SQLite Forum

Android and desktop Java library
I assume you mean that all 10,000 rows are part of the same transaction.  It might go faster if you try 1,000 rows and use ten transactions.  Or it might not.

SQLite's processing is extremely fast.  Almost all the time taken by SQLite is about storage access.  Don't think about cores and GHz, think about memory bus speed, and time taken to read and write a sector.

Your Samsung phone is writing to Flash memory.  Your laptop is passing the data to a storage subsystem, which stores it in a RAM cache then says "job done" (also in the background writes the cache to the real storage).  Flash memory is slower than RAM.