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SQLite training in Houston TX on 2019-11-05 (details)
Part of the 2019 Tcl Conference

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Overview
Comment:Moving UPDATE towards the iDataCur/iIdxCur representation. Still not working for WITHOUT ROWID, though.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | omit-rowid
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: deacbd21b50cc8c63a1572d14a4bbc7af4052d37
User & Date: drh 2013-10-31 12:13:37
Context
2013-10-31
15:37
Improved comments and variable names in infrastructure routines of UPDATE, DELETE, and INSERT. check-in: ad90e762 user: drh tags: omit-rowid
12:13
Moving UPDATE towards the iDataCur/iIdxCur representation. Still not working for WITHOUT ROWID, though. check-in: deacbd21 user: drh tags: omit-rowid
11:15
Refactor the INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE code generators to distinguish between the "data cursor" and the "first index cursor", which are no longer consecutive in the case of a WITHOUT ROWID table. check-in: 1adfca60 user: drh tags: omit-rowid
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/insert.c.

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#endif
#ifdef pTrigger
 #undef pTrigger
#endif
#ifdef tmask
 #undef tmask
#endif

/*
** Locate the "principle btree" for a table.  This is the table itself for
** ordinary tables, but for WITHOUT ROWID tables, the principle btree is the
** PRIMARY KEY index.
**
** Inputs are pTab and baseCur.  The *ppPk is written with a pointer to the
** PRIMARY KEY index for WITHOUT ROWID tables or with NULL for ordinary
** tables.  The *piPkCur is written with the cursor to use, assuming that the
** table cursor is baseCur and that index cursors are consecutively numbered
** thereafter.
*/
void sqlite3PrincipleBtree(
  Table *pTab,        /* The main Table object */
  int baseCur,        /* VDBE cursor for main table. */
  Index **ppPk,       /* Write PRIMARY KEY index of WITHOUT ROWID tables here */
  int *piPkCur        /* Either baseCur or the cursor for *ppPk */
){
  int pkCur;
  Index *pPk;
  if( !HasRowid(pTab) ){
    pkCur = baseCur+1;
    pPk = pTab->pIndex;
    while( ALWAYS(pPk) && pPk->autoIndex!=2 ){
      pPk=pPk->pNext;
      pkCur++;
    }
  }else{
    pkCur = baseCur;
    pPk = 0;
  }
  *ppPk = pPk;
  *piPkCur = pkCur;
}


/*
** Generate code to do constraint checks prior to an INSERT or an UPDATE.
**
** The input is a range of consecutive registers as follows:
**
**    1.  The rowid of the row after the update, or NULL







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#endif
#ifdef pTrigger
 #undef pTrigger
#endif
#ifdef tmask
 #undef tmask
#endif




































/*
** Generate code to do constraint checks prior to an INSERT or an UPDATE.
**
** The input is a range of consecutive registers as follows:
**
**    1.  The rowid of the row after the update, or NULL

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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int sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(const Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprCodeIsNullJump(Vdbe*, const Expr*, int, int);
int sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(const Expr*, char);
int sqlite3IsRowid(const char*);
void sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(Parse*,Table*,Trigger*,int,int,int,i16,u8,u8);
void sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*);
int sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(Parse*, Index*, int, int, int, int*);
void sqlite3PrincipleBtree(Table*,int,Index**,int*);
void sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(Parse*,Table*,int,int,int,
                                     int*,int,int,int,int,int*);
void sqlite3CompleteInsertion(Parse*,Table*,int,int,int,int*,int,int,int);
int sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*, int*);
void sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(Parse*, int, int);
void sqlite3MultiWrite(Parse*);
void sqlite3MayAbort(Parse*);







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int sqlite3ExprCanBeNull(const Expr*);
void sqlite3ExprCodeIsNullJump(Vdbe*, const Expr*, int, int);
int sqlite3ExprNeedsNoAffinityChange(const Expr*, char);
int sqlite3IsRowid(const char*);
void sqlite3GenerateRowDelete(Parse*,Table*,Trigger*,int,int,int,i16,u8,u8);
void sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*);
int sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(Parse*, Index*, int, int, int, int*);

void sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(Parse*,Table*,int,int,int,
                                     int*,int,int,int,int,int*);
void sqlite3CompleteInsertion(Parse*,Table*,int,int,int,int*,int,int,int);
int sqlite3OpenTableAndIndices(Parse*, Table*, int, int, int*, int*);
void sqlite3BeginWriteOperation(Parse*, int, int);
void sqlite3MultiWrite(Parse*);
void sqlite3MayAbort(Parse*);

