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SQLite training in Houston TX on 2019-11-05 (details)
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Overview
Comment:Performance improvements to the external merge-sorter. Keep content on an in-memory linked lists rather than an ephemeral table prior to spilling to disk. Use the external merge-sorter to implement ORDER BY and GROUP BY in addition to CREATE INDEX.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 4c43e8b2d2c1d8dcba3cd1c3f2ec4e19ab419430
User & Date: drh 2011-09-03 17:07:26
Context
2011-09-04
01:11
Improve the testability of the merge-sort logic. check-in: b5179baf user: drh tags: trunk
2011-09-03
17:07
Performance improvements to the external merge-sorter. Keep content on an in-memory linked lists rather than an ephemeral table prior to spilling to disk. Use the external merge-sorter to implement ORDER BY and GROUP BY in addition to CREATE INDEX. check-in: 4c43e8b2 user: drh tags: trunk
16:42
Simplification and performance tweaks in vdbeSorterMerge(). Closed-Leaf check-in: 99e34bdc user: drh tags: merge-sort
2011-09-02
15:08
Remove unused local variable. check-in: 61bda876 user: mistachkin tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/btree.c.

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  /* Only a BTREE_SINGLE database can be BTREE_UNORDERED */
  assert( (flags & BTREE_UNORDERED)==0 || (flags & BTREE_SINGLE)!=0 );

  /* A BTREE_SINGLE database is always a temporary and/or ephemeral */
  assert( (flags & BTREE_SINGLE)==0 || isTempDb );

  /* The BTREE_SORTER flag is only used if SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT is undef */
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  assert( (flags & BTREE_SORTER)==0 );
#endif

  /* BTREE_SORTER is always on a BTREE_SINGLE, BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL */
  assert( (flags & BTREE_SORTER)==0 ||
          (flags & (BTREE_SINGLE|BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL))
                                        ==(BTREE_SINGLE|BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL) );

  if( db->flags & SQLITE_NoReadlock ){
    flags |= BTREE_NO_READLOCK;
  }
  if( isMemdb ){
    flags |= BTREE_MEMORY;
    flags &= ~BTREE_SORTER;
  }
  if( (vfsFlags & SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB)!=0 && (isMemdb || isTempDb) ){
    vfsFlags = (vfsFlags & ~SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB) | SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB;
  }
  p = sqlite3MallocZero(sizeof(Btree));
  if( !p ){
    return SQLITE_NOMEM;
................................................................................
    */
    zeroPage(pPage, PTF_INTKEY|PTF_LEAF );
    releasePage(pPage);
  }
  return rc;  
}
int sqlite3BtreeDropTable(Btree *p, int iTable, int *piMoved){
  BtShared *pBt = p->pBt;
  int rc;
  sqlite3BtreeEnter(p);
  if( (pBt->openFlags&BTREE_SINGLE) ){
    pBt->nPage = 0;
    sqlite3PagerTruncateImage(pBt->pPager, 1);
    rc = newDatabase(pBt);
  }else{
    rc = btreeDropTable(p, iTable, piMoved);
  }
  sqlite3BtreeLeave(p);
  return rc;
}


/*
** This function may only be called if the b-tree connection already







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  /* Only a BTREE_SINGLE database can be BTREE_UNORDERED */
  assert( (flags & BTREE_UNORDERED)==0 || (flags & BTREE_SINGLE)!=0 );

  /* A BTREE_SINGLE database is always a temporary and/or ephemeral */
  assert( (flags & BTREE_SINGLE)==0 || isTempDb );











  if( db->flags & SQLITE_NoReadlock ){
    flags |= BTREE_NO_READLOCK;
  }
  if( isMemdb ){
    flags |= BTREE_MEMORY;

  }
  if( (vfsFlags & SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB)!=0 && (isMemdb || isTempDb) ){
    vfsFlags = (vfsFlags & ~SQLITE_OPEN_MAIN_DB) | SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_DB;
  }
  p = sqlite3MallocZero(sizeof(Btree));
  if( !p ){
    return SQLITE_NOMEM;
................................................................................
    */
    zeroPage(pPage, PTF_INTKEY|PTF_LEAF );
    releasePage(pPage);
  }
  return rc;  
}
int sqlite3BtreeDropTable(Btree *p, int iTable, int *piMoved){

  int rc;
  sqlite3BtreeEnter(p);





  rc = btreeDropTable(p, iTable, piMoved);

  sqlite3BtreeLeave(p);
  return rc;
}


/*
** This function may only be called if the b-tree connection already

Changes to src/btree.h.

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** pager.h.
*/
#define BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL  1  /* Do not create or use a rollback journal */
#define BTREE_NO_READLOCK   2  /* Omit readlocks on readonly files */
#define BTREE_MEMORY        4  /* This is an in-memory DB */
#define BTREE_SINGLE        8  /* The file contains at most 1 b-tree */
#define BTREE_UNORDERED    16  /* Use of a hash implementation is OK */
#define BTREE_SORTER       32  /* Used as accumulator in external merge sort */

int sqlite3BtreeClose(Btree*);
int sqlite3BtreeSetCacheSize(Btree*,int);
int sqlite3BtreeSetSafetyLevel(Btree*,int,int,int);
int sqlite3BtreeSyncDisabled(Btree*);
int sqlite3BtreeSetPageSize(Btree *p, int nPagesize, int nReserve, int eFix);
int sqlite3BtreeGetPageSize(Btree*);







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** pager.h.
*/
#define BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL  1  /* Do not create or use a rollback journal */
#define BTREE_NO_READLOCK   2  /* Omit readlocks on readonly files */
#define BTREE_MEMORY        4  /* This is an in-memory DB */
#define BTREE_SINGLE        8  /* The file contains at most 1 b-tree */
#define BTREE_UNORDERED    16  /* Use of a hash implementation is OK */


int sqlite3BtreeClose(Btree*);
int sqlite3BtreeSetCacheSize(Btree*,int);
int sqlite3BtreeSetSafetyLevel(Btree*,int,int,int);
int sqlite3BtreeSyncDisabled(Btree*);
int sqlite3BtreeSetPageSize(Btree *p, int nPagesize, int nReserve, int eFix);
int sqlite3BtreeGetPageSize(Btree*);

Changes to src/build.c.

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*/
static void sqlite3RefillIndex(Parse *pParse, Index *pIndex, int memRootPage){
  Table *pTab = pIndex->pTable;  /* The table that is indexed */
  int iTab = pParse->nTab++;     /* Btree cursor used for pTab */
  int iIdx = pParse->nTab++;     /* Btree cursor used for pIndex */
  int iSorter = iTab;            /* Cursor opened by OpenSorter (if in use) */
  int addr1;                     /* Address of top of loop */

  int tnum;                      /* Root page of index */
  Vdbe *v;                       /* Generate code into this virtual machine */
  KeyInfo *pKey;                 /* KeyInfo for index */
  int regIdxKey;                 /* Registers containing the index key */
  int regRecord;                 /* Register holding assemblied index record */
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;      /* The database connection */
  int iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, pIndex->pSchema);

  /* Set bUseSorter to use OP_OpenSorter, or clear it to insert directly 
  ** into the index. The sorter is used unless either OMIT_MERGE_SORT is
  ** defined or the system is configured to store temp files in-memory. */
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  static const int bUseSorter = 0;
#else
  const int bUseSorter = !sqlite3TempInMemory(pParse->db);
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTHORIZATION
  if( sqlite3AuthCheck(pParse, SQLITE_REINDEX, pIndex->zName, 0,
      db->aDb[iDb].zName ) ){
    return;
  }
#endif

