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Am I doing SQL wrong?
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Your expectation is simply wrong.

I will take the second line and demonstrate the three tests for clarity:

```
Col1 = 21, Col2 = 12 and Col3 = 13. therefore:
Case
  Col1 > Col2 (--> True)  AND Col1 < Col3 (--> False) : Result: False
  Col2 > Col1 (--> False) AND Col2 < Col3 (--> True)  : Result: False
  Col3 > Col1 (--> False) AND Col3 < Col2 (--> False) : Result: False
```
That's 3 False evaluations, which leaves the ONLY possible result whatever is in the ELSE, hence returning -1.

Boolean math is at times somewhat hard for humans to intuitively test, but writing down the tests as above might help.

Best of luck.