SQLite Forum

How to avoid 'row X missing from index' when using a custom collation?
It should, of course, be pointed out that your query can use the index for the purpose of the order by only.  The LIKE expression is a substring search so a full table/index scan is required (it begins with a wildcard).

The index could only be used if you changed the operation of LIKE to be case sensitive OR declared the index as case insensitive and repaired your query:

create index i0 on names(transliterate_to_ascii(name) collate nocase);

SELECT * FROM names WHERE transliterate_to_ascii(name) LIKE transliterate_to_ascii('médéric%') ORDER BY transliterate_to_ascii(name) collate nocase;