................................................................................
  pKey = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIndex);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenWrite, iIdx, tnum, iDb, 
                    (char *)pKey, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
  if( memRootPage>=0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, 1);
  }


  /* Open the sorter cursor if we are to use one. */
  if( bUseSorter ){
    iSorter = pParse->nTab++;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenSorter, iSorter, 0, 0, (char*)pKey, P4_KEYINFO);
    sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, BTREE_SORTER);
  }

  /* Open the table. Loop through all rows of the table, inserting index
  ** records into the sorter. */
  sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, iTab, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenRead);
  addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, iTab, 0);

  regRecord = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  regIdxKey = sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(pParse, pIndex, iTab, regRecord, 1);

  if( bUseSorter ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, iSorter, regRecord);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, iTab, addr1+1);
    sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);
    addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Sort, iSorter, 0);


    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_RowKey, iSorter, regRecord);







  }





  if( pIndex->onError!=OE_None ){
    const int regRowid = regIdxKey + pIndex->nColumn;
    const int j2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v) + 2;
    void * const pRegKey = SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(regIdxKey);

    /* The registers accessed by the OP_IsUnique opcode were allocated
    ** using sqlite3GetTempRange() inside of the sqlite3GenerateIndexKey()
................................................................................
    ** we can be sure that no other temp registers have been allocated
    ** since sqlite3ReleaseTempRange() was called, it is safe to do so.
    */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_IsUnique, iIdx, j2, regRowid, pRegKey, P4_INT32);
    sqlite3HaltConstraint(
        pParse, OE_Abort, "indexed columns are not unique", P4_STATIC);
  }
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_IdxInsert, iIdx, regRecord, bUseSorter);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT);

  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRecord);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, iSorter, addr1+1);
  sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);

  sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, iTab);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, iIdx);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, iSorter);
}








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*/
static void sqlite3RefillIndex(Parse *pParse, Index *pIndex, int memRootPage){
  Table *pTab = pIndex->pTable;  /* The table that is indexed */
  int iTab = pParse->nTab++;     /* Btree cursor used for pTab */
  int iIdx = pParse->nTab++;     /* Btree cursor used for pIndex */
  int iSorter = iTab;            /* Cursor opened by OpenSorter (if in use) */
  int addr1;                     /* Address of top of loop */
  int addr2;                     /* Address to jump to for next iteration */
  int tnum;                      /* Root page of index */
  Vdbe *v;                       /* Generate code into this virtual machine */
  KeyInfo *pKey;                 /* KeyInfo for index */
  int regIdxKey;                 /* Registers containing the index key */
  int regRecord;                 /* Register holding assemblied index record */
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db;      /* The database connection */
  int iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, pIndex->pSchema);










#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_AUTHORIZATION
  if( sqlite3AuthCheck(pParse, SQLITE_REINDEX, pIndex->zName, 0,
      db->aDb[iDb].zName ) ){
    return;
  }
#endif

................................................................................
  pKey = sqlite3IndexKeyinfo(pParse, pIndex);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenWrite, iIdx, tnum, iDb, 
                    (char *)pKey, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);
  if( memRootPage>=0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, 1);
  }

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  /* Open the sorter cursor if we are to use one. */

  iSorter = pParse->nTab++;
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_SorterOpen, iSorter, 0, 0, (char*)pKey, P4_KEYINFO);
#endif


  /* Open the table. Loop through all rows of the table, inserting index
  ** records into the sorter. */
  sqlite3OpenTable(pParse, iTab, iDb, pTab, OP_OpenRead);
  addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Rewind, iTab, 0);
  addr2 = addr1 + 1;
  regRecord = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  regIdxKey = sqlite3GenerateIndexKey(pParse, pIndex, iTab, regRecord, 1);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterInsert, iSorter, regRecord);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, iTab, addr1+1);
  sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);
  addr1 = sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterSort, iSorter, 0);
  if( pIndex->onError!=OE_None ){
    int j2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v) + 3;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Goto, 0, j2);
    addr2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_SorterCompare, iSorter, j2, regRecord);
    sqlite3HaltConstraint(
        pParse, OE_Abort, "indexed columns are not unique", P4_STATIC
    );
  }else{
    addr2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
  }

  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterData, iSorter, regRecord);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_IdxInsert, iIdx, regRecord, 1);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT);
#else
  if( pIndex->onError!=OE_None ){
    const int regRowid = regIdxKey + pIndex->nColumn;
    const int j2 = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v) + 2;
    void * const pRegKey = SQLITE_INT_TO_PTR(regIdxKey);

    /* The registers accessed by the OP_IsUnique opcode were allocated
    ** using sqlite3GetTempRange() inside of the sqlite3GenerateIndexKey()
................................................................................
    ** we can be sure that no other temp registers have been allocated
    ** since sqlite3ReleaseTempRange() was called, it is safe to do so.
    */
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_IsUnique, iIdx, j2, regRowid, pRegKey, P4_INT32);
    sqlite3HaltConstraint(
        pParse, OE_Abort, "indexed columns are not unique", P4_STATIC);
  }
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_IdxInsert, iIdx, regRecord, 0);
  sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT);
#endif
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRecord);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterNext, iSorter, addr2);
  sqlite3VdbeJumpHere(v, addr1);

  sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, iTab);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, iIdx);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, iSorter);
}

Changes to src/expr.c.

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      AggInfo *pAggInfo = pExpr->pAggInfo;
      struct AggInfo_col *pCol = &pAggInfo->aCol[pExpr->iAgg];
      if( !pAggInfo->directMode ){
        assert( pCol->iMem>0 );
        inReg = pCol->iMem;
        break;
      }else if( pAggInfo->useSortingIdx ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, pAggInfo->sortingIdx,
                              pCol->iSorterColumn, target);
        break;
      }
      /* Otherwise, fall thru into the TK_COLUMN case */
    }
    case TK_COLUMN: {
      if( pExpr->iTable<0 ){







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      AggInfo *pAggInfo = pExpr->pAggInfo;
      struct AggInfo_col *pCol = &pAggInfo->aCol[pExpr->iAgg];
      if( !pAggInfo->directMode ){
        assert( pCol->iMem>0 );
        inReg = pCol->iMem;
        break;
      }else if( pAggInfo->useSortingIdx ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, pAggInfo->sortingIdxPTab,
                              pCol->iSorterColumn, target);
        break;
      }
      /* Otherwise, fall thru into the TK_COLUMN case */
    }
    case TK_COLUMN: {
      if( pExpr->iTable<0 ){

Changes to src/pager.c.

