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SQLite training in Houston TX on 2019-11-05 (details)
Part of the 2019 Tcl Conference

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Overview
Comment:Have sqlite3_expert_analyze() populate the sqlite_stat1 table before running queries through the planner for the second time.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | schemalint
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA3-256: a157fcfde5afc27ae38e7cf4669fcc8e60e23d9d301ffe2e541dd69f895b493b
User & Date: dan 2017-04-18 20:10:16
Context
2017-04-20
09:54
Add an option to generate stat1 data based on a subset of the user database table contents to sqlite3_expert. check-in: c69c3e21 user: dan tags: schemalint
2017-04-18
20:10
Have sqlite3_expert_analyze() populate the sqlite_stat1 table before running queries through the planner for the second time. check-in: a157fcfd user: dan tags: schemalint
09:04
Fix sqlite3_expert handling of triggers on views. check-in: ff4976da user: dan tags: schemalint
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to ext/expert/expert1.test.

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} {
  INSERT INTO t9 VALUES(?, ?, ?);
} {
  CREATE INDEX t10_idx_00000062 ON t10(b); 
  0|0|0|SEARCH TABLE t10 USING INDEX t10_idx_00000062 (b=?)
}




}













































































finish_test








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} {
  INSERT INTO t9 VALUES(?, ?, ?);
} {
  CREATE INDEX t10_idx_00000062 ON t10(b); 
  0|0|0|SEARCH TABLE t10 USING INDEX t10_idx_00000062 (b=?)
}

do_setup_rec_test $tn.15 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b);
  CREATE TABLE t2(c, d);

  WITH s(i) AS ( VALUES(1) UNION ALL SELECT i+1 FROM s WHERE i<100)
  INSERT INTO t1 SELECT (i-1)/50, (i-1)/20 FROM s;

  WITH s(i) AS ( VALUES(1) UNION ALL SELECT i+1 FROM s WHERE i<100)
  INSERT INTO t2 SELECT (i-1)/20, (i-1)/5 FROM s;
} {
  SELECT * FROM t2, t1 WHERE b=? AND d=? AND t2.rowid=t1.rowid
} {
  CREATE INDEX t2_idx_00000064 ON t2(d);
  0|0|0|SEARCH TABLE t2 USING INDEX t2_idx_00000064 (d=?) 
  0|1|1|SEARCH TABLE t1 USING INTEGER PRIMARY KEY (rowid=?)
}

}

proc do_candidates_test {tn sql res} {
  set res [squish [string trim $res]]

  set expert [sqlite3_expert_new db]
  $expert sql $sql
  $expert analyze

  set candidates [squish [string trim [$expert report 0 candidates]]]
  $expert destroy

  uplevel [list do_test $tn [list set {} $candidates] $res]
}


reset_db
do_execsql_test 3.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b);
  CREATE TABLE t2(c, d);

  WITH s(i) AS ( VALUES(1) UNION ALL SELECT i+1 FROM s WHERE i<100)
  INSERT INTO t1 SELECT (i-1)/50, (i-1)/20 FROM s;

  WITH s(i) AS ( VALUES(1) UNION ALL SELECT i+1 FROM s WHERE i<100)
  INSERT INTO t2 SELECT (i-1)/20, (i-1)/5 FROM s;
}
do_candidates_test 3.1 {
  SELECT * FROM t1,t2 WHERE (b=? OR a=?) AND (c=? OR d=?)
} {
  CREATE INDEX t1_idx_00000062 ON t1(b); -- stat1: 100 20 
  CREATE INDEX t1_idx_00000061 ON t1(a); -- stat1: 100 50 
  CREATE INDEX t2_idx_00000063 ON t2(c); -- stat1: 100 20 
  CREATE INDEX t2_idx_00000064 ON t2(d); -- stat1: 100 5
}

do_candidates_test 3.2 {
  SELECT * FROM t1,t2 WHERE a=? AND b=? AND c=? AND d=?
} {
  CREATE INDEX t1_idx_000123a7 ON t1(a, b); -- stat1: 100 50 17
  CREATE INDEX t2_idx_0001295b ON t2(c, d); -- stat1: 100 20 5
}

do_execsql_test 3.2 {
  CREATE INDEX t1_idx_00000061 ON t1(a); -- stat1: 100 50 
  CREATE INDEX t1_idx_00000062 ON t1(b); -- stat1: 100 20 
  CREATE INDEX t1_idx_000123a7 ON t1(a, b); -- stat1: 100 50 16

