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Overview
Comment:Enhancements to the VDBE opcode loop to reduce the number of machine-code instructions evaluated by about 10%.
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Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
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SHA1: 9744ffb3f5bc6d8fd59fbb6577a0d549411cd967
User & Date: drh 2009-11-17 23:59:58
Context
2009-11-18
01:25
Suppress more instances of unnecessary OP_IsNull and OP_Affinity opcodes. check-in: bf6c0bd1 user: drh tags: trunk
2009-11-17
23:59
Enhancements to the VDBE opcode loop to reduce the number of machine-code instructions evaluated by about 10%. check-in: 9744ffb3 user: drh tags: trunk
18:31
Code generator tries to avoid pointless OP_IsNull and OP_Affinity opcodes. check-in: ebb0c8a3 user: drh tags: trunk
Changes
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Changes to src/vdbe.c.

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){
  int pc;                    /* The program counter */
  Op *aOp = p->aOp;          /* Copy of p->aOp */
  Op *pOp;                   /* Current operation */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;        /* Value to return */
  sqlite3 *db = p->db;       /* The database */
  u8 encoding = ENC(db);     /* The database encoding */
  u8 opProperty;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
  u8 checkProgress;          /* True if progress callbacks are enabled */
  int nProgressOps = 0;      /* Opcodes executed since progress callback. */
#endif
  Mem *aMem = p->aMem;       /* Copy of p->aMem */
  Mem *pIn1 = 0;             /* 1st input operand */
  Mem *pIn2 = 0;             /* 2nd input operand */
................................................................................
        }
        nProgressOps = 0;
      }
      nProgressOps++;
    }
#endif

    /* Do common setup processing for any opcode that is marked
    ** with the "out2-prerelease" tag.  Such opcodes have a single
    ** output which is specified by the P2 parameter.  The P2 register
    ** is initialized to a NULL.
    */
    assert( pOp->opflags==sqlite3OpcodeProperty[pOp->opcode] );
    opProperty = pOp->opflags;
    if( opProperty & (OPFLG_OUT2_PRERELEASE | OPFLG_IN1 | OPFLG_IN2
                      | OPFLG_IN3 | OPFLG_OUT2 | OPFLG_OUT3)
    ){
      if( (opProperty & OPFLG_OUT2_PRERELEASE)!=0 ){
        assert( pOp->p2>0 );
        assert( pOp->p2<=p->nMem );
        pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
        sqlite3VdbeMemReleaseExternal(pOut);
        pOut->flags = MEM_Null;
        pOut->n = 0;
      }else{




        if( (opProperty & OPFLG_IN1)!=0 ){
          assert( pOp->p1>0 );
          assert( pOp->p1<=p->nMem );
          pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
          REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1, pIn1);
        }
        if( (opProperty & (OPFLG_IN2|OPFLG_OUT2))!=0 ){

          assert( pOp->p2>0 );
          assert( pOp->p2<=p->nMem );
          assert( (opProperty & OPFLG_OUT2)==0 || (opProperty & OPFLG_IN3)==0 );
          pIn2 = pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
        }
        if( (opProperty & (OPFLG_IN3|OPFLG_OUT3))!=0 ){
          assert( pOp->p3>0 );
          assert( pOp->p3<=p->nMem );
          pIn3 = pOut = &aMem[pOp->p3];
        }
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
        if( opProperty & OPFLG_IN2 ){ REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, pIn2); }
        if( opProperty & OPFLG_IN3 ){ REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p3, pIn3); }
#endif
      }



    }

  
    switch( pOp->opcode ){

/*****************************************************************************
** What follows is a massive switch statement where each case implements a
** separate instruction in the virtual machine.  If we follow the usual
** indentation conventions, each case should be indented by 6 spaces.  But
................................................................................

/* Opcode:  Gosub P1 P2 * * *
**
** Write the current address onto register P1
** and then jump to address P2.
*/
case OP_Gosub: {            /* jump, in1 */

  assert( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  pIn1->flags = MEM_Int;
  pIn1->u.i = pc;
  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1, pIn1);
  pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode:  Return P1 * * * *
**
** Jump to the next instruction after the address in register P1.
*/
case OP_Return: {           /* in1 */

  assert( pIn1->flags & MEM_Int );
  pc = (int)pIn1->u.i;
  break;
}

/* Opcode:  Yield P1 * * * *
**
** Swap the program counter with the value in register P1.
*/
case OP_Yield: {            /* in1 */
  int pcDest;

  assert( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  pIn1->flags = MEM_Int;
  pcDest = (int)pIn1->u.i;
  pIn1->u.i = pc;
  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1, pIn1);
  pc = pcDest;
  break;
................................................................................
/* Opcode:  HaltIfNull  P1 P2 P3 P4 *
**
** Check the value in register P3.  If is is NULL then Halt using
** parameter P1, P2, and P4 as if this were a Halt instruction.  If the
** value in register P3 is not NULL, then this routine is a no-op.
*/
case OP_HaltIfNull: {      /* in3 */

  if( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ) break;
  /* Fall through into OP_Halt */
}

/* Opcode:  Halt P1 P2 * P4 *
**
** Exit immediately.  All open cursors, etc are closed
................................................................................
}

/* Opcode: Integer P1 P2 * * *
**
** The 32-bit integer value P1 is written into register P2.
*/
case OP_Integer: {         /* out2-prerelease */
  pOut->flags = MEM_Int;
  pOut->u.i = pOp->p1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Int64 * P2 * P4 *
**
** P4 is a pointer to a 64-bit integer value.
** Write that value into register P2.
*/
case OP_Int64: {           /* out2-prerelease */
  assert( pOp->p4.pI64!=0 );
  pOut->flags = MEM_Int;
  pOut->u.i = *pOp->p4.pI64;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Real * P2 * P4 *
**
** P4 is a pointer to a 64-bit floating point value.
................................................................................
}

/* Opcode: Null * P2 * * *
**
** Write a NULL into register P2.
*/
case OP_Null: {           /* out2-prerelease */

  break;
}


/* Opcode: Blob P1 P2 * P4
**
** P4 points to a blob of data P1 bytes long.  Store this
................................................................................
**
** Make a copy of register P1 into register P2.
**
** This instruction makes a deep copy of the value.  A duplicate
** is made of any string or blob constant.  See also OP_SCopy.
*/
case OP_Copy: {             /* in1, out2 */


  assert( pOut!=pIn1 );
  sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pOut, pIn1, MEM_Ephem);
  Deephemeralize(pOut);
  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, pOut);
  break;
}