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  u8 fullSync;                /* Do extra syncs of the journal for robustness */
  u8 ckptSyncFlags;           /* SYNC_NORMAL or SYNC_FULL for checkpoint */
  u8 syncFlags;               /* SYNC_NORMAL or SYNC_FULL otherwise */
  u8 tempFile;                /* zFilename is a temporary file */
  u8 readOnly;                /* True for a read-only database */
  u8 memDb;                   /* True to inhibit all file I/O */
  u8 hasSeenStress;           /* pagerStress() called one or more times */
  u8 isSorter;                /* True for a PAGER_SORTER */

  /**************************************************************************
  ** The following block contains those class members that change during
  ** routine opertion.  Class members not in this block are either fixed
  ** when the pager is first created or else only change when there is a
  ** significant mode change (such as changing the page_size, locking_mode,
  ** or the journal_mode).  From another view, these class members describe
................................................................................
    assert( p->journalMode==PAGER_JOURNALMODE_OFF 
         || p->journalMode==PAGER_JOURNALMODE_MEMORY 
    );
    assert( p->eState!=PAGER_ERROR && p->eState!=PAGER_OPEN );
    assert( pagerUseWal(p)==0 );
  }

  /* A sorter is a temp file that never spills to disk and always has
  ** the doNotSpill flag set
  */
  if( p->isSorter ){
    assert( p->tempFile );
    assert( p->doNotSpill );
    assert( p->fd->pMethods==0 );
  }

  /* If changeCountDone is set, a RESERVED lock or greater must be held
  ** on the file.
  */
  assert( pPager->changeCountDone==0 || pPager->eLock>=RESERVED_LOCK );
  assert( p->eLock!=PENDING_LOCK );

  switch( p->eState ){
................................................................................
  }else if( memDb ){
    pPager->journalMode = PAGER_JOURNALMODE_MEMORY;
  }
  /* pPager->xBusyHandler = 0; */
  /* pPager->pBusyHandlerArg = 0; */
  pPager->xReiniter = xReinit;
  /* memset(pPager->aHash, 0, sizeof(pPager->aHash)); */
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  if( flags & PAGER_SORTER ){
    pPager->doNotSpill = 1;
    pPager->isSorter = 1;
  }
#endif

  *ppPager = pPager;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}



................................................................................
/*
** Return true if this is an in-memory pager.
*/
int sqlite3PagerIsMemdb(Pager *pPager){
  return MEMDB;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
/*
** Return true if the pager has seen a pagerStress callback.
*/
int sqlite3PagerUnderStress(Pager *pPager){
  assert( pPager->isSorter );
  assert( pPager->doNotSpill );
  return pPager->hasSeenStress;
}
#endif

/*
** Check that there are at least nSavepoint savepoints open. If there are
** currently less than nSavepoints open, then open one or more savepoints
** to make up the difference. If the number of savepoints is already
** equal to nSavepoint, then this function is a no-op.
**
** If a memory allocation fails, SQLITE_NOMEM is returned. If an error 







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  u8 fullSync;                /* Do extra syncs of the journal for robustness */
  u8 ckptSyncFlags;           /* SYNC_NORMAL or SYNC_FULL for checkpoint */
  u8 syncFlags;               /* SYNC_NORMAL or SYNC_FULL otherwise */
  u8 tempFile;                /* zFilename is a temporary file */
  u8 readOnly;                /* True for a read-only database */
  u8 memDb;                   /* True to inhibit all file I/O */
  u8 hasSeenStress;           /* pagerStress() called one or more times */


  /**************************************************************************
  ** The following block contains those class members that change during
  ** routine opertion.  Class members not in this block are either fixed
  ** when the pager is first created or else only change when there is a
  ** significant mode change (such as changing the page_size, locking_mode,
  ** or the journal_mode).  From another view, these class members describe
................................................................................
    assert( p->journalMode==PAGER_JOURNALMODE_OFF 
         || p->journalMode==PAGER_JOURNALMODE_MEMORY 
    );
    assert( p->eState!=PAGER_ERROR && p->eState!=PAGER_OPEN );
    assert( pagerUseWal(p)==0 );
  }










  /* If changeCountDone is set, a RESERVED lock or greater must be held
  ** on the file.
  */
  assert( pPager->changeCountDone==0 || pPager->eLock>=RESERVED_LOCK );
  assert( p->eLock!=PENDING_LOCK );

  switch( p->eState ){
................................................................................
  }else if( memDb ){
    pPager->journalMode = PAGER_JOURNALMODE_MEMORY;
  }
  /* pPager->xBusyHandler = 0; */
  /* pPager->pBusyHandlerArg = 0; */
  pPager->xReiniter = xReinit;
  /* memset(pPager->aHash, 0, sizeof(pPager->aHash)); */







  *ppPager = pPager;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}



................................................................................
/*
** Return true if this is an in-memory pager.
*/
int sqlite3PagerIsMemdb(Pager *pPager){
  return MEMDB;
}












/*
** Check that there are at least nSavepoint savepoints open. If there are
** currently less than nSavepoints open, then open one or more savepoints
** to make up the difference. If the number of savepoints is already
** equal to nSavepoint, then this function is a no-op.
**
** If a memory allocation fails, SQLITE_NOMEM is returned. If an error 

Changes to src/pager.h.

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const char *sqlite3PagerFilename(Pager*);
const sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3PagerVfs(Pager*);
sqlite3_file *sqlite3PagerFile(Pager*);
const char *sqlite3PagerJournalname(Pager*);
int sqlite3PagerNosync(Pager*);
void *sqlite3PagerTempSpace(Pager*);
int sqlite3PagerIsMemdb(Pager*);
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
int sqlite3PagerUnderStress(Pager*);
#endif

/* Functions used to truncate the database file. */
void sqlite3PagerTruncateImage(Pager*,Pgno);

#if defined(SQLITE_HAS_CODEC) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_WAL)
void *sqlite3PagerCodec(DbPage *);
#endif







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const char *sqlite3PagerFilename(Pager*);
const sqlite3_vfs *sqlite3PagerVfs(Pager*);
sqlite3_file *sqlite3PagerFile(Pager*);
const char *sqlite3PagerJournalname(Pager*);
int sqlite3PagerNosync(Pager*);
void *sqlite3PagerTempSpace(Pager*);
int sqlite3PagerIsMemdb(Pager*);




/* Functions used to truncate the database file. */
void sqlite3PagerTruncateImage(Pager*,Pgno);

#if defined(SQLITE_HAS_CODEC) && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_WAL)
void *sqlite3PagerCodec(DbPage *);
#endif

Changes to src/select.c.

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  Select *pSelect,       /* The whole SELECT statement */
  int regData            /* Register holding data to be sorted */
){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  int nExpr = pOrderBy->nExpr;
  int regBase = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nExpr+2);
  int regRecord = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);

  sqlite3ExprCacheClear(pParse);
  sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(pParse, pOrderBy, regBase, 0);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Sequence, pOrderBy->iECursor, regBase+nExpr);
  sqlite3ExprCodeMove(pParse, regData, regBase+nExpr+1, 1);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regBase, nExpr + 2, regRecord);





  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, pOrderBy->iECursor, regRecord);
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRecord);
  sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regBase, nExpr+2);
  if( pSelect->iLimit ){
    int addr1, addr2;
    int iLimit;
    if( pSelect->iOffset ){
      iLimit = pSelect->iOffset+1;
................................................................................
  if( eDest==SRT_Output || eDest==SRT_Coroutine ){
    pseudoTab = pParse->nTab++;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenPseudo, pseudoTab, regRow, nColumn);
    regRowid = 0;
  }else{
    regRowid = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  }










  addr = 1 + sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Sort, iTab, addrBreak);
  codeOffset(v, p, addrContinue);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iTab, pOrderBy->nExpr + 1, regRow);

  switch( eDest ){
    case SRT_Table:
    case SRT_EphemTab: {
      testcase( eDest==SRT_Table );
      testcase( eDest==SRT_EphemTab );
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NewRowid, iParm, regRowid);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, iParm, regRow, regRowid);
................................................................................
  }
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRow);
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRowid);

  /* The bottom of the loop
  */
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrContinue);



  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, iTab, addr);