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  Table *pTab;           /* The table to be updated */
  int addr = 0;          /* VDBE instruction address of the start of the loop */
  WhereInfo *pWInfo;     /* Information about the WHERE clause */
  Vdbe *v;               /* The virtual database engine */
  Index *pIdx;           /* For looping over indices */
  Index *pPk;            /* The PRIMARY KEY index for WITHOUT ROWID tables */
  int nIdx;              /* Number of indices that need updating */
  int iCur;              /* VDBE Cursor number of pTab */
  int pkCur;             /* VDBE Cursor for the pPk index */

  sqlite3 *db;           /* The database structure */
  int *aRegIdx = 0;      /* One register assigned to each index to be updated */
  int *aXRef = 0;        /* aXRef[i] is the index in pChanges->a[] of the
                         ** an expression for the i-th column of the table.
                         ** aXRef[i]==-1 if the i-th column is not changed. */
  int chngRowid;         /* True if the record number is being changed */
  Expr *pRowidExpr = 0;  /* Expression defining the new record number */
  int openAll = 0;       /* True if all indices need to be opened */
  AuthContext sContext;  /* The authorization context */
  NameContext sNC;       /* The name-context to resolve expressions in */
  int iDb;               /* Database containing the table being updated */
  int okOnePass;         /* True for one-pass algorithm without the FIFO */
  int hasFK;             /* True if foreign key processing is required */
................................................................................
  for(i=0; i<pTab->nCol; i++) aXRef[i] = -1;

  /* Allocate a cursors for the main database table and for all indices.
  ** The index cursors might not be used, but if they are used they
  ** need to occur right after the database cursor.  So go ahead and
  ** allocate enough space, just in case.
  */
  pTabList->a[0].iCursor = iCur = pParse->nTab++;


  for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){

    pParse->nTab++;
  }

  /* For WITHOUT ROWID tables, we'll need to know the Index and the cursor
  ** number for the PRIMARY KEY index */
  sqlite3PrincipleBtree(pTab, iCur, &pPk, &pkCur);

  /* Initialize the name-context */
  memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
  sNC.pParse = pParse;
  sNC.pSrcList = pTabList;

  /* Resolve the column names in all the expressions of the
  ** of the UPDATE statement.  Also find the column index
  ** for each column to be updated in the pChanges array.  For each
  ** column to be updated, make sure we have authorization to change
  ** that column.
  */
  chngRowid = 0;
  for(i=0; i<pChanges->nExpr; i++){
    if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, pChanges->a[i].pExpr) ){
      goto update_cleanup;
    }
    for(j=0; j<pTab->nCol; j++){
      if( sqlite3StrICmp(pTab->aCol[j].zName, pChanges->a[i].zName)==0 ){
        if( j==pTab->iPKey ){
          chngRowid = 1;
          pRowidExpr = pChanges->a[i].pExpr;


        }
        aXRef[j] = i;
        break;
      }
    }
    if( j>=pTab->nCol ){
      if( pPk==0 && sqlite3IsRowid(pChanges->a[i].zName) ){
        j = -1;
        chngRowid = 1;
        pRowidExpr = pChanges->a[i].pExpr;
      }else{
        sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "no such column: %s", pChanges->a[i].zName);
        pParse->checkSchema = 1;
        goto update_cleanup;
      }
    }
................................................................................
      }else if( rc==SQLITE_IGNORE ){
        aXRef[j] = -1;
      }
    }
#endif
  }

  hasFK = sqlite3FkRequired(pParse, pTab, aXRef, chngRowid);