................................................................................
** original and hence if the original changes so will the copy.
** Worse, if the original is deallocated, the copy becomes invalid.
** Thus the program must guarantee that the original will not change
** during the lifetime of the copy.  Use OP_Copy to make a complete
** copy.
*/
case OP_SCopy: {            /* in1, out2 */


  assert( pOut!=pIn1 );
  sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pOut, pIn1, MEM_Ephem);
  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, pOut);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ResultRow P1 P2 * * *
................................................................................
** It is illegal for P1 and P3 to be the same register. Sometimes,
** if P3 is the same register as P2, the implementation is able
** to avoid a memcpy().
*/
case OP_Concat: {           /* same as TK_CONCAT, in1, in2, out3 */
  i64 nByte;




  assert( pIn1!=pOut );
  if( (pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags) & MEM_Null ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pOut);
    break;
  }
  if( ExpandBlob(pIn1) || ExpandBlob(pIn2) ) goto no_mem;
  Stringify(pIn1, encoding);
................................................................................
case OP_Remainder: {           /* same as TK_REM, in1, in2, out3 */
  int flags;      /* Combined MEM_* flags from both inputs */
  i64 iA;         /* Integer value of left operand */
  i64 iB;         /* Integer value of right operand */
  double rA;      /* Real value of left operand */
  double rB;      /* Real value of right operand */


  applyNumericAffinity(pIn1);

  applyNumericAffinity(pIn2);

  flags = pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags;
  if( (flags & MEM_Null)!=0 ) goto arithmetic_result_is_null;
  if( (pIn1->flags & pIn2->flags & MEM_Int)==MEM_Int ){
    iA = pIn1->u.i;
    iB = pIn2->u.i;
    switch( pOp->opcode ){
      case OP_Add:         iB += iA;       break;
................................................................................
case OP_BitAnd:                 /* same as TK_BITAND, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_BitOr:                  /* same as TK_BITOR, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_ShiftLeft:              /* same as TK_LSHIFT, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_ShiftRight: {           /* same as TK_RSHIFT, in1, in2, out3 */
  i64 a;
  i64 b;




  if( (pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags) & MEM_Null ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pOut);
    break;
  }
  a = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn2);
  b = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn1);
  switch( pOp->opcode ){
................................................................................
** 
** Add the constant P2 to the value in register P1.
** The result is always an integer.
**
** To force any register to be an integer, just add 0.
*/
case OP_AddImm: {            /* in1 */

  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn1);
  pIn1->u.i += pOp->p2;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: MustBeInt P1 P2 * * *
** 
** Force the value in register P1 to be an integer.  If the value
** in P1 is not an integer and cannot be converted into an integer
** without data loss, then jump immediately to P2, or if P2==0
** raise an SQLITE_MISMATCH exception.
*/
case OP_MustBeInt: {            /* jump, in1 */

  applyAffinity(pIn1, SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC, encoding);
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Int)==0 ){
    if( pOp->p2==0 ){
      rc = SQLITE_MISMATCH;
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }else{
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
................................................................................
**
** This opcode is used when extracting information from a column that
** has REAL affinity.  Such column values may still be stored as
** integers, for space efficiency, but after extraction we want them
** to have only a real value.
*/
case OP_RealAffinity: {                  /* in1 */

  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Int ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemRealify(pIn1);
  }
  break;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
................................................................................
** If the value is numeric, convert it to a string using the
** equivalent of printf().  Blob values are unchanged and
** are afterwards simply interpreted as text.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToText: {                  /* same as TK_TO_TEXT, in1 */

  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ) break;
  assert( MEM_Str==(MEM_Blob>>3) );
  pIn1->flags |= (pIn1->flags&MEM_Blob)>>3;
  applyAffinity(pIn1, SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, encoding);
  rc = ExpandBlob(pIn1);
  assert( pIn1->flags & MEM_Str || db->mallocFailed );
  pIn1->flags &= ~(MEM_Int|MEM_Real|MEM_Blob|MEM_Zero);
................................................................................
** If the value is numeric, convert it to a string first.
** Strings are simply reinterpreted as blobs with no change
** to the underlying data.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToBlob: {                  /* same as TK_TO_BLOB, in1 */

  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ) break;
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Blob)==0 ){
    applyAffinity(pIn1, SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, encoding);
    assert( pIn1->flags & MEM_Str || db->mallocFailed );
    MemSetTypeFlag(pIn1, MEM_Blob);
  }else{
    pIn1->flags &= ~(MEM_TypeMask&~MEM_Blob);
................................................................................
** If the value is text or blob, try to convert it to an using the
** equivalent of atoi() or atof() and store 0 if no such conversion 
** is possible.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToNumeric: {                  /* same as TK_TO_NUMERIC, in1 */

  if( (pIn1->flags & (MEM_Null|MEM_Int|MEM_Real))==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemNumerify(pIn1);
  }
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */

................................................................................
** The value is currently a real number, drop its fractional part.
** If the value is text or blob, try to convert it to an integer using the
** equivalent of atoi() and store 0 if no such conversion is possible.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToInt: {                  /* same as TK_TO_INT, in1 */

  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn1);
  }
  break;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
................................................................................
** If The value is currently an integer, convert it.
** If the value is text or blob, try to convert it to an integer using the
** equivalent of atoi() and store 0.0 if no such conversion is possible.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToReal: {                  /* same as TK_TO_REAL, in1 */

  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemRealify(pIn1);
  }
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */

................................................................................
case OP_Lt:               /* same as TK_LT, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Le:               /* same as TK_LE, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Gt:               /* same as TK_GT, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
  int res;            /* Result of the comparison of pIn1 against pIn3 */
  char affinity;      /* Affinity to use for comparison */



  if( (pIn1->flags | pIn3->flags)&MEM_Null ){
    /* One or both operands are NULL */
    if( pOp->p5 & SQLITE_NULLEQ ){
      /* If SQLITE_NULLEQ is set (which will only happen if the operator is
      ** OP_Eq or OP_Ne) then take the jump or not depending on whether
      ** or not both operands are null.
      */
................................................................................
** give a NULL output.
*/
case OP_And:              /* same as TK_AND, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_Or: {             /* same as TK_OR, in1, in2, out3 */
  int v1;    /* Left operand:  0==FALSE, 1==TRUE, 2==UNKNOWN or NULL */
  int v2;    /* Right operand: 0==FALSE, 1==TRUE, 2==UNKNOWN or NULL */


  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ){
    v1 = 2;
  }else{
    v1 = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn1)!=0;
  }

  if( pIn2->flags & MEM_Null ){
    v2 = 2;
  }else{
    v2 = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn2)!=0;
  }
  if( pOp->opcode==OP_And ){
    static const unsigned char and_logic[] = { 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 2 };
    v1 = and_logic[v1*3+v2];
  }else{
    static const unsigned char or_logic[] = { 0, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2 };
    v1 = or_logic[v1*3+v2];
  }

  if( v1==2 ){
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Null);
  }else{
    pOut->u.i = v1;
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  }
  break;
................................................................................
/* Opcode: Not P1 P2 * * *
**
** Interpret the value in register P1 as a boolean value.  Store the
** boolean complement in register P2.  If the value in register P1 is 
** NULL, then a NULL is stored in P2.
*/
case OP_Not: {                /* same as TK_NOT, in1, out2 */


  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pOut);
  }else{
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(pOut, !sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn1));
  }
  break;
}
................................................................................
/* Opcode: BitNot P1 P2 * * *
**
** Interpret the content of register P1 as an integer.  Store the
** ones-complement of the P1 value into register P2.  If P1 holds
** a NULL then store a NULL in P2.
*/
case OP_BitNot: {             /* same as TK_BITNOT, in1, out2 */