  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrBreak);
  if( eDest==SRT_Output || eDest==SRT_Coroutine ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, pseudoTab, 0);
  }
}

/*
................................................................................
  }

  /* Set the limiter.
  */
  iEnd = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
  p->nSelectRow = (double)LARGEST_INT64;
  computeLimitRegisters(pParse, p, iEnd);





  /* Open a virtual index to use for the distinct set.
  */
  if( p->selFlags & SF_Distinct ){
    KeyInfo *pKeyInfo;
    distinct = pParse->nTab++;
    pKeyInfo = keyInfoFromExprList(pParse, p->pEList);
................................................................................
    int iBMem;          /* First Mem address for previous GROUP BY */
    int iUseFlag;       /* Mem address holding flag indicating that at least
                        ** one row of the input to the aggregator has been
                        ** processed */
    int iAbortFlag;     /* Mem address which causes query abort if positive */
    int groupBySort;    /* Rows come from source in GROUP BY order */
    int addrEnd;        /* End of processing for this SELECT */



    /* Remove any and all aliases between the result set and the
    ** GROUP BY clause.
    */
    if( pGroupBy ){
      int k;                        /* Loop counter */
      struct ExprList_item *pItem;  /* For looping over expression in a list */
................................................................................
      int addrTopOfLoop;  /* Top of the input loop */
      int addrSortingIdx; /* The OP_OpenEphemeral for the sorting index */
      int addrReset;      /* Subroutine for resetting the accumulator */
      int regReset;       /* Return address register for reset subroutine */

      /* If there is a GROUP BY clause we might need a sorting index to
      ** implement it.  Allocate that sorting index now.  If it turns out
      ** that we do not need it after all, the OpenEphemeral instruction
      ** will be converted into a Noop.  
      */
      sAggInfo.sortingIdx = pParse->nTab++;
      pKeyInfo = keyInfoFromExprList(pParse, pGroupBy);
      addrSortingIdx = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_OpenEphemeral, 
          sAggInfo.sortingIdx, sAggInfo.nSortingColumn, 
          0, (char*)pKeyInfo, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);

      /* Initialize memory locations used by GROUP BY aggregate processing
      */
      iUseFlag = ++pParse->nMem;
      iAbortFlag = ++pParse->nMem;
................................................................................
              sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, r2, r1);
            }
            j++;
          }
        }
        regRecord = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regBase, nCol, regRecord);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_IdxInsert, sAggInfo.sortingIdx, regRecord);
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRecord);
        sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regBase, nCol);
        sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);



        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Sort, sAggInfo.sortingIdx, addrEnd);
        VdbeComment((v, "GROUP BY sort"));
        sAggInfo.useSortingIdx = 1;
        sqlite3ExprCacheClear(pParse);
      }

      /* Evaluate the current GROUP BY terms and store in b0, b1, b2...
      ** (b0 is memory location iBMem+0, b1 is iBMem+1, and so forth)
      ** Then compare the current GROUP BY terms against the GROUP BY terms
      ** from the previous row currently stored in a0, a1, a2...
      */
      addrTopOfLoop = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
      sqlite3ExprCacheClear(pParse);



      for(j=0; j<pGroupBy->nExpr; j++){
        if( groupBySort ){
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, sAggInfo.sortingIdx, j, iBMem+j);

        }else{
          sAggInfo.directMode = 1;
          sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pGroupBy->a[j].pExpr, iBMem+j);
        }
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Compare, iAMem, iBMem, pGroupBy->nExpr,
                          (char*)pKeyInfo, P4_KEYINFO);
................................................................................
      updateAccumulator(pParse, &sAggInfo);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 1, iUseFlag);
      VdbeComment((v, "indicate data in accumulator"));

      /* End of the loop
      */
      if( groupBySort ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, sAggInfo.sortingIdx, addrTopOfLoop);
      }else{
        sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
        sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(v, addrSortingIdx, 1);
      }

      /* Output the final row of result
      */







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....
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....
4243
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4251
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257
  Select *pSelect,       /* The whole SELECT statement */
  int regData            /* Register holding data to be sorted */
){
  Vdbe *v = pParse->pVdbe;
  int nExpr = pOrderBy->nExpr;
  int regBase = sqlite3GetTempRange(pParse, nExpr+2);
  int regRecord = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  int op;
  sqlite3ExprCacheClear(pParse);
  sqlite3ExprCodeExprList(pParse, pOrderBy, regBase, 0);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Sequence, pOrderBy->iECursor, regBase+nExpr);
  sqlite3ExprCodeMove(pParse, regData, regBase+nExpr+1, 1);
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regBase, nExpr + 2, regRecord);
  if( pSelect->selFlags & SF_UseSorter ){
    op = OP_SorterInsert;
  }else{
    op = OP_IdxInsert;
  }
  sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, op, pOrderBy->iECursor, regRecord);
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRecord);
  sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regBase, nExpr+2);
  if( pSelect->iLimit ){
    int addr1, addr2;
    int iLimit;
    if( pSelect->iOffset ){
      iLimit = pSelect->iOffset+1;
................................................................................
  if( eDest==SRT_Output || eDest==SRT_Coroutine ){
    pseudoTab = pParse->nTab++;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenPseudo, pseudoTab, regRow, nColumn);
    regRowid = 0;
  }else{
    regRowid = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
  }
  if( p->selFlags & SF_UseSorter ){
    int regSortOut = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
    int ptab2 = pParse->nTab++;
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenPseudo, ptab2, regSortOut, pOrderBy->nExpr+2);
    addr = 1 + sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterSort, iTab, addrBreak);
    codeOffset(v, p, addrContinue);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterData, iTab, regSortOut);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, ptab2, pOrderBy->nExpr+1, regRow);
    sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_CLEARCACHE);
  }else{
    addr = 1 + sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Sort, iTab, addrBreak);
    codeOffset(v, p, addrContinue);
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, iTab, pOrderBy->nExpr+1, regRow);
  }
  switch( eDest ){
    case SRT_Table:
    case SRT_EphemTab: {
      testcase( eDest==SRT_Table );
      testcase( eDest==SRT_EphemTab );
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_NewRowid, iParm, regRowid);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Insert, iParm, regRow, regRowid);
................................................................................
  }
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRow);
  sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRowid);

  /* The bottom of the loop
  */
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrContinue);
  if( p->selFlags & SF_UseSorter ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterNext, iTab, addr);
  }else{
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Next, iTab, addr);
  }
  sqlite3VdbeResolveLabel(v, addrBreak);
  if( eDest==SRT_Output || eDest==SRT_Coroutine ){
    sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Close, pseudoTab, 0);
  }
}

/*
................................................................................
  }

  /* Set the limiter.
  */
  iEnd = sqlite3VdbeMakeLabel(v);
  p->nSelectRow = (double)LARGEST_INT64;
  computeLimitRegisters(pParse, p, iEnd);
  if( p->iLimit==0 && addrSortIndex>=0 ){
    sqlite3VdbeGetOp(v, addrSortIndex)->opcode = OP_SorterOpen;
    p->selFlags |= SF_UseSorter;
  }