  /* Allocate memory for the array aRegIdx[].  There is one entry in the
  ** array for each index associated with table being updated.  Fill in
  ** the value with a register number for indices that are to be used
  ** and with zero for unused indices.
  */
  for(nIdx=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, nIdx++){}
  if( nIdx>0 ){
    aRegIdx = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(db, sizeof(Index*) * nIdx );
    if( aRegIdx==0 ) goto update_cleanup;
  }
  for(j=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, j++){
    int reg;
    if( hasFK || chngRowid || pIdx->pPartIdxWhere ){
      reg = ++pParse->nMem;
    }else{
      reg = 0;
      for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn; i++){
        if( aXRef[pIdx->aiColumn[i]]>=0 ){
          reg = ++pParse->nMem;
          break;
................................................................................
  /* Allocate required registers. */
  regRowSet = ++pParse->nMem;
  regOldRowid = regNewRowid = ++pParse->nMem;
  if( pTrigger || hasFK ){
    regOld = pParse->nMem + 1;
    pParse->nMem += pTab->nCol;
  }
  if( chngRowid || pTrigger || hasFK ){
    regNewRowid = ++pParse->nMem;
  }
  regNew = pParse->nMem + 1;
  pParse->nMem += pTab->nCol;

  /* Start the view context. */
  if( isView ){
................................................................................
  }

  /* If we are trying to update a view, realize that view into
  ** a ephemeral table.
  */
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
  if( isView ){
    sqlite3MaterializeView(pParse, pTab, pWhere, iCur);
  }
#endif

  /* Resolve the column names in all the expressions in the
  ** WHERE clause.
  */
  if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, pWhere) ){
................................................................................
        pParse, pTabList, pWhere, 0, 0, WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED, 0
    );
    if( pWInfo==0 ) goto update_cleanup;
    okOnePass = sqlite3WhereOkOnePass(pWInfo);
  
    /* Remember the rowid of every item to be updated.
    */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iCur, regOldRowid);
    if( !okOnePass ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_RowSetAdd, regRowSet, regOldRowid);
    }
  
    /* End the database scan loop.
    */
    sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
................................................................................
    iEph = pParse->nTab++;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, iEph, nPk, 0, 
                      (char*)sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pPk),
                      P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
    pWInfo = sqlite3WhereBegin(pParse, pTabList, pWhere, 0, 0, 0, 0);
    if( pWInfo==0 ) goto update_cleanup;
    for(i=0; i<nPk; i++){
      sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iCur, pPk->aiColumn[i], iPk+i);

    }
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, iPk, nPk, regKey,
                      sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(v, pPk), P4_TRANSIENT);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, iEph, regKey);
    sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
    okOnePass = 0;
  }
................................................................................
    /* 
    ** Open every index that needs updating.  Note that if any
    ** index could potentially invoke a REPLACE conflict resolution 
    ** action, then we need to open all indices because we might need
    ** to be deleting some records.
    */
    if( !okOnePass && HasRowid(pTab) ){
      sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, iCur, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenWrite); 
    }
    if( onError==OE_Replace ){
      openAll = 1;
    }else{
      openAll = 0;
      for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
        if( pIdx->onError==OE_Replace ){
................................................................................
        }
      }
    }
    for(i=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, i++){
      assert( aRegIdx );
      if( openAll || aRegIdx[i]>0 ){
        KeyInfo *pKey = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIdx);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenWrite, iCur+i+1, pIdx->tnum, iDb,
                       (char*)pKey, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
        assert( pParse->nTab>iCur+i+1 );
      }
    }
  }

  /* Top of the update loop */
  labelBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
  labelContinue = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
................................................................................
  }else if( okOnePass ){
    int a1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_NotNull, regOldRowid);
    addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Goto, 0, labelBreak);
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, a1);
  }else{
    addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_RowSetRead, regRowSet, labelBreak,
                             regOldRowid);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iCur, addr, regOldRowid);
  }

  /* If the record number will change, set register regNewRowid to
  ** contain the new value. If the record number is not being modified,
  ** then regNewRowid is the same register as regOldRowid, which is
  ** already populated.  */
  assert( chngRowid || pTrigger || hasFK || regOldRowid==regNewRowid );
  if( chngRowid ){
    sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pRowidExpr, regNewRowid);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, regNewRowid);
  }

  /* If there are triggers on this table, populate an array of registers 
  ** with the required old.* column data.  */
  if( hasFK || pTrigger ){
    u32 oldmask = (hasFK ? sqlite3FkOldmask(pParse, pTab) : 0);
    oldmask |= sqlite3TriggerColmask(pParse, 
        pTrigger, pChanges, 0, TRIGGER_BEFORE|TRIGGER_AFTER, pTab, onError
    );
    for(i=0; i<pTab->nCol; i++){
      if( aXRef[i]<0 || oldmask==0xffffffff || (i<32 && (oldmask & (1<<i))) ){
        sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iCur, i, regOld+i);
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, regOld+i);
      }
    }
    if( chngRowid==0 ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Copy, regOldRowid, regNewRowid);
    }
  }