  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pOut);
  }else{
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(pOut, ~sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn1));
  }
  break;
}
................................................................................
** Jump to P2 if the value in register P1 is False.  The value is
** is considered true if it has a numeric value of zero.  If the value
** in P1 is NULL then take the jump if P3 is true.
*/
case OP_If:                 /* jump, in1 */
case OP_IfNot: {            /* jump, in1 */
  int c;

  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ){
    c = pOp->p3;
  }else{
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
    c = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn1)!=0;
#else
    c = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pIn1)!=0.0;
................................................................................
}

/* Opcode: IsNull P1 P2 * * *
**
** Jump to P2 if the value in register P1 is NULL.
*/
case OP_IsNull: {            /* same as TK_ISNULL, jump, in1 */

  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)!=0 ){
    pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: NotNull P1 P2 * * *
**
** Jump to P2 if the value in register P1 is not NULL.  
*/
case OP_NotNull: {            /* same as TK_NOTNULL, jump, in1 */

  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Column P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
................................................................................

  pCrsr = p->apCsr[pOp->p1]->pCursor;
  if( pCrsr ){
    rc = sqlite3BtreeCount(pCrsr, &nEntry);
  }else{
    nEntry = 0;
  }
  pOut->flags = MEM_Int;
  pOut->u.i = nEntry;
  break;
}
#endif

/* Opcode: Savepoint P1 * * P4 *
**
................................................................................
  assert( pOp->p3<SQLITE_N_BTREE_META );
  assert( iDb>=0 && iDb<db->nDb );
  assert( db->aDb[iDb].pBt!=0 );
  assert( (p->btreeMask & (1<<iDb))!=0 );

  sqlite3BtreeGetMeta(db->aDb[iDb].pBt, iCookie, (u32 *)&iMeta);
  pOut->u.i = iMeta;
  MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: SetCookie P1 P2 P3 * *
**
** Write the content of register P3 (interpreted as an integer)
** into cookie number P2 of database P1.  P2==1 is the schema version.  
................................................................................
case OP_SetCookie: {       /* in3 */
  Db *pDb;
  assert( pOp->p2<SQLITE_N_BTREE_META );
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<db->nDb );
  assert( (p->btreeMask & (1<<pOp->p1))!=0 );
  pDb = &db->aDb[pOp->p1];
  assert( pDb->pBt!=0 );

  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn3);
  /* See note about index shifting on OP_ReadCookie */
  rc = sqlite3BtreeUpdateMeta(pDb->pBt, pOp->p2, (int)pIn3->u.i);
  if( pOp->p2==BTREE_SCHEMA_VERSION ){
    /* When the schema cookie changes, record the new cookie internally */
    pDb->pSchema->schema_cookie = (int)pIn3->u.i;
    db->flags |= SQLITE_InternChanges;
................................................................................
  if( pC->pCursor!=0 ){
    oc = pOp->opcode;
    pC->nullRow = 0;
    if( pC->isTable ){
      /* The input value in P3 might be of any type: integer, real, string,
      ** blob, or NULL.  But it needs to be an integer before we can do
      ** the seek, so covert it. */

      applyNumericAffinity(pIn3);
      iKey = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn3);
      pC->rowidIsValid = 0;

      /* If the P3 value could not be converted into an integer without
      ** loss of information, then special processing is required... */
      if( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Int)==0 ){
................................................................................

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  if( ALWAYS(pC->pCursor!=0) ){
    assert( pC->isTable );
    pC->nullRow = 0;

    pC->movetoTarget = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn2);
    pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
    pC->deferredMoveto = 1;
  }
  break;
}
  
................................................................................
#endif

  alreadyExists = 0;
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  assert( pOp->p4type==P4_INT32 );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );

  if( ALWAYS(pC->pCursor!=0) ){

    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    if( pOp->p4.i>0 ){
      r.pKeyInfo = pC->pKeyInfo;
      r.nField = pOp->p4.i;
      r.aMem = pIn3;
................................................................................
  VdbeCursor *pCx;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  u16 nField;
  Mem *aMx;
  UnpackedRecord r;                  /* B-Tree index search key */
  i64 R;                             /* Rowid stored in register P3 */


  aMx = &aMem[pOp->p4.i];
  /* Assert that the values of parameters P1 and P4 are in range. */
  assert( pOp->p4type==P4_INT32 );
  assert( pOp->p4.i>0 && pOp->p4.i<=p->nMem );
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );

  /* Find the index cursor. */
................................................................................
*/
case OP_NotExists: {        /* jump, in3 */
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  int res;
  u64 iKey;


  assert( pIn3->flags & MEM_Int );
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  assert( pC->isTable );
  assert( pC->pseudoTableReg==0 );
  pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
................................................................................
** The sequence number on the cursor is incremented after this
** instruction.  
*/
case OP_Sequence: {           /* out2-prerelease */
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[pOp->p1]!=0 );
  pOut->u.i = p->apCsr[pOp->p1]->seqCount++;
  MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  break;
}


/* Opcode: NewRowid P1 P2 P3 * *
**
** Get a new integer record number (a.k.a "rowid") used as the key to a table.
................................................................................
        goto abort_due_to_error;
      }
    }
    pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
    pC->deferredMoveto = 0;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  }
  MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  pOut->u.i = v;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Insert P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
**
** Write an entry into the table of cursor P1.  A new entry is
................................................................................
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  assert( pC->pseudoTableReg==0 );
  if( pC->nullRow ){
    /* Do nothing so that reg[P2] remains NULL */
    break;
  }else if( pC->deferredMoveto ){
    v = pC->movetoTarget;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  }else if( pC->pVtabCursor ){
    pVtab = pC->pVtabCursor->pVtab;
    pModule = pVtab->pModule;
................................................................................
      v = pC->lastRowid;
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3BtreeKeySize(pC->pCursor, &v);
      assert( rc==SQLITE_OK );  /* Always so because of CursorMoveto() above */
    }
  }
  pOut->u.i = v;
  MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: NullRow P1 * * * *
**
** Move the cursor P1 to a null row.  Any OP_Column operations
** that occur while the cursor is on the null row will always
................................................................................
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  int nKey;
  const char *zKey;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );

  assert( pIn2->flags & MEM_Blob );
  pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
  if( ALWAYS(pCrsr!=0) ){
    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    rc = ExpandBlob(pIn2);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      nKey = pIn2->n;
................................................................................
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  i64 rowid;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  pCrsr = pC->pCursor;

  if( ALWAYS(pCrsr!=0) ){
    rc = sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto(pC);
    if( NEVER(rc) ) goto abort_due_to_error;
    assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    if( !pC->nullRow ){
      rc = sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid(db, pCrsr, &rowid);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        goto abort_due_to_error;
      }
      MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
      pOut->u.i = rowid;

