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Comment:Updates to lsmusr.wiki.
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User & Date: dan 2012-11-12 19:41:02
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2012-11-12
20:19
Fix small issues in lsmusr.wiki. check-in: 3904797435 user: dan tags: trunk
19:41
Updates to lsmusr.wiki. check-in: f7ef6cec1f user: dan tags: trunk
2012-11-09
20:14
Minor changes to lsmusr.wiki. Add the lsm_csr_cmp() function. check-in: 9d39c3a354 user: dan tags: trunk
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write-transaction is opened, then the snapshot read by the read-transaction
must correspond to the most recent version of the database. Otherwise,
the attempt to open the write-transaction fails (LSM_BUSY). In other words,
if any other client has written to the database since the current clients
read-transaction was opened, it will not be possible to upgrade to a
write-transaction.

<p>Write-transactions may be opened either implicitly or explitly. If any
of the following functions are called to write to the database when there 
is no write-transaction open, then an implicit write-transaction is opened and
close (committed) within the function:

<ul>
  <li> lsm_insert()
  <li> lsm_delete()
................................................................................
to the database from the application to persistent storage. A "writer" 
client writes the data into the in-memory tree and log file. Later on a 
"worker" client flushes the data from the in-memory tree to a new segment
in the the database file. Additionally, a worker client must periodically
merge existing database segments together to prevent them from growing too
numerous.








<ul>
<li>lsm_config_work_hook() -> Change to lsm_config() option.
<li>lsm_tree_size()        -> Change to lsm_info() option.
<li>lsm_ckpt_size()        -> Change to lsm_info() option.






<li>lsm_work()





























































































































































































<li>lsm_checkpoint()















<li>lsm_flush()












</ul>


































































<h2>3.3 Other Parameters </h2>












<h1>4. Compressed and Encrypted Databases </h1>











































































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write-transaction is opened, then the snapshot read by the read-transaction
must correspond to the most recent version of the database. Otherwise,
the attempt to open the write-transaction fails (LSM_BUSY). In other words,
if any other client has written to the database since the current clients
read-transaction was opened, it will not be possible to upgrade to a
write-transaction.

<p>Write-transactions may be opened either implicitly or explicitly. If any
of the following functions are called to write to the database when there 
is no write-transaction open, then an implicit write-transaction is opened and
close (committed) within the function:

<ul>
  <li> lsm_insert()
  <li> lsm_delete()
................................................................................
to the database from the application to persistent storage. A "writer" 
client writes the data into the in-memory tree and log file. Later on a 
"worker" client flushes the data from the in-memory tree to a new segment
in the the database file. Additionally, a worker client must periodically
merge existing database segments together to prevent them from growing too
numerous.

<h3>3.2.1 Automatic Work and Checkpoint Scheduling</h3>

<p>By default, database "work" (the flushing and merging of segments, performed
by clients holding the WORKER lock) and checkpointing are scheduled and
performed automatically from within calls to "write" API functions. The 
"write" functions are:

<ul>



  <li>lsm_insert()
  <li>lsm_delete()
  <li>lsm_delete_range()
  <li>lsm_commit()
</ul>


<p>It is expected that automatic work and checkpoint scheduling will be
suitable for most applications. The advantage of this model is that it is
simple to use. However, any call to one of the functions listed above may be
co-opted by the system to perform database work or a checkpoint, causing it to
return more slowly than it otherwise would. In some situations, for example
when a writer thread is also responsible for handling user-interface events,
this may be undesirable.

<p>Automatic work and checkpoint scheduling is controlled by four integer
parameters set or queried using the lsm_config() interface. The parameters
are:

<dl>
  <dt> LSM_CONFIG_AUTOWORK
  <dd> <p style=margin-top:0>
       This is a boolean parameter (default 1). If set, auto-work mode is
       enabled for the database connection. Otherwise, it is not.

  <dt> LSM_CONFIG_AUTOFLUSH
  <dd> <p style=margin-top:0>
       An integer parameter (default 1048576). If this parameter is set
       to a non-zero value, then after each transaction is committed, the
       library checks the total size of the live in-memory tree. If it is
       equal to or greater than the configured value of this parameter in
       bytes and there is no existing old in-memory tree, then the current 
       live tree is marked as old.

       <p>Additionally, if the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOWORK parameter is set, the 
       contents of the in-memory tree are immediately flushed to disk.