  /* Populate the array of registers beginning at regNew with the new
  ** row data. This array is used to check constaints, create the new
  ** table and index records, and as the values for any new.* references
................................................................................
        /* This branch loads the value of a column that will not be changed 
        ** into a register. This is done if there are no BEFORE triggers, or
        ** if there are one or more BEFORE triggers that use this value via
        ** a new.* reference in a trigger program.
        */
        testcase( i==31 );
        testcase( i==32 );
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iCur, i, regNew+i);
        sqlite3ColumnDefault(v, pTab, i, regNew+i);
      }
    }
  }

  /* Fire any BEFORE UPDATE triggers. This happens before constraints are
  ** verified. One could argue that this is wrong.
................................................................................

    /* The row-trigger may have deleted the row being updated. In this
    ** case, jump to the next row. No updates or AFTER triggers are 
    ** required. This behavior - what happens when the row being updated
    ** is deleted or renamed by a BEFORE trigger - is left undefined in the
    ** documentation.
    */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iCur, addr, regOldRowid);

    /* If it did not delete it, the row-trigger may still have modified 
    ** some of the columns of the row being updated. Load the values for 
    ** all columns not modified by the update statement into their 
    ** registers in case this has happened.
    */
    for(i=0; i<pTab->nCol; i++){
      if( aXRef[i]<0 && i!=pTab->iPKey ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iCur, i, regNew+i);
        sqlite3ColumnDefault(v, pTab, i, regNew+i);
      }
    }
  }

  if( !isView ){
    int j1;                       /* Address of jump instruction */

    /* Do constraint checks. */
    sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(pParse, pTab, iCur, iCur+1, regNewRowid,
        aRegIdx, (chngRowid?regOldRowid:0), 1, onError, addr, 0);

    /* Do FK constraint checks. */
    if( hasFK ){
      sqlite3FkCheck(pParse, pTab, regOldRowid, 0, aXRef, chngRowid);
    }

    /* Delete the index entries associated with the current record.  */
    if( pPk ){
      j1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, pkCur, 0, regOldRowid, 1);
    }else{
      j1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iCur, 0, regOldRowid);
      sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(pParse, pTab, pkCur, iCur+1, aRegIdx);
    }
  
    /* If changing the record number, delete the old record.  */
    if( hasFK || chngRowid ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Delete, iCur, 0);
    }
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, j1);

    if( hasFK ){
      sqlite3FkCheck(pParse, pTab, 0, regNewRowid, aXRef, chngRowid);
    }
  
    /* Insert the new index entries and the new record. */
    sqlite3CompleteInsertion(pParse, pTab, iCur, iCur+1,
                             regNewRowid, aRegIdx, 1, 0, 0);

    /* Do any ON CASCADE, SET NULL or SET DEFAULT operations required to
    ** handle rows (possibly in other tables) that refer via a foreign key
    ** to the row just updated. */ 
    if( hasFK ){
      sqlite3FkActions(pParse, pTab, pChanges, regOldRowid, aXRef, chngRowid);
    }
  }

  /* Increment the row counter 
  */
  if( (db->flags & SQLITE_CountRows) && !pParse->pTriggerTab){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_AddImm, regRowCount, 1);
................................................................................
  }
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, labelBreak);

  /* Close all tables */
  for(i=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, i++){
    assert( aRegIdx );
    if( openAll || aRegIdx[i]>0 ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, iCur+i+1, 0);
    }
  }
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, iCur, 0);

  /* Update the sqlite_sequence table by storing the content of the
  ** maximum rowid counter values recorded while inserting into
  ** autoincrement tables.
  */
  if( pParse->nested==0 && pParse->pTriggerTab==0 ){
    sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(pParse);