    }
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IdxGE P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
**
................................................................................
    if( pVdbe->magic==VDBE_MAGIC_RUN && pVdbe->inVtabMethod<2 && pVdbe->pc>=0 ){
      iCnt++;
    }
  }
#else
  iCnt = db->activeVdbeCnt;
#endif

  if( iCnt>1 ){
    rc = SQLITE_LOCKED;
    p->errorAction = OE_Abort;
  }else{
    iDb = pOp->p3;
    assert( iCnt==1 );
    assert( (p->btreeMask & (1<<iDb))!=0 );
    rc = sqlite3BtreeDropTable(db->aDb[iDb].pBt, pOp->p1, &iMoved);
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
    pOut->u.i = iMoved;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOVACUUM
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && iMoved!=0 ){
      sqlite3RootPageMoved(&db->aDb[iDb], iMoved, pOp->p1);
    }
#endif
  }
................................................................................
    /* flags = BTREE_INTKEY; */
    flags = BTREE_LEAFDATA|BTREE_INTKEY;
  }else{
    flags = BTREE_ZERODATA;
  }
  rc = sqlite3BtreeCreateTable(pDb->pBt, &pgno, flags);
  pOut->u.i = pgno;
  MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ParseSchema P1 P2 * P4 *
**
** Read and parse all entries from the SQLITE_MASTER table of database P1
** that match the WHERE clause P4.  P2 is the "force" flag.   Always do
................................................................................
**
** Insert the integer value held by register P2 into a boolean index
** held in register P1.
**
** An assertion fails if P2 is not an integer.
*/
case OP_RowSetAdd: {       /* in1, in2 */


  assert( (pIn2->flags & MEM_Int)!=0 );
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_RowSet)==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetRowSet(pIn1);
    if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_RowSet)==0 ) goto no_mem;
  }
  sqlite3RowSetInsert(pIn1->u.pRowSet, pIn2->u.i);
  break;
................................................................................
** Extract the smallest value from boolean index P1 and put that value into
** register P3.  Or, if boolean index P1 is initially empty, leave P3
** unchanged and jump to instruction P2.
*/
case OP_RowSetRead: {       /* jump, in1, out3 */
  i64 val;
  CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPT;

  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_RowSet)==0 
   || sqlite3RowSetNext(pIn1->u.pRowSet, &val)==0
  ){
    /* The boolean index is empty */
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pIn1);
    pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }else{
    /* A value was pulled from the index */
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(pOut, val);
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: RowSetTest P1 P2 P3 P4
**
** Register P3 is assumed to hold a 64-bit integer value. If register P1
................................................................................
** previously inserted as part of set X (only if it was previously
** inserted as part of some other set).
*/
case OP_RowSetTest: {                     /* jump, in1, in3 */
  int iSet;
  int exists;



  iSet = pOp->p4.i;
  assert( pIn3->flags&MEM_Int );

  /* If there is anything other than a rowset object in memory cell P1,
  ** delete it now and initialize P1 with an empty rowset
  */
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_RowSet)==0 ){
................................................................................
  if( p->pFrame ){
    for(pFrame=p->pFrame; pFrame->pParent; pFrame=pFrame->pParent);
    pIn1 = &pFrame->aMem[pOp->p1];
  }else{
    pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  }
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn1);

  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn2);
  if( pIn1->u.i<pIn2->u.i){
    pIn1->u.i = pIn2->u.i;
  }
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINCREMENT */
................................................................................
**
** If the value of register P1 is 1 or greater, jump to P2.
**
** It is illegal to use this instruction on a register that does
** not contain an integer.  An assertion fault will result if you try.
*/
case OP_IfPos: {        /* jump, in1 */

  assert( pIn1->flags&MEM_Int );
  if( pIn1->u.i>0 ){
     pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

................................................................................
**
** If the value of register P1 is less than zero, jump to P2. 
**
** It is illegal to use this instruction on a register that does
** not contain an integer.  An assertion fault will result if you try.
*/
case OP_IfNeg: {        /* jump, in1 */

  assert( pIn1->flags&MEM_Int );
  if( pIn1->u.i<0 ){
     pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

................................................................................
** The register P1 must contain an integer.  Add literal P3 to the
** value in register P1.  If the result is exactly 0, jump to P2. 
**
** It is illegal to use this instruction on a register that does
** not contain an integer.  An assertion fault will result if you try.
*/
case OP_IfZero: {        /* jump, in1 */

  assert( pIn1->flags&MEM_Int );
  pIn1->u.i += pOp->p3;
  if( pIn1->u.i==0 ){
     pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}
................................................................................
  p1 = pOp->p1; 
  pPager = sqlite3BtreePager(db->aDb[p1].pBt);
  rc = sqlite3PagerPagecount(pPager, &nPage);
  /* OP_Pagecount is always called from within a read transaction.  The
  ** page count has already been successfully read and cached.  So the
  ** sqlite3PagerPagecount() call above cannot fail. */
  if( ALWAYS(rc==SQLITE_OK) ){
    pOut->flags = MEM_Int;
    pOut->u.i = nPage;
  }
  break;
}
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
................................................................................
    */
#ifndef NDEBUG
    assert( pc>=-1 && pc<p->nOp );

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
    if( p->trace ){
      if( rc!=0 ) fprintf(p->trace,"rc=%d\n",rc);
      if( opProperty & OPFLG_OUT2_PRERELEASE ){
        registerTrace(p->trace, pOp->p2, pOut);
      }
      if( opProperty & OPFLG_OUT3 ){
        registerTrace(p->trace, pOp->p3, pOut);
      }
    }
#endif  /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
#endif  /* NDEBUG */
  }  /* The end of the for(;;) loop the loops through opcodes */

  /* If we reach this point, it means that execution is finished with







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539
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545

546
547
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549
550
551
552
...
655
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664
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668
669
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673


674
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696
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...
752
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792
...
795
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807
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809
...
863
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869

870
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875
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880

881
882
883
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886
887
...
943
944
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949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
....
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
....
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
....
1155
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1157
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1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
....
1231
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1234
1235
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1238
1239
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1246
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1249
....
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
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1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
....
1495
1496
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....
1534
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1547
1548
....
1552
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1564
1565
1566
....
1574
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1588
....
1598
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1612
....
1616
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....
1634
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....
1723
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....
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1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
....
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
....
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
....
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
....
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
....
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492

2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
....
2806
2807
2808
2809
2810
2811
2812

2813
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
2819
....
2826
2827
2828
2829
2830
2831
2832
2833
2834
2835
2836
2837
2838
2839
2840
....
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
3225
....
3351
3352
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357
3358
3359
3360
3361
3362
3363
3364
3365
....
3402
3403
3404
3405
3406
3407
3408
3409
3410
3411
3412
3413
3414
3415
3416
....
3476
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
3482
3483
3484
3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
....
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
3559
....
3589
3590
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595

3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
....
3725
3726
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731

3732
3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
....
4016
4017
4018
4019
4020
4021
4022
4023
4024
4025
4026
4027
4028
4029
4030
....
4044
4045
4046
4047
4048
4049
4050

4051
4052
4053
4054
4055
4056
4057
....
4228
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
4242
....
4297
4298
4299
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305
4306
4307
4308
4309
4310
4311
4312
4313
4314