  CREATE INDEX t2_idx_00000063 ON t2(c); -- stat1: 100 20 
  CREATE INDEX t2_idx_00000064 ON t2(d); -- stat1: 100 5
  CREATE INDEX t2_idx_0001295b ON t2(c, d); -- stat1: 100 20 5

  ANALYZE;
  SELECT * FROM sqlite_stat1 ORDER BY 1, 2;
} {
  t1 t1_idx_00000061 {100 50} 
  t1 t1_idx_00000062 {100 20}
  t1 t1_idx_000123a7 {100 50 17}
  t2 t2_idx_00000063 {100 20} 
  t2 t2_idx_00000064 {100 5} 
  t2 t2_idx_0001295b {100 20 5}
}


finish_test

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*/
#define IDX_HASH_SIZE 1023
typedef struct IdxHashEntry IdxHashEntry;
typedef struct IdxHash IdxHash;
struct IdxHashEntry {
  char *zKey;                     /* nul-terminated key */
  char *zVal;                     /* nul-terminated value string */

  IdxHashEntry *pHashNext;        /* Next entry in same hash bucket */
  IdxHashEntry *pNext;            /* Next entry in hash */
};
struct IdxHash {
  IdxHashEntry *pFirst;
  IdxHashEntry *aHash[IDX_HASH_SIZE];
};
................................................................................
static void idxHashClear(IdxHash *pHash){
  int i;
  for(i=0; i<IDX_HASH_SIZE; i++){
    IdxHashEntry *pEntry;
    IdxHashEntry *pNext;
    for(pEntry=pHash->aHash[i]; pEntry; pEntry=pNext){
      pNext = pEntry->pHashNext;

      sqlite3_free(pEntry);
    }
  }
  memset(pHash, 0, sizeof(IdxHash));
}

/*
................................................................................

    pEntry->pNext = pHash->pFirst;
    pHash->pFirst = pEntry;
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** If the hash table contains an entry with a key equal to the string
** passed as the final two arguments to this function, return a pointer
** to the payload string. Otherwise, if zKey/nKey is not present in the
** hash table, return NULL.
*/
static const char *idxHashSearch(IdxHash *pHash, const char *zKey, int nKey){
  int iHash;
  IdxHashEntry *pEntry;
  if( nKey<0 ) nKey = strlen(zKey);
  iHash = idxHashString(zKey, nKey);
  assert( iHash>=0 );
  for(pEntry=pHash->aHash[iHash]; pEntry; pEntry=pEntry->pHashNext){
    if( strlen(pEntry->zKey)==nKey && 0==memcmp(pEntry->zKey, zKey, nKey) ){
      return pEntry->zVal;
    }
  }
  return 0;
}













/*
** Allocate and return a new IdxConstraint object. Set the IdxConstraint.zColl
** variable to point to a copy of nul-terminated string zColl.
*/
static IdxConstraint *idxNewConstraint(int *pRc, const char *zColl){
  IdxConstraint *pNew;
................................................................................
        sqlite3_free(zOuter);
      }
    }
  }
  idxFinalize(&rc, pSchema);
  return rc;
}
















































































































































































































































































/*
** Allocate a new sqlite3expert object.
*/
sqlite3expert *sqlite3_expert_new(sqlite3 *db, char **pzErrmsg){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  sqlite3expert *pNew;
................................................................................
  return rc;
}

int sqlite3_expert_analyze(sqlite3expert *p, char **pzErr){
  int rc;
  IdxHashEntry *pEntry;


  rc = idxProcessTriggers(p, pzErr);