  /* Open a virtual index to use for the distinct set.
  */
  if( p->selFlags & SF_Distinct ){
    KeyInfo *pKeyInfo;
    distinct = pParse->nTab++;
    pKeyInfo = keyInfoFromExprList(pParse, p->pEList);
................................................................................
    int iBMem;          /* First Mem address for previous GROUP BY */
    int iUseFlag;       /* Mem address holding flag indicating that at least
                        ** one row of the input to the aggregator has been
                        ** processed */
    int iAbortFlag;     /* Mem address which causes query abort if positive */
    int groupBySort;    /* Rows come from source in GROUP BY order */
    int addrEnd;        /* End of processing for this SELECT */
    int sortPTab = 0;   /* Pseudotable used to decode sorting results */
    int sortOut = 0;    /* Output register from the sorter */

    /* Remove any and all aliases between the result set and the
    ** GROUP BY clause.
    */
    if( pGroupBy ){
      int k;                        /* Loop counter */
      struct ExprList_item *pItem;  /* For looping over expression in a list */
................................................................................
      int addrTopOfLoop;  /* Top of the input loop */
      int addrSortingIdx; /* The OP_OpenEphemeral for the sorting index */
      int addrReset;      /* Subroutine for resetting the accumulator */
      int regReset;       /* Return address register for reset subroutine */

      /* If there is a GROUP BY clause we might need a sorting index to
      ** implement it.  Allocate that sorting index now.  If it turns out
      ** that we do not need it after all, the OP_SorterOpen instruction
      ** will be converted into a Noop.  
      */
      sAggInfo.sortingIdx = pParse->nTab++;
      pKeyInfo = keyInfoFromExprList(pParse, pGroupBy);
      addrSortingIdx = sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_SorterOpen, 
          sAggInfo.sortingIdx, sAggInfo.nSortingColumn, 
          0, (char*)pKeyInfo, P4_KEYINFO_HANDOFF);

      /* Initialize memory locations used by GROUP BY aggregate processing
      */
      iUseFlag = ++pParse->nMem;
      iAbortFlag = ++pParse->nMem;
................................................................................
              sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SCopy, r2, r1);
            }
            j++;
          }
        }
        regRecord = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_MakeRecord, regBase, nCol, regRecord);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterInsert, sAggInfo.sortingIdx, regRecord);
        sqlite3ReleaseTempReg(pParse, regRecord);
        sqlite3ReleaseTempRange(pParse, regBase, nCol);
        sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
        sAggInfo.sortingIdxPTab = sortPTab = pParse->nTab++;
        sortOut = sqlite3GetTempReg(pParse);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_OpenPseudo, sortPTab, sortOut, nCol);
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterSort, sAggInfo.sortingIdx, addrEnd);
        VdbeComment((v, "GROUP BY sort"));
        sAggInfo.useSortingIdx = 1;
        sqlite3ExprCacheClear(pParse);
      }

      /* Evaluate the current GROUP BY terms and store in b0, b1, b2...
      ** (b0 is memory location iBMem+0, b1 is iBMem+1, and so forth)
      ** Then compare the current GROUP BY terms against the GROUP BY terms
      ** from the previous row currently stored in a0, a1, a2...
      */
      addrTopOfLoop = sqlite3VdbeCurrentAddr(v);
      sqlite3ExprCacheClear(pParse);
      if( groupBySort ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterData, sAggInfo.sortingIdx, sortOut);
      }
      for(j=0; j<pGroupBy->nExpr; j++){
        if( groupBySort ){
          sqlite3VdbeAddOp3(v, OP_Column, sortPTab, j, iBMem+j);
          if( j==0 ) sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_CLEARCACHE);
        }else{
          sAggInfo.directMode = 1;
          sqlite3ExprCode(pParse, pGroupBy->a[j].pExpr, iBMem+j);
        }
      }
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp4(v, OP_Compare, iAMem, iBMem, pGroupBy->nExpr,
                          (char*)pKeyInfo, P4_KEYINFO);
................................................................................
      updateAccumulator(pParse, &sAggInfo);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_Integer, 1, iUseFlag);
      VdbeComment((v, "indicate data in accumulator"));

      /* End of the loop
      */
      if( groupBySort ){
        sqlite3VdbeAddOp2(v, OP_SorterNext, sAggInfo.sortingIdx, addrTopOfLoop);
      }else{
        sqlite3WhereEnd(pWInfo);
        sqlite3VdbeChangeToNoop(v, addrSortingIdx, 1);
      }

      /* Output the final row of result
      */

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

368
369
370
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373
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** Provide a default value for SQLITE_TEMP_STORE in case it is not specified
** on the command-line
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_TEMP_STORE
# define SQLITE_TEMP_STORE 1
#endif

/*
** If all temporary storage is in-memory, then omit the external merge-sort
** logic since it is superfluous.
*/
#if SQLITE_TEMP_STORE==3 && !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT)
# define SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
#endif

/*
** GCC does not define the offsetof() macro so we'll have to do it
** ourselves.
*/
#ifndef offsetof
#define offsetof(STRUCTURE,FIELD) ((int)((char*)&((STRUCTURE*)0)->FIELD))
#endif
................................................................................
*/
struct AggInfo {
  u8 directMode;          /* Direct rendering mode means take data directly
                          ** from source tables rather than from accumulators */
  u8 useSortingIdx;       /* In direct mode, reference the sorting index rather
                          ** than the source table */
  int sortingIdx;         /* Cursor number of the sorting index */

  ExprList *pGroupBy;     /* The group by clause */
  int nSortingColumn;     /* Number of columns in the sorting index */
  struct AggInfo_col {    /* For each column used in source tables */
    Table *pTab;             /* Source table */
    int iTable;              /* Cursor number of the source table */
    int iColumn;             /* Column number within the source table */
    int iSorterColumn;       /* Column number in the sorting index */
................................................................................
*/
#define SF_Distinct        0x0001  /* Output should be DISTINCT */
#define SF_Resolved        0x0002  /* Identifiers have been resolved */
#define SF_Aggregate       0x0004  /* Contains aggregate functions */
#define SF_UsesEphemeral   0x0008  /* Uses the OpenEphemeral opcode */
#define SF_Expanded        0x0010  /* sqlite3SelectExpand() called on this */
#define SF_HasTypeInfo     0x0020  /* FROM subqueries have Table metadata */



/*
** The results of a select can be distributed in several ways.  The
** "SRT" prefix means "SELECT Result Type".
*/
#define SRT_Union        1  /* Store result as keys in an index */







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** Provide a default value for SQLITE_TEMP_STORE in case it is not specified
** on the command-line
*/
#ifndef SQLITE_TEMP_STORE
# define SQLITE_TEMP_STORE 1
#endif









/*
** GCC does not define the offsetof() macro so we'll have to do it
** ourselves.
*/
#ifndef offsetof
#define offsetof(STRUCTURE,FIELD) ((int)((char*)&((STRUCTURE*)0)->FIELD))
#endif
................................................................................
*/
struct AggInfo {
  u8 directMode;          /* Direct rendering mode means take data directly
                          ** from source tables rather than from accumulators */
  u8 useSortingIdx;       /* In direct mode, reference the sorting index rather
                          ** than the source table */
  int sortingIdx;         /* Cursor number of the sorting index */
  int sortingIdxPTab;     /* Cursor number of pseudo-table */
  ExprList *pGroupBy;     /* The group by clause */
  int nSortingColumn;     /* Number of columns in the sorting index */
  struct AggInfo_col {    /* For each column used in source tables */
    Table *pTab;             /* Source table */
    int iTable;              /* Cursor number of the source table */
    int iColumn;             /* Column number within the source table */
    int iSorterColumn;       /* Column number in the sorting index */
................................................................................
*/
#define SF_Distinct        0x0001  /* Output should be DISTINCT */
#define SF_Resolved        0x0002  /* Identifiers have been resolved */
#define SF_Aggregate       0x0004  /* Contains aggregate functions */
#define SF_UsesEphemeral   0x0008  /* Uses the OpenEphemeral opcode */
#define SF_Expanded        0x0010  /* sqlite3SelectExpand() called on this */
#define SF_HasTypeInfo     0x0020  /* FROM subqueries have Table metadata */
#define SF_UseSorter       0x0040  /* Sort using a sorter */


/*
** The results of a select can be distributed in several ways.  The
** "SRT" prefix means "SELECT Result Type".
*/
#define SRT_Union        1  /* Store result as keys in an index */

Changes to src/vdbe.c.