4315
4316
4317
4318
4319
4320
4321
4322
4323
....
4411
4412
4413
4414
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
4420
4421
4422
4423
4424
4425
4426
4427
4428
4429
4430
4431
4432
4433
4434
....
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513

4514
4515
4516
4517
4518
4519
4520
....
4705
4706
4707
4708
4709
4710
4711
4712
4713
4714
4715
4716
4717
4718
4719
4720
....
4725
4726
4727
4728
4729
4730
4731
4732
4733
4734
4735
4736
4737
4738
4739
4740
4741
4742
4743
4744
4745
4746
4747
4748
....
4766
4767
4768
4769
4770
4771
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776
4777
4778
4779
4780
4781
....
4994
4995
4996
4997
4998
4999
5000
5001
5002
5003
5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
....
5011
5012
5013
5014
5015
5016
5017
5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024
5025
....
5027
5028
5029
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035
5036
5037
5038
5039
5040
5041
....
5044
5045
5046
5047
5048
5049
5050
5051
5052
5053
5054
5055
5056
5057
5058
....
5607
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5613

5614
5615
5616
5617
5618
5619
5620
....
5684
5685
5686
5687
5688
5689
5690
5691
5692
5693
5694
5695
5696
5697
5698
5699
5700
5701
5702
){
  int pc;                    /* The program counter */
  Op *aOp = p->aOp;          /* Copy of p->aOp */
  Op *pOp;                   /* Current operation */
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;        /* Value to return */
  sqlite3 *db = p->db;       /* The database */
  u8 encoding = ENC(db);     /* The database encoding */

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_PROGRESS_CALLBACK
  u8 checkProgress;          /* True if progress callbacks are enabled */
  int nProgressOps = 0;      /* Opcodes executed since progress callback. */
#endif
  Mem *aMem = p->aMem;       /* Copy of p->aMem */
  Mem *pIn1 = 0;             /* 1st input operand */
  Mem *pIn2 = 0;             /* 2nd input operand */
................................................................................
        }
        nProgressOps = 0;
      }
      nProgressOps++;
    }
#endif

    /* On any opcode with the "out2-prerelase" tag, free any
    ** external allocations out of mem[p2] and set mem[p2] to be
    ** an undefined integer.  Opcodes will either fill in the integer
    ** value or convert mem[p2] to a different type.
    */
    assert( pOp->opflags==sqlite3OpcodeProperty[pOp->opcode] );




    if( pOp->opflags & OPFLG_OUT2_PRERELEASE ){
      assert( pOp->p2>0 );
      assert( pOp->p2<=p->nMem );
      pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
      sqlite3VdbeMemReleaseExternal(pOut);
      pOut->flags = MEM_Int;


    }

    /* Sanity checking on other operands */
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
    if( (pOp->opflags & OPFLG_IN1)!=0 ){
      assert( pOp->p1>0 );
      assert( pOp->p1<=p->nMem );

      REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1, &aMem[pOp->p1]);
    }

    if( (pOp->opflags & OPFLG_IN2)!=0 ){
      assert( pOp->p2>0 );
      assert( pOp->p2<=p->nMem );

      REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, &aMem[pOp->p2]);
    }
    if( (pOp->opflags & OPFLG_IN3)!=0 ){
      assert( pOp->p3>0 );
      assert( pOp->p3<=p->nMem );
      REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p3, &aMem[pOp->p3]);
    }
    if( (pOp->opflags & OPFLG_OUT2)!=0 ){
      assert( pOp->p2>0 );
      assert( pOp->p2<=p->nMem );

    }
    if( (pOp->opflags & OPFLG_OUT3)!=0 ){
      assert( pOp->p3>0 );
      assert( pOp->p3<=p->nMem );
    }
#endif
  
    switch( pOp->opcode ){

/*****************************************************************************
** What follows is a massive switch statement where each case implements a
** separate instruction in the virtual machine.  If we follow the usual
** indentation conventions, each case should be indented by 6 spaces.  But
................................................................................

/* Opcode:  Gosub P1 P2 * * *
**
** Write the current address onto register P1
** and then jump to address P2.
*/
case OP_Gosub: {            /* jump, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  assert( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  pIn1->flags = MEM_Int;
  pIn1->u.i = pc;
  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1, pIn1);
  pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode:  Return P1 * * * *
**
** Jump to the next instruction after the address in register P1.
*/
case OP_Return: {           /* in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  assert( pIn1->flags & MEM_Int );
  pc = (int)pIn1->u.i;
  break;
}

/* Opcode:  Yield P1 * * * *
**
** Swap the program counter with the value in register P1.
*/
case OP_Yield: {            /* in1 */
  int pcDest;
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  assert( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Dyn)==0 );
  pIn1->flags = MEM_Int;
  pcDest = (int)pIn1->u.i;
  pIn1->u.i = pc;
  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p1, pIn1);
  pc = pcDest;
  break;
................................................................................
/* Opcode:  HaltIfNull  P1 P2 P3 P4 *
**
** Check the value in register P3.  If is is NULL then Halt using
** parameter P1, P2, and P4 as if this were a Halt instruction.  If the
** value in register P3 is not NULL, then this routine is a no-op.
*/
case OP_HaltIfNull: {      /* in3 */
  pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  if( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ) break;
  /* Fall through into OP_Halt */
}

/* Opcode:  Halt P1 P2 * P4 *
**
** Exit immediately.  All open cursors, etc are closed
................................................................................
}

/* Opcode: Integer P1 P2 * * *
**
** The 32-bit integer value P1 is written into register P2.
*/
case OP_Integer: {         /* out2-prerelease */

  pOut->u.i = pOp->p1;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Int64 * P2 * P4 *
**
** P4 is a pointer to a 64-bit integer value.
** Write that value into register P2.
*/
case OP_Int64: {           /* out2-prerelease */
  assert( pOp->p4.pI64!=0 );

  pOut->u.i = *pOp->p4.pI64;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Real * P2 * P4 *
**
** P4 is a pointer to a 64-bit floating point value.
................................................................................
}

/* Opcode: Null * P2 * * *
**
** Write a NULL into register P2.
*/
case OP_Null: {           /* out2-prerelease */
  pOut->flags = MEM_Null;
  break;
}


/* Opcode: Blob P1 P2 * P4
**
** P4 points to a blob of data P1 bytes long.  Store this
................................................................................
**
** Make a copy of register P1 into register P2.
**
** This instruction makes a deep copy of the value.  A duplicate
** is made of any string or blob constant.  See also OP_SCopy.
*/
case OP_Copy: {             /* in1, out2 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  assert( pOut!=pIn1 );
  sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pOut, pIn1, MEM_Ephem);
  Deephemeralize(pOut);
  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, pOut);
  break;
}