  <dt> LSM_CONFIG_AUTOMERGE
  <dd> <p style=margin-top:0>
       This parameter must be set to an integer value between 2 and 8,
       inclusive. It controls the number of existing segments that 
       auto-work attempts to merge together at a time. The default value is 4.

  <dt> LSM_CONFIG_AUTOCHECKPOINT
  <dd> <p style=margin-top:0>
       If this parameter is set to an integer value greater than 0, then
       a checkpoint is automatically attempted after this many bytes are
       written into the database file. The default value is 2097152.
</dl>

<p>Each segment in the database file is assigned an "age" - an integer zero
or greater indicating how many times the data in the segment has been merged.
A segment created by flushing the in-memory tree to disk is assigned an age
of 1. When two or more segments with age=1 are merged together to create a
larger segment, it is assigned an age of 2. And so on.

<p>If auto-work is enabled, the library periodically checks the state of the
database file to see if there exist N or more segments with the same age
value A, where N is the value assigned to the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOMERGE parameter.
If so, work is done to merge all such segments with age=A into a new, larger
segment assigned age=A+1. At present, "periodically" as used above means 
roughly once for every 32KB of data (including overhead) written to the
in-memory tree. The merge operation is not necessarily completed within 
the same call to a write API in which it is started (this would result in
blocking the writer thread for too long in many cases - in large databases
segments may grow to be many GB in size). At present, the amount of data
written by a single auto-work operation is roughly 32KB multiplied by the
number of segments in the database file. This formula may change - the point 
is that the library attempts to limit the amount of data written in order to
avoid blocking the writer thread for too long within a single API call.

<p>Each time a transaction is committed in auto-work mode, the library checks
to see if there exists an "old" in-memory tree (see the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOFLUSH
option above). If so, it attempts to flush it to disk immediately. Unlike
merges of existing segments, the entire in-memory tree must be flushed to
disk before control is returned to the user. It is not possible to
incrementally flush an in-memory tree in the same ways as it is possible to
incrementally merge existing database segments together.

<p>In order to perform auto-work on the database file, either to flush the
contents of an old in-memory tree to disk or to merge existing segments within
the database file together, the client must obtain the WORKER lock. If some
other client is already holding the WORKER lock, this will not be possible.
This is not an error. If this occurs, the writer thread simply returns
immediately, without performing any work on the database file.

<p>Assuming the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOCHECKPOINT parameter is set to a value greater
than zero, after performing database work, the library automatically checks
how many bytes of raw data have been written to the database file since the
last checkpoint (by any client, not just by the current client). If this
value is greater than the value of the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOCHECKPOINT parameter,
a checkpoint is attempted. It is not an error if the attempt fails because the
CHECKPOINTER lock cannot be obtained.

<h3>3.2.2 Explicit Work and Checkpoint Scheduling</h3>

<p>The alternative to automatic scheduling of work and checkpoint operations
is to explicitly schedule them. Possibly in a background thread or dedicated
application process. In order to disable automatic work, a client must set
the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOWORK parameter to zero. This parameter is a property of
a database connection, not of a database itself, so it must be cleared
separately by all processes that may write to the database. Otherwise, they
may attempt automatic database work or checkpoints.

<p>The lsm_work() function is used to explicitly perform work on the database:

<verbatim>
  int lsm_work(lsm_db *db, int nMerge, int nByte, int *pnWrite);
</verbatim>

<p>Parameter nByte is passed a limit on the number of bytes of data that 
should be written to the database file before the call returns. It is a 
hint only, the library does not honor this limit strictly.

<p>If the database has an old in-memory tree when lsm_work() is called, it is
flushed to disk. If this means that more than nByte bytes of data is written
to the database file, no further work is performed. Otherwise, the number
of bytes written is subtracted from nByte before proceeding.

<p>If parameter nMerge is greater than 1, then the library searches for 
nMerge or more segments of the same age within the database file and performs
up to nByte bytes of work to merge them together. If the merge is completed
before the nByte limit is exceeded, the library searches for another set of
nMerge or more segments to work on, and so on. If at any point no such set of
nMerge segments can be found, the call returns without performing any 
further work.

<p>Calling lsm_work() with the nMerge argument set to 1 is used to "optimize"
the database (see below). Passing a value of zero or less for the nMerge
parameter is an error.

<p>In any case, before returning the value of *pnWrite is set to the actual
number of bytes written to the database file.

<p>The example code below might be executed in a background thread or process
in order to perform database work and checkpointing. In this case all other
clients should set the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOWORK parameter to zero.