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/* Opcode: OpenAutoindex P1 P2 * P4 *
**
** This opcode works the same as OP_OpenEphemeral.  It has a
** different name to distinguish its use.  Tables created using
** by this opcode will be used for automatically created transient
** indices in joins.
*/
/* Opcode: OpenSorter P1 P2 * P4 *
**
** This opcode works like OP_OpenEphemeral except that it opens
** a transient index that is specifically designed to sort large
** tables using an external merge-sort algorithm.
*/
case OP_OpenSorter: 
case OP_OpenAutoindex: 
case OP_OpenEphemeral: {
  VdbeCursor *pCx;
  static const int vfsFlags = 
      SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE |
      SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE |
      SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE |
      SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE |
      SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 );
  assert( (pOp->opcode==OP_OpenSorter)==((pOp->p5 & BTREE_SORTER)!=0) );
  pCx = allocateCursor(p, pOp->p1, pOp->p2, -1, 1);
  if( pCx==0 ) goto no_mem;
  pCx->nullRow = 1;
  rc = sqlite3BtreeOpen(db->pVfs, 0, db, &pCx->pBt, 
                        BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL | BTREE_SINGLE | pOp->p5, vfsFlags);
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = sqlite3BtreeBeginTrans(pCx->pBt, 1);
................................................................................
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3BtreeCursor(pCx->pBt, MASTER_ROOT, 1, 0, pCx->pCursor);
      pCx->isTable = 1;
    }
  }
  pCx->isOrdered = (pOp->p5!=BTREE_UNORDERED);
  pCx->isIndex = !pCx->isTable;











#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && pOp->opcode==OP_OpenSorter ){





    rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterInit(db, pCx);
  }



#endif
  break;
}

/* Opcode: OpenPseudo P1 P2 P3 * *
**
** Open a new cursor that points to a fake table that contains a single
................................................................................
** This is used by trigger programs.
*/
case OP_ResetCount: {
  sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(db, p->nChange);
  p->nChange = 0;
  break;
}








































/* Opcode: RowData P1 P2 * * *
**
** Write into register P2 the complete row data for cursor P1.
** There is no interpretation of the data.  
** It is just copied onto the P2 register exactly as 
** it is found in the database file.
................................................................................

  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  memAboutToChange(p, pOut);

  /* Note that RowKey and RowData are really exactly the same instruction */
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];

  assert( pC->isTable || pOp->opcode==OP_RowKey );
  assert( pC->isIndex || pOp->opcode==OP_RowData );
  assert( pC!=0 );
  assert( pC->nullRow==0 );
  assert( pC->pseudoTableReg==0 );

  if( isSorter(pC) ){
    assert( pOp->opcode==OP_RowKey );
    rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterRowkey(pC, pOut);
    break;
  }

  assert( pC->pCursor!=0 );
  pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
  assert( sqlite3BtreeCursorIsValid(pCrsr) );

  /* The OP_RowKey and OP_RowData opcodes always follow OP_NotExists or
  ** OP_Rewind/Op_Next with no intervening instructions that might invalidate
  ** the cursor.  Hence the following sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto() call is always
................................................................................
** Sorting is accomplished by writing records into a sorting index,
** then rewinding that index and playing it back from beginning to
** end.  We use the OP_Sort opcode instead of OP_Rewind to do the
** rewinding so that the global variable will be incremented and
** regression tests can determine whether or not the optimizer is
** correctly optimizing out sorts.
*/




case OP_Sort: {        /* jump */
#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
  sqlite3_sort_count++;
  sqlite3_search_count--;
#endif
  p->aCounter[SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_SORT-1]++;
  /* Fall through into OP_Rewind */
................................................................................
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  int res;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );

  res = 1;
  if( isSorter(pC) ){
    rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterRewind(db, pC, &res);
  }else{
    pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
    assert( pCrsr );
    rc = sqlite3BtreeFirst(pCrsr, &res);
................................................................................
**
** P4 is always of type P4_ADVANCE. The function pointer points to
** sqlite3BtreePrevious().
**
** If P5 is positive and the jump is taken, then event counter
** number P5-1 in the prepared statement is incremented.
*/




case OP_Prev:          /* jump */
case OP_Next: {        /* jump */
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  int res;

  CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPT;
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  assert( pOp->p5<=ArraySize(p->aCounter) );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  if( pC==0 ){
    break;  /* See ticket #2273 */
  }

  if( isSorter(pC) ){
    assert( pOp->opcode==OP_Next );
    rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterNext(db, pC, &res);
  }else{
    res = 1;
    assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
    assert( pC->pCursor );
    assert( pOp->opcode!=OP_Next || pOp->p4.xAdvance==sqlite3BtreeNext );
    assert( pOp->opcode!=OP_Prev || pOp->p4.xAdvance==sqlite3BtreePrevious );
................................................................................
**
** P3 is a flag that provides a hint to the b-tree layer that this
** insert is likely to be an append.
**
** This instruction only works for indices.  The equivalent instruction
** for tables is OP_Insert.
*/




case OP_IdxInsert: {        /* in2 */
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  int nKey;
  const char *zKey;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );

  pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  assert( pIn2->flags & MEM_Blob );
  pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
  if( ALWAYS(pCrsr!=0) ){
    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    rc = ExpandBlob(pIn2);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){



      nKey = pIn2->n;
      zKey = pIn2->z;
      rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterWrite(db, pC, nKey);
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        rc = sqlite3BtreeInsert(pCrsr, zKey, nKey, "", 0, 0, pOp->p3, 
            ((pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT) ? pC->seekResult : 0)
        );
        assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
      }
      pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;

    }
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IdxDelete P1 P2 P3 * *
**







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/* Opcode: OpenAutoindex P1 P2 * P4 *
**
** This opcode works the same as OP_OpenEphemeral.  It has a
** different name to distinguish its use.  Tables created using
** by this opcode will be used for automatically created transient
** indices in joins.
*/







case OP_OpenAutoindex: 
case OP_OpenEphemeral: {
  VdbeCursor *pCx;
  static const int vfsFlags = 
      SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE |
      SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE |
      SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE |
      SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE |
      SQLITE_OPEN_TRANSIENT_DB;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 );

  pCx = allocateCursor(p, pOp->p1, pOp->p2, -1, 1);
  if( pCx==0 ) goto no_mem;
  pCx->nullRow = 1;
  rc = sqlite3BtreeOpen(db->pVfs, 0, db, &pCx->pBt, 
                        BTREE_OMIT_JOURNAL | BTREE_SINGLE | pOp->p5, vfsFlags);
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = sqlite3BtreeBeginTrans(pCx->pBt, 1);
................................................................................
    }else{
      rc = sqlite3BtreeCursor(pCx->pBt, MASTER_ROOT, 1, 0, pCx->pCursor);
      pCx->isTable = 1;
    }
  }
  pCx->isOrdered = (pOp->p5!=BTREE_UNORDERED);
  pCx->isIndex = !pCx->isTable;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: OpenSorter P1 P2 * P4 *
**
** This opcode works like OP_OpenEphemeral except that it opens
** a transient index that is specifically designed to sort large
** tables using an external merge-sort algorithm.
*/
case OP_SorterOpen: {
  VdbeCursor *pCx;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT

  pCx = allocateCursor(p, pOp->p1, pOp->p2, -1, 1);
  if( pCx==0 ) goto no_mem;
  pCx->pKeyInfo = pOp->p4.pKeyInfo;
  pCx->pKeyInfo->enc = ENC(p->db);
  pCx->isSorter = 1;
  rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterInit(db, pCx);