................................................................................
** original and hence if the original changes so will the copy.
** Worse, if the original is deallocated, the copy becomes invalid.
** Thus the program must guarantee that the original will not change
** during the lifetime of the copy.  Use OP_Copy to make a complete
** copy.
*/
case OP_SCopy: {            /* in1, out2 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  assert( pOut!=pIn1 );
  sqlite3VdbeMemShallowCopy(pOut, pIn1, MEM_Ephem);
  REGISTER_TRACE(pOp->p2, pOut);
  break;
}

/* Opcode: ResultRow P1 P2 * * *
................................................................................
** It is illegal for P1 and P3 to be the same register. Sometimes,
** if P3 is the same register as P2, the implementation is able
** to avoid a memcpy().
*/
case OP_Concat: {           /* same as TK_CONCAT, in1, in2, out3 */
  i64 nByte;

  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  assert( pIn1!=pOut );
  if( (pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags) & MEM_Null ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pOut);
    break;
  }
  if( ExpandBlob(pIn1) || ExpandBlob(pIn2) ) goto no_mem;
  Stringify(pIn1, encoding);
................................................................................
case OP_Remainder: {           /* same as TK_REM, in1, in2, out3 */
  int flags;      /* Combined MEM_* flags from both inputs */
  i64 iA;         /* Integer value of left operand */
  i64 iB;         /* Integer value of right operand */
  double rA;      /* Real value of left operand */
  double rB;      /* Real value of right operand */

  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  applyNumericAffinity(pIn1);
  pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  applyNumericAffinity(pIn2);
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  flags = pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags;
  if( (flags & MEM_Null)!=0 ) goto arithmetic_result_is_null;
  if( (pIn1->flags & pIn2->flags & MEM_Int)==MEM_Int ){
    iA = pIn1->u.i;
    iB = pIn2->u.i;
    switch( pOp->opcode ){
      case OP_Add:         iB += iA;       break;
................................................................................
case OP_BitAnd:                 /* same as TK_BITAND, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_BitOr:                  /* same as TK_BITOR, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_ShiftLeft:              /* same as TK_LSHIFT, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_ShiftRight: {           /* same as TK_RSHIFT, in1, in2, out3 */
  i64 a;
  i64 b;

  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  if( (pIn1->flags | pIn2->flags) & MEM_Null ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pOut);
    break;
  }
  a = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn2);
  b = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn1);
  switch( pOp->opcode ){
................................................................................
** 
** Add the constant P2 to the value in register P1.
** The result is always an integer.
**
** To force any register to be an integer, just add 0.
*/
case OP_AddImm: {            /* in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn1);
  pIn1->u.i += pOp->p2;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: MustBeInt P1 P2 * * *
** 
** Force the value in register P1 to be an integer.  If the value
** in P1 is not an integer and cannot be converted into an integer
** without data loss, then jump immediately to P2, or if P2==0
** raise an SQLITE_MISMATCH exception.
*/
case OP_MustBeInt: {            /* jump, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  applyAffinity(pIn1, SQLITE_AFF_NUMERIC, encoding);
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Int)==0 ){
    if( pOp->p2==0 ){
      rc = SQLITE_MISMATCH;
      goto abort_due_to_error;
    }else{
      pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
................................................................................
**
** This opcode is used when extracting information from a column that
** has REAL affinity.  Such column values may still be stored as
** integers, for space efficiency, but after extraction we want them
** to have only a real value.
*/
case OP_RealAffinity: {                  /* in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Int ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemRealify(pIn1);
  }
  break;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
................................................................................
** If the value is numeric, convert it to a string using the
** equivalent of printf().  Blob values are unchanged and
** are afterwards simply interpreted as text.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToText: {                  /* same as TK_TO_TEXT, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ) break;
  assert( MEM_Str==(MEM_Blob>>3) );
  pIn1->flags |= (pIn1->flags&MEM_Blob)>>3;
  applyAffinity(pIn1, SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, encoding);
  rc = ExpandBlob(pIn1);
  assert( pIn1->flags & MEM_Str || db->mallocFailed );
  pIn1->flags &= ~(MEM_Int|MEM_Real|MEM_Blob|MEM_Zero);
................................................................................
** If the value is numeric, convert it to a string first.
** Strings are simply reinterpreted as blobs with no change
** to the underlying data.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToBlob: {                  /* same as TK_TO_BLOB, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ) break;
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Blob)==0 ){
    applyAffinity(pIn1, SQLITE_AFF_TEXT, encoding);
    assert( pIn1->flags & MEM_Str || db->mallocFailed );
    MemSetTypeFlag(pIn1, MEM_Blob);
  }else{
    pIn1->flags &= ~(MEM_TypeMask&~MEM_Blob);
................................................................................
** If the value is text or blob, try to convert it to an using the
** equivalent of atoi() or atof() and store 0 if no such conversion 
** is possible.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToNumeric: {                  /* same as TK_TO_NUMERIC, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( (pIn1->flags & (MEM_Null|MEM_Int|MEM_Real))==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemNumerify(pIn1);
  }
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */

................................................................................
** The value is currently a real number, drop its fractional part.
** If the value is text or blob, try to convert it to an integer using the
** equivalent of atoi() and store 0 if no such conversion is possible.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToInt: {                  /* same as TK_TO_INT, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn1);
  }
  break;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CAST
................................................................................
** If The value is currently an integer, convert it.
** If the value is text or blob, try to convert it to an integer using the
** equivalent of atoi() and store 0.0 if no such conversion is possible.
**
** A NULL value is not changed by this routine.  It remains NULL.
*/
case OP_ToReal: {                  /* same as TK_TO_REAL, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemRealify(pIn1);
  }
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_CAST */

................................................................................
case OP_Lt:               /* same as TK_LT, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Le:               /* same as TK_LE, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Gt:               /* same as TK_GT, jump, in1, in3 */
case OP_Ge: {             /* same as TK_GE, jump, in1, in3 */
  int res;            /* Result of the comparison of pIn1 against pIn3 */
  char affinity;      /* Affinity to use for comparison */

  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  if( (pIn1->flags | pIn3->flags)&MEM_Null ){
    /* One or both operands are NULL */
    if( pOp->p5 & SQLITE_NULLEQ ){
      /* If SQLITE_NULLEQ is set (which will only happen if the operator is
      ** OP_Eq or OP_Ne) then take the jump or not depending on whether
      ** or not both operands are null.
      */
................................................................................
** give a NULL output.
*/
case OP_And:              /* same as TK_AND, in1, in2, out3 */
case OP_Or: {             /* same as TK_OR, in1, in2, out3 */
  int v1;    /* Left operand:  0==FALSE, 1==TRUE, 2==UNKNOWN or NULL */
  int v2;    /* Right operand: 0==FALSE, 1==TRUE, 2==UNKNOWN or NULL */