  /* Create candidate indexes within the in-memory database file */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = idxCreateCandidates(p, pzErr);
  }






  /* Formulate the EXPERT_REPORT_CANDIDATES text */
  for(pEntry=p->hIdx.pFirst; pEntry; pEntry=pEntry->pNext){
    p->zCandidates = idxAppendText(&rc, p->zCandidates, "%s;\n", pEntry->zVal);



  }

  /* Figure out which of the candidate indexes are preferred by the query
  ** planner and report the results to the user.  */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = idxFindIndexes(p, pzErr);
  }







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*/
#define IDX_HASH_SIZE 1023
typedef struct IdxHashEntry IdxHashEntry;
typedef struct IdxHash IdxHash;
struct IdxHashEntry {
  char *zKey;                     /* nul-terminated key */
  char *zVal;                     /* nul-terminated value string */
  char *zVal2;                    /* nul-terminated value string 2 */
  IdxHashEntry *pHashNext;        /* Next entry in same hash bucket */
  IdxHashEntry *pNext;            /* Next entry in hash */
};
struct IdxHash {
  IdxHashEntry *pFirst;
  IdxHashEntry *aHash[IDX_HASH_SIZE];
};
................................................................................
static void idxHashClear(IdxHash *pHash){
  int i;
  for(i=0; i<IDX_HASH_SIZE; i++){
    IdxHashEntry *pEntry;
    IdxHashEntry *pNext;
    for(pEntry=pHash->aHash[i]; pEntry; pEntry=pNext){
      pNext = pEntry->pHashNext;
      sqlite3_free(pEntry->zVal2);
      sqlite3_free(pEntry);
    }
  }
  memset(pHash, 0, sizeof(IdxHash));
}

/*
................................................................................

    pEntry->pNext = pHash->pFirst;
    pHash->pFirst = pEntry;
  }
  return 0;
}







static IdxHashEntry *idxHashFind(IdxHash *pHash, const char *zKey, int nKey){
  int iHash;
  IdxHashEntry *pEntry;
  if( nKey<0 ) nKey = strlen(zKey);
  iHash = idxHashString(zKey, nKey);
  assert( iHash>=0 );
  for(pEntry=pHash->aHash[iHash]; pEntry; pEntry=pEntry->pHashNext){
    if( strlen(pEntry->zKey)==nKey && 0==memcmp(pEntry->zKey, zKey, nKey) ){
      return pEntry;
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

/*
** If the hash table contains an entry with a key equal to the string
** passed as the final two arguments to this function, return a pointer
** to the payload string. Otherwise, if zKey/nKey is not present in the
** hash table, return NULL.
*/
static const char *idxHashSearch(IdxHash *pHash, const char *zKey, int nKey){
  IdxHashEntry *pEntry = idxHashFind(pHash, zKey, nKey);
  if( pEntry ) return pEntry->zVal;
  return 0;
}

/*
** Allocate and return a new IdxConstraint object. Set the IdxConstraint.zColl
** variable to point to a copy of nul-terminated string zColl.
*/
static IdxConstraint *idxNewConstraint(int *pRc, const char *zColl){
  IdxConstraint *pNew;
................................................................................
        sqlite3_free(zOuter);
      }
    }
  }
  idxFinalize(&rc, pSchema);
  return rc;
}

struct IdxRemCtx {
  int nSlot;
  struct IdxRemSlot {
    int eType;                    /* SQLITE_NULL, INTEGER, REAL, TEXT, BLOB */
    i64 iVal;                     /* SQLITE_INTEGER value */
    double rVal;                  /* SQLITE_FLOAT value */
    int nByte;                    /* Bytes of space allocated at z */
    int n;                        /* Size of buffer z */
    char *z;                      /* SQLITE_TEXT/BLOB value */
  } aSlot[1];
};