<verbatim>
  int rc;
  lsm_db *db;
  int nCkpt = 4*1024*1024;

  /* Open a database connection to database "test.db". 
  **
  ** Configure the connection to automatically checkpoint the database after
  ** writing each 4MB of data to it (instead of the default 2MB). As well
  ** as to auto-work, the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOCHECKPOINT parameter applies to data
  ** written by explicit calls to lsm_work().
  */
  lsm_new(0, &db);
  lsm_config(db, LSM_CONFIG_AUTOCHECKPOINT, &nCkpt);
  lsm_open(db, "test.db");

  while( 1 ){
    int nWrite;

    /* Attempt up to 512KB of work. Set nWrite to the number of bytes
    ** actually written to disk.  */
    rc = lsm_work(db, 2, 512*1024, &nWrite);
    if( rc!=LSM_OK && rc!=LSM_BUSY ){
      /* Anything other than LSM_OK or LSM_BUSY is a problem. LSM_BUSY
      ** indicates that some other client has taken the WORKER lock. Any
      ** other error indicates something has gone quite wrong.  */
      lsm_close(db);
      return rc;
    }

    /* nWrite may be set to zero here in two scenarios. lsm_work()
    ** may have failed to obtain the WORKER lock and returned LSM_BUSY,
    ** indicating that some other connection is working on the database.
    ** Alternatively, it may be that there was no old in-memory tree to
    ** flush and no two segments of the same age within the database file,
    ** meaning the function could find no work to do.
    **
    ** In either case, there is no point in calling lsm_work() again 
    ** immediately. Instead, sleep for a second before continuing. By that
    ** time, things may have changed (the other process may have relinquished
    ** the WORKER lock, or an in-memory tree may have been marked as old).
    */
    if( nWrite==0 ) sleep(1);
  }
</verbatim>

<p>Checkpoints can also be requested explicitly, using the lsm_checkpoint()
API:

<verbatim>
  int lsm_checkpoint(lsm_db *db, int *pnCkpt);
</verbatim>

<p>If no work has been performed on the database since the most recent
checkpoint (implying that the snapshot has not changed and there is no need
to write it into the database file), lsm_checkpoint() sets *pnCkpt to zero
and returns immediately. Otherwise, it checkpoints the database and sets
*pnCkpt to the number of bytes written to the database file since the
previous checkpoint.

<p>The number of bytes written to the database since the most recent checkpoint
can also be using the lsm_info() API function. As follows:

<verbatim>
  int nCkpt;
  rc = lsm_info(db, LSM_INFO_CHECKPOINT_SIZE, &nCkpt);
</verbatim>

<verbatim>
  int nOld, nLive;
  rc = lsm_info(db, LSM_INFO_TREE_SIZE, &nOld, &nLive);
</verbatim>

<verbatim>
  int lsm_flush(lsm_db *db);
</verbatim>

<h3>3.2.3 Compulsary Work and Checkpoint Scheduling</h3>

<p>Apart from the scenarios described above, there are two there are two 
scenarios where database work or checkpointing may be performed automatically,
regardless of the value of the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOWORK parameter.

<ul>
  <li> When closing a database connection, and 
  <li> When the number of segments with a common age in the database file grows
       unacceptably high.
</ul>

<p>Whenever an lsm_close() call would mean that the total number of 
connections to a database drops to zero, the connection checks if the 
in-memory tree is empty. If not, it is flushed to disk. Both the live and 
old in-memory trees are flushed to disk in this case. It also checks if the
database file has been modified since the most recent checkpoint was 
performed. If so, it also performs a checkpoint. And, assuming no error
has occurred, deletes the log file.

<p>Additionally, whenever a worker wishes to flush an in-memory tree to a new
age=1 segment, it must first ensure that there are less than N existing age=1
segments, where N is the value that the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOMERGE parameter is
set to. If there are already N or more age=1 segments, they must be merged
into an age=2 segment before a new age=1 segment can be created within the
database file. Similar rules apply to segments of other ages - it is not
possible to create a new age=I segment if there are already N segments with
age=I in the database file. This has two implications:

<ul>
  <li> The database is prevented from accumulating too many segments,
       regardless of whether or not auto-work is enabled or how infrequently
       lsm_work() is called, and

  <li> If auto-work is disabled and lsm_work() is not called frequently enough,
       it is possible that flushing an in-memory tree may required writing a
       tremendous amount of data to disk (possibly even rewriting the entire
       database file).
</ul>

<p>Finally, regardless of age, a database is limited to a maximum of 64
segments in total. If an attempt is made to flush an in-memory tree to disk
when the database already contains 64 segments, two or more existing segments
must be merged together before the new segment can be created.