#else
  pOp->opcode = OP_OpenEphemeral;
  pc--;
#endif
  break;
}

/* Opcode: OpenPseudo P1 P2 P3 * *
**
** Open a new cursor that points to a fake table that contains a single
................................................................................
** This is used by trigger programs.
*/
case OP_ResetCount: {
  sqlite3VdbeSetChanges(db, p->nChange);
  p->nChange = 0;
  break;
}

/* Opcode: SorterCompare P1 P2 P3
**
** P1 is a sorter cursor. This instruction compares the record blob in 
** register P3 with the entry that the sorter cursor currently points to.
** If, excluding the rowid fields at the end, the two records are a match,
** fall through to the next instruction. Otherwise, jump to instruction P2.
*/
case OP_SorterCompare: {
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  int res;

  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( isSorter(pC) );
  pIn3 = &aMem[pOp->p3];
  rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterCompare(pC, pIn3, &res);
  if( res ){
    pc = pOp->p2-1;
  }
  break;
};

/* Opcode: SorterData P1 P2 * * *
**
** Write into register P2 the current sorter data for sorter cursor P1.
*/
case OP_SorterData: {
  VdbeCursor *pC;
#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC->isSorter );
  rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterRowkey(pC, pOut);
#else
  pOp->opcode = OP_RowKey;
  pc--;
#endif
  break;
}

/* Opcode: RowData P1 P2 * * *
**
** Write into register P2 the complete row data for cursor P1.
** There is no interpretation of the data.  
** It is just copied onto the P2 register exactly as 
** it is found in the database file.
................................................................................

  pOut = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  memAboutToChange(p, pOut);

  /* Note that RowKey and RowData are really exactly the same instruction */
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC->isSorter==0 );
  assert( pC->isTable || pOp->opcode!=OP_RowData );
  assert( pC->isIndex || pOp->opcode==OP_RowData );
  assert( pC!=0 );
  assert( pC->nullRow==0 );
  assert( pC->pseudoTableReg==0 );

  assert( !pC->isSorter );





  assert( pC->pCursor!=0 );
  pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
  assert( sqlite3BtreeCursorIsValid(pCrsr) );

  /* The OP_RowKey and OP_RowData opcodes always follow OP_NotExists or
  ** OP_Rewind/Op_Next with no intervening instructions that might invalidate
  ** the cursor.  Hence the following sqlite3VdbeCursorMoveto() call is always
................................................................................
** Sorting is accomplished by writing records into a sorting index,
** then rewinding that index and playing it back from beginning to
** end.  We use the OP_Sort opcode instead of OP_Rewind to do the
** rewinding so that the global variable will be incremented and
** regression tests can determine whether or not the optimizer is
** correctly optimizing out sorts.
*/
case OP_SorterSort:    /* jump */
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  pOp->opcode = OP_Sort;
#endif
case OP_Sort: {        /* jump */
#ifdef SQLITE_TEST
  sqlite3_sort_count++;
  sqlite3_search_count--;
#endif
  p->aCounter[SQLITE_STMTSTATUS_SORT-1]++;
  /* Fall through into OP_Rewind */
................................................................................
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  int res;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  assert( pC->isSorter==(pOp->opcode==OP_SorterSort) );
  res = 1;
  if( isSorter(pC) ){
    rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterRewind(db, pC, &res);
  }else{
    pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
    assert( pCrsr );
    rc = sqlite3BtreeFirst(pCrsr, &res);
................................................................................
**
** P4 is always of type P4_ADVANCE. The function pointer points to
** sqlite3BtreePrevious().
**
** If P5 is positive and the jump is taken, then event counter
** number P5-1 in the prepared statement is incremented.
*/
case OP_SorterNext:    /* jump */
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  pOp->opcode = OP_Next;
#endif
case OP_Prev:          /* jump */
case OP_Next: {        /* jump */
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  int res;

  CHECK_FOR_INTERRUPT;
  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  assert( pOp->p5<=ArraySize(p->aCounter) );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  if( pC==0 ){
    break;  /* See ticket #2273 */
  }
  assert( pC->isSorter==(pOp->opcode==OP_SorterNext) );
  if( isSorter(pC) ){
    assert( pOp->opcode==OP_SorterNext );
    rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterNext(db, pC, &res);
  }else{
    res = 1;
    assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );
    assert( pC->pCursor );
    assert( pOp->opcode!=OP_Next || pOp->p4.xAdvance==sqlite3BtreeNext );
    assert( pOp->opcode!=OP_Prev || pOp->p4.xAdvance==sqlite3BtreePrevious );
................................................................................
**
** P3 is a flag that provides a hint to the b-tree layer that this
** insert is likely to be an append.
**
** This instruction only works for indices.  The equivalent instruction
** for tables is OP_Insert.
*/
case OP_SorterInsert:       /* in2 */
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
  pOp->opcode = OP_IdxInsert;
#endif
case OP_IdxInsert: {        /* in2 */
  VdbeCursor *pC;
  BtCursor *pCrsr;
  int nKey;
  const char *zKey;

  assert( pOp->p1>=0 && pOp->p1<p->nCursor );
  pC = p->apCsr[pOp->p1];
  assert( pC!=0 );
  assert( pC->isSorter==(pOp->opcode==OP_SorterInsert) );
  pIn2 = &aMem[pOp->p2];
  assert( pIn2->flags & MEM_Blob );
  pCrsr = pC->pCursor;
  if( ALWAYS(pCrsr!=0) ){
    assert( pC->isTable==0 );
    rc = ExpandBlob(pIn2);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      if( isSorter(pC) ){
        rc = sqlite3VdbeSorterWrite(db, pC, pIn2);
      }else{
        nKey = pIn2->n;
        zKey = pIn2->z;


        rc = sqlite3BtreeInsert(pCrsr, zKey, nKey, "", 0, 0, pOp->p3, 
            ((pOp->p5 & OPFLAG_USESEEKRESULT) ? pC->seekResult : 0)
            );
        assert( pC->deferredMoveto==0 );

        pC->cacheStatus = CACHE_STALE;
      }
    }
  }
  break;
}

/* Opcode: IdxDelete P1 P2 P3 * *
**

Changes to src/vdbeInt.h.