/*
** Implementation of scalar function rem().
*/
static void idxRemFunc(
  sqlite3_context *pCtx,
  int argc,
  sqlite3_value **argv
){
  struct IdxRemCtx *p = (struct IdxRemCtx*)sqlite3_user_data(pCtx);
  struct IdxRemSlot *pSlot;
  int iSlot;
  assert( argc==2 );

  iSlot = sqlite3_value_int(argv[0]);
  assert( iSlot<=p->nSlot );
  pSlot = &p->aSlot[iSlot];

  switch( pSlot->eType ){
    case SQLITE_NULL:
      /* no-op */
      break;

    case SQLITE_INTEGER:
      sqlite3_result_int64(pCtx, pSlot->iVal);
      break;

    case SQLITE_FLOAT:
      sqlite3_result_double(pCtx, pSlot->rVal);
      break;

    case SQLITE_BLOB:
      sqlite3_result_blob(pCtx, pSlot->z, pSlot->n, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
      break;

    case SQLITE_TEXT:
      sqlite3_result_text(pCtx, pSlot->z, pSlot->n, SQLITE_TRANSIENT);
      break;
  }

  pSlot->eType = sqlite3_value_type(argv[1]);
  switch( pSlot->eType ){
    case SQLITE_NULL:
      /* no-op */
      break;

    case SQLITE_INTEGER:
      pSlot->iVal = sqlite3_value_int64(argv[1]);
      break;

    case SQLITE_FLOAT:
      pSlot->rVal = sqlite3_value_double(argv[1]);
      break;

    case SQLITE_BLOB:
    case SQLITE_TEXT: {
      int nByte = sqlite3_value_bytes(argv[1]);
      if( nByte>pSlot->nByte ){
        char *zNew = (char*)sqlite3_realloc(pSlot->z, nByte*2);
        if( zNew==0 ){
          sqlite3_result_error_nomem(pCtx);
          return;
        }
        pSlot->nByte = nByte*2;
        pSlot->z = zNew;
      }
      pSlot->n = nByte;
      if( pSlot->eType==SQLITE_BLOB ){
        memcpy(pSlot->z, sqlite3_value_blob(argv[1]), nByte);
      }else{
        memcpy(pSlot->z, sqlite3_value_text(argv[1]), nByte);
      }
      break;
    }
  }
}

static int idxLargestIndex(sqlite3 *db, int *pnMax, char **pzErr){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  const char *zMax = 
    "SELECT max(i.seqno) FROM "
    "  sqlite_master AS s, "
    "  pragma_index_list(s.name) AS l, "
    "  pragma_index_info(l.name) AS i "
    "WHERE s.type = 'table'";
  sqlite3_stmt *pMax = 0;

  *pnMax = 0;
  rc = idxPrepareStmt(db, &pMax, pzErr, zMax);
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pMax) ){
    *pnMax = sqlite3_column_int(pMax, 0) + 1;
  }
  idxFinalize(&rc, pMax);

  return rc;
}

static int idxPopulateOneStat1(
  sqlite3expert *p,
  sqlite3_stmt *pIndexXInfo,
  sqlite3_stmt *pWriteStat,
  const char *zTab,
  const char *zIdx,
  char **pzErr
){
  char *zCols = 0;
  char *zOrder = 0;
  char *zQuery = 0;
  int nCol = 0;
  int i;
  sqlite3_stmt *pQuery = 0;
  int *aStat = 0;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;

  /* Formulate the query text */
  sqlite3_bind_text(pIndexXInfo, 1, zIdx, -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
  while( SQLITE_OK==rc && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pIndexXInfo) ){
    const char *zComma = zCols==0 ? "" : ", ";
    const char *zName = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pIndexXInfo, 0);
    const char *zColl = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pIndexXInfo, 1);
    zCols = idxAppendText(&rc, zCols, 
        "%sx.%Q IS rem(%d, x.%Q) COLLATE %s", zComma, zName, nCol, zName, zColl
    );
    zOrder = idxAppendText(&rc, zOrder, "%s%d", zComma, ++nCol);
  }
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    zQuery = sqlite3_mprintf(
        "SELECT %s FROM %Q x ORDER BY %s", zCols, zTab, zOrder
    );
  }
  sqlite3_free(zCols);
  sqlite3_free(zOrder);