<h2>3.3 Database Optimization</h2>

<p>Database optimization transforms the contents of database file so that
the following are true:

<ul>
  <li> All database content is stored in a single segment.
  <li> The database file contains no (or as little as possible) free space.
       In other words, it is no larger than required to contain the single
       segment.
</ul>

<p>In order to optimize the database, lsm_work() should be called repeatedly
with the nMerge argument set to 1 until it returns without writing any data
to the database file. For example:

<verbatim>
  int nWrite;
  int rc;
  do {
    rc = lsm_work(db, 1, 2*1024*1024, &nWrite);
  }while( rc==LSM_OK && nWrite>0 );
</verbatim>

<p>When optimizing the database as above, the LSM_CONFIG_AUTOCHECKPOINT
parameter should be set to a non-zero value, or otherwise lsm_checkpoint()
should be called periodically. Otherwise, no checkpoints will be performed,
preventing the library from reusing any space occupied by old segments even
after their content has been merged into the new segment. The result - a
database file that is optimized, except that it is up to twice as large as
it otherwise would be.

<h2>3.3 Other Parameters </h2>

<i>
<p>Mention other configuration options that can be used to tune performance
here.

<ul>
  <li> LSM_CONFIG_MMAP
  <li> LSM_CONFIG_MULTIPLE_PROCESSES
</ul>

</i>

<h1>4. Compressed and Encrypted Databases </h1>

<p>LSM does not provide built-in methods for creating encrypted or compressed
databases. Instead, it allows the user to provide hooks to call external
functions to compress and/or encrypt data before it is written to the database
file, and to decrypt and/or uncompress data as it is read from the database
file.

<p>A database connection is configured to call compression functions using a
call to lsm_config() with the second argument set to
LSM_CONFIG_SET_COMPRESSION. The third argument should point to an instance
of type lsm_compress, which is defined as follows:

<verbatim>
  typedef struct lsm_compress lsm_compress;
  struct lsm_compress {
    u32 iId;
    void *pCtx;
    int (*xBound)(void *pCtx, int nIn);
    int (*xCompress)(void *pCtx, void *pOut, int *pnOut, const void *pIn, int nIn);
    int (*xUncompress)(void *pCtx, void *pOut, int *pnOut, const void *pIn, int nIn);
    void (*xFree)(void *pCtx);
  };
</verbatim>

<p><i> Explain how the hooks work here (same as zipvfs) </i>

<p><i> Example code? Using zlib? Or something simple like an RLE
implementation?</i>

<p>The database file header of any LSM database contains a 32-bit unsigned
"compression id" field. If the database is not a compressed database, this
field is set to 1. Otherwise, it is set to an application supplied value
identifying the compression and/or encryption scheme in use. Application
compression scheme ids must be greater than or equal to 10000. Values smaller
than 10000 are reserved for internal use.

<p>The lsm_compression_id() API may be used to read the compression id from
a database connection. Because the compression id is stored in the database
header, it may be read before any required compression or encryption hooks
are configured.

<verbatim>
  #define LSM_COMPRESSION_EMPTY    0
  #define LSM_COMPRESSION_NONE     1
  int lsm_compression_id(lsm_db *db, u32 *piId);
</verbatim>

<p>When a database is opened for the first time, before it is first written,
the compression id field is set to LSM_COMPRESSION_EMPTY (0). The first time
a transaction is committed, the database compression id is set to a copy of 
the lsm_compress.iId field of the compression hooks for the database handle
committing the transaction, or to LSM_COMPRESSION_NONE (1) if no compression
hooks are configured.

<p>Once the compression id is set to something other than 
LSM_COMPRESSION_EMPTY, when a database handle opens a read or write 
transaction on the database, the compression id is compared against the 
lsm_compress.iId field of the configured compression hooks, or against LSM_COMPRESSION_NONE if no compression hooks are configured. If the compression id
does not match, then an LSM_MISMATCH error is returned and the operation 
fails (no transaction or database cursor is opened).

<p><i>Maybe there should be a way to register a mismatch-handler callback.
Otherwise, applications have to handle LSM_MISMATCH everywhere...
</i>