  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ){
    v1 = 2;
  }else{
    v1 = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn1)!=0;
  }
  pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  if( pIn2->flags & MEM_Null ){
    v2 = 2;
  }else{
    v2 = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn2)!=0;
  }
  if( pOp->opcode==OP_And ){
    static const unsigned char and_logic[] = { 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 2, 2 };
    v1 = and_logic[v1*3+v2];
  }else{
    static const unsigned char or_logic[] = { 0, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2 };
    v1 = or_logic[v1*3+v2];
  }
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  if( v1==2 ){
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Null);
  }else{
    pOut->u.i = v1;
    MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Int);
  }
  break;
................................................................................
/* Opcode: Not P1 P2 * * *
**
** Interpret the value in register P1 as a boolean value.  Store the
** boolean complement in register P2.  If the value in register P1 is 
** NULL, then a NULL is stored in P2.
*/
case OP_Not: {                /* same as TK_NOT, in1, out2 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pOut);
  }else{
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(pOut, !sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn1));
  }
  break;
}
................................................................................
/* Opcode: BitNot P1 P2 * * *
**
** Interpret the content of register P1 as an integer.  Store the
** ones-complement of the P1 value into register P2.  If P1 holds
** a NULL then store a NULL in P2.
*/
case OP_BitNot: {             /* same as TK_BITNOT, in1, out2 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pOut);
  }else{
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(pOut, ~sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn1));
  }
  break;
}
................................................................................
** Jump to P2 if the value in register P1 is False.  The value is
** is considered true if it has a numeric value of zero.  If the value
** in P1 is NULL then take the jump if P3 is true.
*/
case OP_If:                 /* jump, in1 */
case OP_IfNot: {            /* jump, in1 */
  int c;
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( pIn1->flags & MEM_Null ){
    c = pOp->p3;
  }else{
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_FLOATING_POINT
    c = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn1)!=0;
#else
    c = sqlite3VdbeRealValue(pIn1)!=0.0;
................................................................................
}

/* Opcode: IsNull P1 P2 * * *
**
** Jump to P2 if the value in register P1 is NULL.
*/
case OP_IsNull: {            /* same as TK_ISNULL, jump, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)!=0 ){
    pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: NotNull P1 P2 * * *
**
** Jump to P2 if the value in register P1 is not NULL.  
*/
case OP_NotNull: {            /* same as TK_NOTNULL, jump, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_Null)==0 ){
    pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Column P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
................................................................................

  pCrsr = p->apCsr[pOp->p1]->pCursor;
  if( pCrsr ){
    rc = sqlite3BtreeCount(pCrsr, &nEntry);
  }else{
    nEntry = 0;
  }

  pOut->u.i = nEntry;
  break;
}
#endif

/* Opcode: Savepoint P1 * * P4 *
**
................................................................................
  assert( pOp->p3<SQLITE_N_BTREE_META );
  assert( iDb>=0 && iDb<db->nDb );
  assert( db->aDb[iDb].pBt!=0 );
  assert( (p->btreeMask & (1<<iDb))!=0 );

  sqlite3BtreeGetMeta(db->aDb[iDb].pBt, iCookie, (u32 *)&iMeta);
  pOut->u.i = iMeta;

  break;
}

/* Opcode: SetCookie P1 P2 P3 * *
**
** Write the content of register P3 (interpreted as an integer)
** into cookie number P2 of database P1.  P2==1 is the schema version.  
................................................................................
case OP_SetCookie: {       /* in3 */
  Db *pDb;
  assert( pOp->p2<SQLITE_N_BTREE_META );
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<db->nDb );
  assert( (p->btreeMask & (1<<pOp->p1))!=0 );
  pDb = &db->aDb[pOp->p1];
  assert( pDb->pBt!=0 );
  pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn3);
  /* See note about index shifting on OP_ReadCookie */
  rc = sqlite3BtreeUpdateMeta(pDb->pBt, pOp->p2, (int)pIn3->u.i);
  if( pOp->p2==BTREE_SCHEMA_VERSION ){
    /* When the schema cookie changes, record the new cookie internally */
    pDb->pSchema->schema_cookie = (int)pIn3->u.i;
    db->flags |= SQLITE_InternChanges;
................................................................................
  if( pC->pCursor!=0 ){
    oc = pOp->opcode;
    pC->nullRow = 0;
    if( pC->isTable ){
      /* The input value in P3 might be of any type: integer, real, string,
      ** blob, or NULL.  But it needs to be an integer before we can do
      ** the seek, so covert it. */
      pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
      applyNumericAffinity(pIn3);
      iKey = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn3);
      pC->rowidIsValid = 0;

      /* If the P3 value could not be converted into an integer without
      ** loss of information, then special processing is required... */
      if( (pIn3->flags & MEM_Int)==0 ){
................................................................................

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  if( ALWAYS(pC->pCursor!=0) ){
    assert( pC->isTable );
    pC->nullRow = 0;
    pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
    pC->movetoTarget = sqlite3VdbeIntValue(pIn2);
    pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
    pC->deferredMoveto = 1;
  }
  break;
}
  
................................................................................
#endif

  alreadyExists = 0;
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  assert( pOp->p4type==P4_INT32 );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  if( ALWAYS(pC->pCursor!=0) ){

    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    if( pOp->p4.i>0 ){
      r.pKeyInfo = pC->pKeyInfo;
      r.nField = pOp->p4.i;
      r.aMem = pIn3;
................................................................................
  VdbeCursor *pCx;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  u16 nField;
  Mem *aMx;
  UnpackedRecord r;                  /* B-Tree index search key */
  i64 R;                             /* Rowid stored in register P3 */

  pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  aMx = &aMem[pOp->p4.i];
  /* Assert that the values of parameters P1 and P4 are in range. */
  assert( pOp->p4type==P4_INT32 );
  assert( pOp->p4.i>0 && pOp->p4.i<=p->nMem );
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );

  /* Find the index cursor. */
................................................................................
*/
case OP_NotExists: {        /* jump, in3 */
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  int res;
  u64 iKey;

  pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  assert( pIn3->flags & MEM_Int );
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  assert( pC->isTable );
  assert( pC->pseudoTableReg==0 );
  pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
................................................................................
** The sequence number on the cursor is incremented after this
** instruction.  
*/
case OP_Sequence: {           /* out2-prerelease */
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  assert( p->apCsr[pOp->p1]!=0 );
  pOut->u.i = p->apCsr[pOp->p1]->seqCount++;

  break;
}


/* Opcode: NewRowid P1 P2 P3 * *
**
** Get a new integer record number (a.k.a "rowid") used as the key to a table.
................................................................................
        goto abort_due_to_error;
      }
    }
    pC->rowidIsValid = 0;
    pC->deferredMoveto = 0;
    pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
  }

  pOut->u.i = v;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: Insert P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
**
** Write an entry into the table of cursor P1.  A new entry is
................................................................................
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  assert( pC->pseudoTableReg==0 );
  if( pC->nullRow ){
    pOut->flags = MEM_Null;
    break;
  }else if( pC->deferredMoveto ){
    v = pC->movetoTarget;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE
  }else if( pC->pVtabCursor ){
    pVtab = pC->pVtabCursor->pVtab;
    pModule = pVtab->pModule;
................................................................................
      v = pC->lastRowid;
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3BtreeKeySize(pC->pCursor, &v);
      assert( rc==SQLITE_OK );  /* Always so because of CursorMoveto() above */
    }
  }
  pOut->u.i = v;

