Exactly. You can get around this by complying with standard SQL requirements and make sure that tables used in the ON-clause syntactic sugar have already been "introduced" before they are "used". That is: ``` select * from a left join b on a.a = b.a and c.b = b.b left join c on a.c = c.c ; ``` is mis-stated, however, it can be solved by "advanced query optimization". The correct statement would be: ``` select * from a left join c on a.c = c.c left join b on a.a = b.a and c.b = b.b ; ``` Both forms will produce "the same result". Technically, however, one cannot "solve" the first query as stated without re-ordering the tables.