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  Table *pTab;           /* The table to be updated */
  int addr = 0;          /* VDBE instruction address of the start of the loop */
  WhereInfo *pWInfo;     /* Information about the WHERE clause */
  Vdbe *v;               /* The virtual database engine */
  Index *pIdx;           /* For looping over indices */
  Index *pPk;            /* The PRIMARY KEY index for WITHOUT ROWID tables */
  int nIdx;              /* Number of indices that need updating */
  int iTabCur;           /* VDBE Cursor number of pTab */
  int iDataCur;          /* Cursor for the canonical data btree */
  int iIdxCur;           /* Cursor for the first index */
  sqlite3 *db;           /* The database structure */
  int *aRegIdx = 0;      /* One register assigned to each index to be updated */
  int *aXRef = 0;        /* aXRef[i] is the index in pChanges->a[] of the
                         ** an expression for the i-th column of the table.
                         ** aXRef[i]==-1 if the i-th column is not changed. */
  int chngPk;            /* True if the rowid or PRIMARY KEY is changed */
  Expr *pRowidExpr = 0;  /* Expression defining the new record number */
  int openAll = 0;       /* True if all indices need to be opened */
  AuthContext sContext;  /* The authorization context */
  NameContext sNC;       /* The name-context to resolve expressions in */
  int iDb;               /* Database containing the table being updated */
  int okOnePass;         /* True for one-pass algorithm without the FIFO */
  int hasFK;             /* True if foreign key processing is required */
................................................................................
  for(i=0; i<pTab->nCol; i++) aXRef[i] = -1;

  /* Allocate a cursors for the main database table and for all indices.
  ** The index cursors might not be used, but if they are used they
  ** need to occur right after the database cursor.  So go ahead and
  ** allocate enough space, just in case.
  */
  pTabList->a[0].iCursor = iTabCur = iDataCur = pParse->nTab++;
  iIdxCur = iTabCur+1;
  pPk = HasRowid(pTab) ? 0 : sqlite3PrimaryKeyIndex(pTab);
  for(nIdx=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, nIdx++){
    if( pIdx->autoIndex==2 && pPk!=0 ) iDataCur = pParse->nTab;
    pParse->nTab++;
  }





  /* Initialize the name-context */
  memset(&sNC, 0, sizeof(sNC));
  sNC.pParse = pParse;
  sNC.pSrcList = pTabList;

  /* Resolve the column names in all the expressions of the
  ** of the UPDATE statement.  Also find the column index
  ** for each column to be updated in the pChanges array.  For each
  ** column to be updated, make sure we have authorization to change
  ** that column.
  */
  chngPk = 0;
  for(i=0; i<pChanges->nExpr; i++){
    if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, pChanges->a[i].pExpr) ){
      goto update_cleanup;
    }
    for(j=0; j<pTab->nCol; j++){
      if( sqlite3StrICmp(pTab->aCol[j].zName, pChanges->a[i].zName)==0 ){
        if( j==pTab->iPKey ){
          chngPk = 1;
          pRowidExpr = pChanges->a[i].pExpr;
        }else if( pPk && (pTab->aCol[j].colFlags & COLFLAG_PRIMKEY)!=0 ){
          chngPk = 1;
        }
        aXRef[j] = i;
        break;
      }
    }
    if( j>=pTab->nCol ){
      if( pPk==0 && sqlite3IsRowid(pChanges->a[i].zName) ){
        j = -1;
        chngPk = 1;
        pRowidExpr = pChanges->a[i].pExpr;
      }else{
        sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "no such column: %s", pChanges->a[i].zName);
        pParse->checkSchema = 1;
        goto update_cleanup;
      }
    }
................................................................................
      }else if( rc==SQLITE_IGNORE ){
        aXRef[j] = -1;
      }
    }
#endif
  }

  hasFK = sqlite3FkRequired(pParse, pTab, aXRef, chngPk);

  /* Allocate memory for the array aRegIdx[].  There is one entry in the
  ** array for each index associated with table being updated.  Fill in
  ** the value with a register number for indices that are to be used
  ** and with zero for unused indices.
  */

  if( nIdx>0 ){
    aRegIdx = sqlite3DbMallocRaw(db, sizeof(Index*) * nIdx );
    if( aRegIdx==0 ) goto update_cleanup;
  }
  for(j=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, j++){
    int reg;
    if( hasFK || chngPk || pIdx->pPartIdxWhere ){
      reg = ++pParse->nMem;
    }else{
      reg = 0;
      for(i=0; i<pIdx->nColumn; i++){
        if( aXRef[pIdx->aiColumn[i]]>=0 ){
          reg = ++pParse->nMem;
          break;
................................................................................
  /* Allocate required registers. */
  regRowSet = ++pParse->nMem;
  regOldRowid = regNewRowid = ++pParse->nMem;
  if( pTrigger || hasFK ){
    regOld = pParse->nMem + 1;
    pParse->nMem += pTab->nCol;
  }
  if( chngPk || pTrigger || hasFK ){
    regNewRowid = ++pParse->nMem;
  }
  regNew = pParse->nMem + 1;
  pParse->nMem += pTab->nCol;