  break;
}

/* Opcode: NullRow P1 * * * *
**
** Move the cursor P1 to a null row.  Any OP_Column operations
** that occur while the cursor is on the null row will always
................................................................................
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  int nKey;
  const char *zKey;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  assert( pIn2->flags & MEM_Blob );
  pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
  if( ALWAYS(pCrsr!=0) ){
    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    rc = ExpandBlob(pIn2);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      nKey = pIn2->n;
................................................................................
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  i64 rowid;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
  pOut->flags = MEM_Null;
  if( ALWAYS(pCrsr!=0) ){
    rc = sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto(pC);
    if( NEVER(rc) ) goto abort_due_to_error;
    assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    if( !pC->nullRow ){
      rc = sqlite3VdbeIdxRowid(db, pCrsr, &rowid);
      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
        goto abort_due_to_error;
      }

      pOut->u.i = rowid;
      pOut->flags = MEM_Int;
    }
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IdxGE P1 P2 P3 P4 P5
**
................................................................................
    if( pVdbe->magic==VDBE_MAGIC_RUN && pVdbe->inVtabMethod<2 && pVdbe->pc>=0 ){
      iCnt++;
    }
  }
#else
  iCnt = db->activeVdbeCnt;
#endif
  pOut->flags = MEM_Null;
  if( iCnt>1 ){
    rc = SQLITE_LOCKED;
    p->errorAction = OE_Abort;
  }else{
    iDb = pOp->p3;
    assert( iCnt==1 );
    assert( (p->btreeMask & (1<<iDb))!=0 );
    rc = sqlite3BtreeDropTable(db->aDb[iDb].pBt, pOp->p1, &iMoved);
    pOut->flags = MEM_Int;
    pOut->u.i = iMoved;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOVACUUM
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK && iMoved!=0 ){
      sqlite3RootPageMoved(&db->aDb[iDb], iMoved, pOp->p1);
    }
#endif
  }
................................................................................
    /* flags = BTREE_INTKEY; */
    flags = BTREE_LEAFDATA|BTREE_INTKEY;
  }else{
    flags = BTREE_ZERODATA;
  }
  rc = sqlite3BtreeCreateTable(pDb->pBt, &pgno, flags);
  pOut->u.i = pgno;

  break;
}

/* Opcode: ParseSchema P1 P2 * P4 *
**
** Read and parse all entries from the SQLITE_MASTER table of database P1
** that match the WHERE clause P4.  P2 is the "force" flag.   Always do
................................................................................
**
** Insert the integer value held by register P2 into a boolean index
** held in register P1.
**
** An assertion fails if P2 is not an integer.
*/
case OP_RowSetAdd: {       /* in1, in2 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  assert( (pIn2->flags & MEM_Int)!=0 );
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_RowSet)==0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetRowSet(pIn1);
    if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_RowSet)==0 ) goto no_mem;
  }
  sqlite3RowSetInsert(pIn1->u.pRowSet, pIn2->u.i);
  break;
................................................................................
** Extract the smallest value from boolean index P1 and put that value into
** register P3.  Or, if boolean index P1 is initially empty, leave P3
** unchanged and jump to instruction P2.
*/
case OP_RowSetRead: {       /* jump, in1, out3 */
  i64 val;
  CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPT;
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_RowSet)==0 
   || sqlite3RowSetNext(pIn1->u.pRowSet, &val)==0
  ){
    /* The boolean index is empty */
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetNull(pIn1);
    pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }else{
    /* A value was pulled from the index */
    sqlite3VdbeMemSetInt64(&aMem[pOp->p3], val);
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: RowSetTest P1 P2 P3 P4
**
** Register P3 is assumed to hold a 64-bit integer value. If register P1
................................................................................
** previously inserted as part of set X (only if it was previously
** inserted as part of some other set).
*/
case OP_RowSetTest: {                     /* jump, in1, in3 */
  int iSet;
  int exists;

  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  iSet = pOp->p4.i;
  assert( pIn3->flags&MEM_Int );

  /* If there is anything other than a rowset object in memory cell P1,
  ** delete it now and initialize P1 with an empty rowset
  */
  if( (pIn1->flags & MEM_RowSet)==0 ){
................................................................................
  if( p->pFrame ){
    for(pFrame=p->pFrame; pFrame->pParent; pFrame=pFrame->pParent);
    pIn1 = &pFrame->aMem[pOp->p1];
  }else{
    pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  }
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn1);
  pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  sqlite3VdbeMemIntegerify(pIn2);
  if( pIn1->u.i<pIn2->u.i){
    pIn1->u.i = pIn2->u.i;
  }
  break;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINCREMENT */
................................................................................
**
** If the value of register P1 is 1 or greater, jump to P2.
**
** It is illegal to use this instruction on a register that does
** not contain an integer.  An assertion fault will result if you try.
*/
case OP_IfPos: {        /* jump, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  assert( pIn1->flags&MEM_Int );
  if( pIn1->u.i>0 ){
     pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

................................................................................
**
** If the value of register P1 is less than zero, jump to P2. 
**
** It is illegal to use this instruction on a register that does
** not contain an integer.  An assertion fault will result if you try.
*/
case OP_IfNeg: {        /* jump, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  assert( pIn1->flags&MEM_Int );
  if( pIn1->u.i<0 ){
     pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}

................................................................................
** The register P1 must contain an integer.  Add literal P3 to the
** value in register P1.  If the result is exactly 0, jump to P2. 
**
** It is illegal to use this instruction on a register that does
** not contain an integer.  An assertion fault will result if you try.
*/
case OP_IfZero: {        /* jump, in1 */
  pIn1 = &aMem[pOp->p1];
  assert( pIn1->flags&MEM_Int );
  pIn1->u.i += pOp->p3;
  if( pIn1->u.i==0 ){
     pc = pOp->p2 - 1;
  }
  break;
}
................................................................................
  p1 = pOp->p1; 
  pPager = sqlite3BtreePager(db->aDb[p1].pBt);
  rc = sqlite3PagerPagecount(pPager, &nPage);
  /* OP_Pagecount is always called from within a read transaction.  The
  ** page count has already been successfully read and cached.  So the
  ** sqlite3PagerPagecount() call above cannot fail. */
  if( ALWAYS(rc==SQLITE_OK) ){

    pOut->u.i = nPage;
  }
  break;
}
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TRACE
................................................................................
    */
#ifndef NDEBUG
    assert( pc>=-1 && pc<p->nOp );

#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
    if( p->trace ){
      if( rc!=0 ) fprintf(p->trace,"rc=%d\n",rc);
      if( pOp->opflags & (OPFLG_OUT2_PRERELEASE|OPFLG_OUT2) ){
        registerTrace(p->trace, pOp->p2, &aMem[pOp->p2]);
      }
      if( pOp->opflags & OPFLG_OUT3 ){
        registerTrace(p->trace, pOp->p3, &aMem[pOp->p3]);
      }
    }
#endif  /* SQLITE_DEBUG */
#endif  /* NDEBUG */
  }  /* The end of the for(;;) loop the loops through opcodes */

  /* If we reach this point, it means that execution is finished with