  /* Formulate the query text */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = idxPrepareStmt(p->db, &pQuery, pzErr, zQuery);
  }
  sqlite3_free(zQuery);

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    aStat = (int*)idxMalloc(&rc, sizeof(int)*(nCol+1));
  }
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pQuery) ){
    IdxHashEntry *pEntry;
    char *zStat = 0;
    for(i=0; i<=nCol; i++) aStat[i] = 1;
    while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pQuery) ){
      aStat[0]++;
      for(i=0; i<nCol; i++){
        if( sqlite3_column_int(pQuery, i)==0 ) break;
      }
      for(/*no-op*/; i<nCol; i++){
        aStat[i+1]++;
      }
    }

    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      int s0 = aStat[0];
      zStat = sqlite3_mprintf("%d", s0);
      if( zStat==0 ) rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
      for(i=1; rc==SQLITE_OK && i<=nCol; i++){
        zStat = idxAppendText(&rc, zStat, " %d", (s0+aStat[i]/2) / aStat[i]);
      }
    }

    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      sqlite3_bind_text(pWriteStat, 1, zTab, -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
      sqlite3_bind_text(pWriteStat, 2, zIdx, -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
      sqlite3_bind_text(pWriteStat, 3, zStat, -1, SQLITE_STATIC);
      sqlite3_step(pWriteStat);
      rc = sqlite3_reset(pWriteStat);
    }

    pEntry = idxHashFind(&p->hIdx, zIdx, strlen(zIdx));
    if( pEntry ){
      assert( pEntry->zVal2==0 );
      pEntry->zVal2 = zStat;
    }else{
      sqlite3_free(zStat);
    }
  }
  sqlite3_free(aStat);
  idxFinalize(&rc, pQuery);

  return rc;
}

/*
** This function is called as part of sqlite3_expert_analyze(). Candidate
** indexes have already been created in database sqlite3expert.dbm, this
** function populates sqlite_stat1 table in the same database.
**
** The stat1 data is generated by querying the 
*/
static int idxPopulateStat1(sqlite3expert *p, char **pzErr){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  int nMax =0;
  struct IdxRemCtx *pCtx = 0;
  int i;
  sqlite3_stmt *pAllIndex = 0;
  sqlite3_stmt *pIndexXInfo = 0;
  sqlite3_stmt *pWrite = 0;

  const char *zAllIndex = 
    "SELECT s.name, l.name FROM "
    "  sqlite_master AS s, "
    "  pragma_index_list(s.name) AS l "
    "WHERE s.type = 'table'";
  const char *zIndexXInfo = 
    "SELECT name, coll FROM pragma_index_xinfo(?) WHERE key";
  const char *zWrite = "INSERT INTO sqlite_stat1 VALUES(?, ?, ?)";

  rc = idxLargestIndex(p->dbm, &nMax, pzErr);
  if( nMax<=0 || rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;

  rc = sqlite3_exec(p->dbm, "ANALYZE; PRAGMA writable_schema=1", 0, 0, 0);

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    int nByte = sizeof(struct IdxRemCtx) + (sizeof(struct IdxRemSlot) * nMax);
    pCtx = (struct IdxRemCtx*)idxMalloc(&rc, nByte);
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = sqlite3_create_function(
        p->db, "rem", 2, SQLITE_UTF8, (void*)pCtx, idxRemFunc, 0, 0
    );
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    pCtx->nSlot = nMax+1;
    rc = idxPrepareStmt(p->dbm, &pAllIndex, pzErr, zAllIndex);
  }
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = idxPrepareStmt(p->dbm, &pIndexXInfo, pzErr, zIndexXInfo);
  }
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = idxPrepareStmt(p->dbm, &pWrite, pzErr, zWrite);
  }