  /* Start the view context. */
  if( isView ){
................................................................................
  }

  /* If we are trying to update a view, realize that view into
  ** a ephemeral table.
  */
#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_TRIGGER)
  if( isView ){
    sqlite3MaterializeView(pParse, pTab, pWhere, iTabCur);
  }
#endif

  /* Resolve the column names in all the expressions in the
  ** WHERE clause.
  */
  if( sqlite3ResolveExprNames(&sNC, pWhere) ){
................................................................................
        pParse, pTabList, pWhere, 0, 0, WHERE_ONEPASS_DESIRED, 0
    );
    if( pWInfo==0 ) goto update_cleanup;
    okOnePass = sqlite3WhereOkOnePass(pWInfo);
  
    /* Remember the rowid of every item to be updated.
    */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rowid, iTabCur, regOldRowid);
    if( !okOnePass ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_RowSetAdd, regRowSet, regOldRowid);
    }
  
    /* End the database scan loop.
    */
    sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
................................................................................
    iEph = pParse->nTab++;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, iEph, nPk, 0, 
                      (char*)sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pPk),
                      P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
    pWInfo = sqlite3WhereBegin(pParse, pTabList, pWhere, 0, 0, 0, 0);
    if( pWInfo==0 ) goto update_cleanup;
    for(i=0; i<nPk; i++){
      sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iDataCur, pPk->aiColumn[i],
                                      iPk+i);
    }
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_MakeRecord, iPk, nPk, regKey,
                      sqlite3IndexAffinityStr(v, pPk), P4_TRANSIENT);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, iEph, regKey);
    sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
    okOnePass = 0;
  }
................................................................................
    /* 
    ** Open every index that needs updating.  Note that if any
    ** index could potentially invoke a REPLACE conflict resolution 
    ** action, then we need to open all indices because we might need
    ** to be deleting some records.
    */
    if( !okOnePass && HasRowid(pTab) ){
      sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, iTabCur, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenWrite); 
    }
    if( onError==OE_Replace ){
      openAll = 1;
    }else{
      openAll = 0;
      for(pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext){
        if( pIdx->onError==OE_Replace ){
................................................................................
        }
      }
    }
    for(i=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, i++){
      assert( aRegIdx );
      if( openAll || aRegIdx[i]>0 ){
        KeyInfo *pKey = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIdx);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenWrite, iIdxCur+i, pIdx->tnum, iDb,
                       (char*)pKey, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
        assert( pParse->nTab>iIdxCur+i );
      }
    }
  }

  /* Top of the update loop */
  labelBreak = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
  labelContinue = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
................................................................................
  }else if( okOnePass ){
    int a1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_NotNull, regOldRowid);
    addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Goto, 0, labelBreak);
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, a1);
  }else{
    addr = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_RowSetRead, regRowSet, labelBreak,
                             regOldRowid);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iDataCur, addr, regOldRowid);
  }

  /* If the record number will change, set register regNewRowid to
  ** contain the new value. If the record number is not being modified,
  ** then regNewRowid is the same register as regOldRowid, which is
  ** already populated.  */
  assert( chngPk || pTrigger || hasFK || regOldRowid==regNewRowid );
  if( chngPk ){
    sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pRowidExpr, regNewRowid);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_MustBeInt, regNewRowid);
  }

  /* If there are triggers on this table, populate an array of registers 
  ** with the required old.* column data.  */
  if( hasFK || pTrigger ){
    u32 oldmask = (hasFK ? sqlite3FkOldmask(pParse, pTab) : 0);
    oldmask |= sqlite3TriggerColmask(pParse, 
        pTrigger, pChanges, 0, TRIGGER_BEFORE|TRIGGER_AFTER, pTab, onError
    );
    for(i=0; i<pTab->nCol; i++){
      if( aXRef[i]<0 || oldmask==0xffffffff || (i<32 && (oldmask & (1<<i))) ){
        sqlite3ExprCodeGetColumnOfTable(v, pTab, iDataCur, i, regOld+i);
      }else{
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Null, 0, regOld+i);
      }
    }
    if( chngPk==0 ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Copy, regOldRowid, regNewRowid);
    }
  }

