt,0));
      }
      sqlite3_finalize(pStmt);
    }

    /* Rebuild the database, if requested */
    if( rebuildFlag ){
      if( !quietFlag ){
        printf("%s: rebuilding... ", zDbName);
        fflush(stdout);
      }
      rebuild_database(db);
      if( !quietFlag ) printf("done\n");
    }
  
    /* Close the source database.  Verify that no SQLite memory allocations are
    ** outstanding.
    */
    sqlite3_close(db);
    if( sqlite3_memory_used()>0 ){
      fatalError("SQLite has memory in use before the start of testing");
    }

    /* Limit available memory, if requested */
    sqlite3_shutdown();
    if( nMemThisDb>0 && !nativeMalloc ){
      pHeap = realloc(pHeap, nMemThisDb);
      if( pHeap==0 ){
        fatalError("failed to allocate %d bytes of heap memory", nMem);
      }
      sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_HEAP, pHeap, nMemThisDb, 128);
    }

    /* Disable lookaside with the --native-malloc option */
    if( nativeMalloc ){
      sqlite3_config(SQLITE_CONFIG_LOOKASIDE, 0, 0);
    }
  
    /* Reset the in-memory virtual filesystem */
    formatVfs();
    
    /* Run a test using each SQL script against each database.
    */
    if( !verboseFlag && !quietFlag ) printf("%s:", zDbName);
    for(pSql=g.pFirstSql; pSql; pSql=pSql->pNext){
      if( isDbSql(pSql->a, pSql->sz) ){
        sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(g.zTestName), g.zTestName, "sqlid=%d",pSql->id);
        if( verboseFlag ){
          printf("%s\n", g.zTestName);
          fflush(stdout);
        }else if( !quietFlag ){
          static int prevAmt = -1;
          int idx = pSql->seq;
          int amt = idx*10/(g.nSql);
          if( amt!=prevAmt ){
            printf(" %d%%", amt*10);
            fflush(stdout);
            prevAmt = amt;
          }
        }
        runCombinedDbSqlInput(pSql->a, pSql->sz);
        nTest++;
        g.zTestName[0] = 0;
        continue;
      }
      for(pDb=g.pFirstDb; pDb; pDb=pDb->pNext){
        int openFlags;
        const char *zVfs = "inmem";
        sqlite3_snprintf(sizeof(g.zTestName), g.zTestName, "sqlid=%d,dbid=%d",
                         pSql->id, pDb->id);
        if( verboseFlag ){
          printf("%s\n", g.zTestName);
          fflush(stdout);
        }else if( !quietFlag ){
          static int prevAmt = -1;
          int idx = pSql->seq*g.nDb + pDb->id - 1;
          int amt = idx*10/(g.nDb*g.nSql);
          if( amt!=prevAmt ){
            printf(" %d%%", amt*10);
            fflush(stdout);
            prevAmt = amt;
          }
        }
        createVFile("main.db", pDb->sz, pDb->a);
        sqlite3_randomness(0,0);
        if( ossFuzzThisDb ){
#ifndef SQLITE_OSS_FUZZ
          fatalError("--oss-fuzz not supported: recompile"
                     " with -DSQLITE_OSS_FUZZ");
#else
          extern int LLVMFuzzerTestOneInput(const uint8_t*, size_t);
          LLVMFuzzerTestOneInput((const uint8_t*)pSql->a, (size_t)pSql->sz);
#endif
        }else{
          openFlags = SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE | SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE;
          if( nativeFlag && pDb->sz==0 ){
            openFlags |= SQLITE_OPEN_MEMORY;
            zVfs = 0;
          }
          rc = sqlite3_open_v2("main.db", &db, openFlags, zVfs);
          if( rc ) fatalError("cannot open inmem database");
          sqlite3_limit(db, SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH, 100000000);
          sqlite3_limit(db, SQLITE_LIMIT_LIKE_PATTERN_LENGTH, 50);
          if( cellSzCkFlag ) runSql(db, "PRAGMA cell_size_check=ON", runFlags);
          setAlarm(iTimeout);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
          if( sqlFuzz || vdbeLimitFlag ){
            sqlite3_progress_handler(db, 100000, progressHandler,
                                     &vdbeLimitFlag);
          }
#endif
          do{
            runSql(db, (char*)pSql->a, runFlags);
          }while( timeoutTest );
          setAlarm(0);
          sqlite3_exec(db, "PRAGMA temp_store_directory=''", 0, 0, 0);
          sqlite3_close(db);
        }
        if( sqlite3_memory_used()>0 ){
           fatalError("memory leak: %lld bytes outstanding",
                      sqlite3_memory_used());
        }
        reformatVfs();
        nTest++;
        g.zTestName[0] = 0;

        /* Simulate an error if the TEST_FAILURE environment variable is "5".
        ** This is used to verify that automated test script really do spot
        ** errors that occur in this test program.
        */
        if( zFailCode ){
          if( zFailCode[0]=='5' && zFailCode[1]==0 ){
            fatalError("simulated failure");
          }else if( zFailCode[0]!=0 ){
            /* If TEST_FAILURE is something other than 5, just exit the test
            ** early */
            printf("\nExit early due to TEST_FAILURE being set\n");
            iSrcDb = nSrcDb-1;
            goto sourcedb_cleanup;
          }
        }
      }
    }
    if( !quietFlag && !verboseFlag ){
      printf(" 100%% - %d tests\n", g.nDb*g.nSql);
    }
  
    /* Clean up at the end of processing a single source database
    */
  sourcedb_cleanup:
    blobListFree(g.pFirstSql);
    blobListFree(g.pFirstDb);
    reformatVfs();
 
  } /* End loop over all source databases */

  if( !quietFlag ){
    sqlite3_int64 iElapse = timeOfDay() - iBegin;
    printf("fuzzcheck: 0 errors out of %d tests in %d.%03d seconds\n"
           "SQLite %s %s\n",
           nTest, (int)(iElapse/1000), (int)(iElapse%1000),
           sqlite3_libversion(), sqlite3_sourceid());
  }
  free(azSrcDb);
  free(pHeap);
  return 0;
}