  while( rc==SQLITE_OK && SQLITE_ROW==sqlite3_step(pAllIndex) ){
    const char *zTab = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pAllIndex, 0);
    const char *zIdx = (const char*)sqlite3_column_text(pAllIndex, 1);
    rc = idxPopulateOneStat1(p, pIndexXInfo, pWrite, zTab, zIdx, pzErr);
  }

  idxFinalize(&rc, pAllIndex);
  idxFinalize(&rc, pIndexXInfo);
  idxFinalize(&rc, pWrite);

  for(i=0; i<pCtx->nSlot; i++){
    sqlite3_free(pCtx->aSlot[i].z);
  }
  sqlite3_free(pCtx);

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = sqlite3_exec(p->dbm, "ANALYZE sqlite_master", 0, 0, 0);
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Allocate a new sqlite3expert object.
*/
sqlite3expert *sqlite3_expert_new(sqlite3 *db, char **pzErrmsg){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  sqlite3expert *pNew;
................................................................................
  return rc;
}

int sqlite3_expert_analyze(sqlite3expert *p, char **pzErr){
  int rc;
  IdxHashEntry *pEntry;

  /* Do trigger processing to collect any extra IdxScan structures */
  rc = idxProcessTriggers(p, pzErr);

  /* Create candidate indexes within the in-memory database file */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = idxCreateCandidates(p, pzErr);
  }

  /* Generate the stat1 data */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = idxPopulateStat1(p, pzErr);
  }

  /* Formulate the EXPERT_REPORT_CANDIDATES text */
  for(pEntry=p->hIdx.pFirst; pEntry; pEntry=pEntry->pNext){
    p->zCandidates = idxAppendText(&rc, p->zCandidates, 
        "%s;%s%s\n", pEntry->zVal, 
        pEntry->zVal2 ? " -- stat1: " : "", pEntry->zVal2
    );
  }

  /* Figure out which of the candidate indexes are preferred by the query
  ** planner and report the results to the user.  */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = idxFindIndexes(p, pzErr);
  }

Changes to ext/expert/test_expert.c.

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      int n = sqlite3_expert_count(pExpert);
      Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_NewIntObj(n));
      break;
    }

    case 3: {      /* report */
      const char *aEnum[] = {
        "sql", "indexes", "plan", 0
      };
      int iEnum;
      int iStmt;
      const char *zReport;

      if( Tcl_GetIntFromObj(interp, objv[2], &iStmt) 
       || Tcl_GetIndexFromObj(interp, objv[3], aEnum, "report", 0, &iEnum)
................................................................................
      ){
        return TCL_ERROR;
      }

      assert( EXPERT_REPORT_SQL==1 );
      assert( EXPERT_REPORT_INDEXES==2 );
      assert( EXPERT_REPORT_PLAN==3 );

      zReport = sqlite3_expert_report(pExpert, iStmt, 1+iEnum);
      Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_NewStringObj(zReport, -1));
      break;
    }

    default:       /* destroy */
      assert( iSub==4 );     







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      int n = sqlite3_expert_count(pExpert);
      Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_NewIntObj(n));
      break;
    }

    case 3: {      /* report */
      const char *aEnum[] = {
        "sql", "indexes", "plan", "candidates", 0
      };
      int iEnum;
      int iStmt;
      const char *zReport;

      if( Tcl_GetIntFromObj(interp, objv[2], &iStmt) 
       || Tcl_GetIndexFromObj(interp, objv[3], aEnum, "report", 0, &iEnum)
................................................................................
      ){
        return TCL_ERROR;
      }

      assert( EXPERT_REPORT_SQL==1 );
      assert( EXPERT_REPORT_INDEXES==2 );
      assert( EXPERT_REPORT_PLAN==3 );
      assert( EXPERT_REPORT_CANDIDATES==4 );
      zReport = sqlite3_expert_report(pExpert, iStmt, 1+iEnum);
      Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_NewStringObj(zReport, -1));
      break;
    }

    default:       /* destroy */
      assert( iSub==4 );