  /* Populate the array of registers beginning at regNew with the new
  ** row data. This array is used to check constaints, create the new
  ** table and index records, and as the values for any new.* references
................................................................................
        /* This branch loads the value of a column that will not be changed 
        ** into a register. This is done if there are no BEFORE triggers, or
        ** if there are one or more BEFORE triggers that use this value via
        ** a new.* reference in a trigger program.
        */
        testcase( i==31 );
        testcase( i==32 );
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iDataCur, i, regNew+i);
        sqlite3ColumnDefault(v, pTab, i, regNew+i);
      }
    }
  }

  /* Fire any BEFORE UPDATE triggers. This happens before constraints are
  ** verified. One could argue that this is wrong.
................................................................................

    /* The row-trigger may have deleted the row being updated. In this
    ** case, jump to the next row. No updates or AFTER triggers are 
    ** required. This behavior - what happens when the row being updated
    ** is deleted or renamed by a BEFORE trigger - is left undefined in the
    ** documentation.
    */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iDataCur, addr, regOldRowid);

    /* If it did not delete it, the row-trigger may still have modified 
    ** some of the columns of the row being updated. Load the values for 
    ** all columns not modified by the update statement into their 
    ** registers in case this has happened.
    */
    for(i=0; i<pTab->nCol; i++){
      if( aXRef[i]<0 && i!=pTab->iPKey ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iDataCur, i, regNew+i);
        sqlite3ColumnDefault(v, pTab, i, regNew+i);
      }
    }
  }

  if( !isView ){
    int j1;                       /* Address of jump instruction */

    /* Do constraint checks. */
    sqlite3GenerateConstraintChecks(pParse, pTab, iDataCur, iIdxCur,
        regNewRowid, aRegIdx, (chngPk?regOldRowid:0), 1, onError, addr, 0);

    /* Do FK constraint checks. */
    if( hasFK ){
      sqlite3FkCheck(pParse, pTab, regOldRowid, 0, aXRef, chngPk);
    }

    /* Delete the index entries associated with the current record.  */
    if( pPk ){
      j1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4Int(v, OP_NotFound, iDataCur, 0, regOldRowid, 1);
    }else{
      j1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_NotExists, iDataCur, 0, regOldRowid);
      sqlite3GenerateRowIndexDelete(pParse, pTab, iDataCur, iIdxCur, aRegIdx);
    }
  
    /* If changing the record number, delete the old record.  */
    if( hasFK || chngPk ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Delete, iDataCur, 0);
    }
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, j1);

    if( hasFK ){
      sqlite3FkCheck(pParse, pTab, 0, regNewRowid, aXRef, chngPk);
    }
  
    /* Insert the new index entries and the new record. */
    sqlite3CompleteInsertion(pParse, pTab, iDataCur, iIdxCur,
                             regNewRowid, aRegIdx, 1, 0, 0);

    /* Do any ON CASCADE, SET NULL or SET DEFAULT operations required to
    ** handle rows (possibly in other tables) that refer via a foreign key
    ** to the row just updated. */ 
    if( hasFK ){
      sqlite3FkActions(pParse, pTab, pChanges, regOldRowid, aXRef, chngPk);
    }
  }

  /* Increment the row counter 
  */
  if( (db->flags & SQLITE_CountRows) && !pParse->pTriggerTab){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_AddImm, regRowCount, 1);
................................................................................
  }
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, labelBreak);

  /* Close all tables */
  for(i=0, pIdx=pTab->pIndex; pIdx; pIdx=pIdx->pNext, i++){
    assert( aRegIdx );
    if( openAll || aRegIdx[i]>0 ){
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, iIdxCur, 0);
    }
  }
  if( iDataCur<iIdxCur ) sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, iDataCur, 0);

  /* Update the sqlite_sequence table by storing the content of the
  ** maximum rowid counter values recorded while inserting into
  ** autoincrement tables.
  */
  if( pParse->nested==0 && pParse->pTriggerTab==0 ){
    sqlite3AutoincrementEnd(pParse);