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  Bool atFirst;         /* True if pointing to first entry */
  Bool useRandomRowid;  /* Generate new record numbers semi-randomly */
  Bool nullRow;         /* True if pointing to a row with no data */
  Bool deferredMoveto;  /* A call to sqlite3BtreeMoveto() is needed */
  Bool isTable;         /* True if a table requiring integer keys */
  Bool isIndex;         /* True if an index containing keys only - no data */
  Bool isOrdered;       /* True if the underlying table is BTREE_UNORDERED */

  sqlite3_vtab_cursor *pVtabCursor;  /* The cursor for a virtual table */
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;     /* Module for cursor pVtabCursor */
  i64 seqCount;         /* Sequence counter */
  i64 movetoTarget;     /* Argument to the deferred sqlite3BtreeMoveto() */
  i64 lastRowid;        /* Last rowid from a Next or NextIdx operation */
  VdbeSorter *pSorter;  /* Sorter object for OP_OpenSorter cursors */

  /* Result of last sqlite3BtreeMoveto() done by an OP_NotExists or 
  ** OP_IsUnique opcode on this cursor. */
  int seekResult;

  /* Cached information about the header for the data record that the
  ** cursor is currently pointing to.  Only valid if cacheStatus matches
................................................................................
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterInit(Y,Z)      SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterWrite(X,Y,Z)   SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterClose(Y,Z)
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterRowkey(Y,Z)    SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterRewind(X,Y,Z)  SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterNext(X,Y,Z)    SQLITE_OK

#else
int sqlite3VdbeSorterInit(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *);
int sqlite3VdbeSorterWrite(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *, int);
void sqlite3VdbeSorterClose(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *);
int sqlite3VdbeSorterRowkey(VdbeCursor *, Mem *);

int sqlite3VdbeSorterRewind(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *, int *);
int sqlite3VdbeSorterNext(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *, int *);

#endif

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE>0
  void sqlite3VdbeEnter(Vdbe*);
  void sqlite3VdbeLeave(Vdbe*);
#else
# define sqlite3VdbeEnter(X)







>





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>


<


>

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>







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  Bool atFirst;         /* True if pointing to first entry */
  Bool useRandomRowid;  /* Generate new record numbers semi-randomly */
  Bool nullRow;         /* True if pointing to a row with no data */
  Bool deferredMoveto;  /* A call to sqlite3BtreeMoveto() is needed */
  Bool isTable;         /* True if a table requiring integer keys */
  Bool isIndex;         /* True if an index containing keys only - no data */
  Bool isOrdered;       /* True if the underlying table is BTREE_UNORDERED */
  Bool isSorter;        /* True if a new-style sorter */
  sqlite3_vtab_cursor *pVtabCursor;  /* The cursor for a virtual table */
  const sqlite3_module *pModule;     /* Module for cursor pVtabCursor */
  i64 seqCount;         /* Sequence counter */
  i64 movetoTarget;     /* Argument to the deferred sqlite3BtreeMoveto() */
  i64 lastRowid;        /* Last rowid from a Next or NextIdx operation */
  VdbeSorter *pSorter;  /* Sorter object for OP_SorterOpen cursors */

  /* Result of last sqlite3BtreeMoveto() done by an OP_NotExists or 
  ** OP_IsUnique opcode on this cursor. */
  int seekResult;

  /* Cached information about the header for the data record that the
  ** cursor is currently pointing to.  Only valid if cacheStatus matches
................................................................................
#ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterInit(Y,Z)      SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterWrite(X,Y,Z)   SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterClose(Y,Z)
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterRowkey(Y,Z)    SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterRewind(X,Y,Z)  SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterNext(X,Y,Z)    SQLITE_OK
# define sqlite3VdbeSorterCompare(X,Y,Z) SQLITE_OK
#else
int sqlite3VdbeSorterInit(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *);

void sqlite3VdbeSorterClose(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *);
int sqlite3VdbeSorterRowkey(VdbeCursor *, Mem *);
int sqlite3VdbeSorterNext(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *, int *);
int sqlite3VdbeSorterRewind(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *, int *);
int sqlite3VdbeSorterWrite(sqlite3 *, VdbeCursor *, Mem *);
int sqlite3VdbeSorterCompare(VdbeCursor *, Mem *, int *);
#endif

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_SHARED_CACHE) && SQLITE_THREADSAFE>0
  void sqlite3VdbeEnter(Vdbe*);
  void sqlite3VdbeLeave(Vdbe*);
#else
# define sqlite3VdbeEnter(X)

Changes to src/vdbeaux.c.

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    }else if( opcode==OP_VFilter ){
      int n;
      assert( p->nOp - i >= 3 );
      assert( pOp[-1].opcode==OP_Integer );
      n = pOp[-1].p1;
      if( n>nMaxArgs ) nMaxArgs = n;
#endif
    }else if( opcode==OP_Next ){
      pOp->p4.xAdvance = sqlite3BtreeNext;
      pOp->p4type = P4_ADVANCE;
    }else if( opcode==OP_Prev ){
      pOp->p4.xAdvance = sqlite3BtreePrevious;
      pOp->p4type = P4_ADVANCE;
    }








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    }else if( opcode==OP_VFilter ){
      int n;
      assert( p->nOp - i >= 3 );
      assert( pOp[-1].opcode==OP_Integer );
      n = pOp[-1].p1;
      if( n>nMaxArgs ) nMaxArgs = n;
#endif
    }else if( opcode==OP_Next || opcode==OP_SorterNext ){
      pOp->p4.xAdvance = sqlite3BtreeNext;
      pOp->p4type = P4_ADVANCE;
    }else if( opcode==OP_Prev ){
      pOp->p4.xAdvance = sqlite3BtreePrevious;
      pOp->p4type = P4_ADVANCE;
    }

Changes to src/vdbesort.c.

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#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include "vdbeInt.h"

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT

typedef struct VdbeSorterIter VdbeSorterIter;


/*
** NOTES ON DATA STRUCTURE USED FOR N-WAY MERGES:
**
** As keys are added to the sorter, they are written to disk in a series
** of sorted packed-memory-arrays (PMAs). The size of each PMA is roughly
** the same as the cache-size allowed for temporary databases. In order
................................................................................
**     aTree[] = { X, 0   0, 6    0, 3, 5, 6 }
**
** In other words, each time we advance to the next sorter element, log2(N)
** key comparison operations are required, where N is the number of segments
** being merged (rounded up to the next power of 2).
*/
struct VdbeSorter {
  int nWorking;                   /* Start a new b-tree after this many pages */
  int nBtree;                     /* Current size of b-tree contents as PMA */
  int nTree;                      /* Used size of aTree/aIter (power of 2) */
  VdbeSorterIter *aIter;          /* Array of iterators to merge */
  int *aTree;                     /* Current state of incremental merge */
  i64 iWriteOff;                  /* Current write offset within file pTemp1 */
  i64 iReadOff;                   /* Current read offset within file pTemp1 */
  sqlite3_file *pTemp1;           /* PMA file 1 */
  int nPMA;                       /* Number of PMAs stored in pTemp1 */





};

/*
** The following type is an iterator for a PMA. It caches the current key in 
** variables nKey/aKey. If the iterator is at EOF, pFile==0.
*/
struct VdbeSorterIter {
................................................................................
  i64 iEof;                       /* 1 byte past EOF for this iterator */
  sqlite3_file *pFile;            /* File iterator is reading from */
  int nAlloc;                     /* Bytes of space at aAlloc */
  u8 *aAlloc;                     /* Allocated space */
  int nKey;                       /* Number of bytes in key */
  u8 *aKey;                       /* Pointer to current key */
};












/* Minimum allowable value for the VdbeSorter.nWorking variable */
#define SORTER_MIN_WORKING 10

/* Maximum number of segments to merge in a single pass. */
#define SORTER_MAX_MERGE_COUNT 16

................................................................................
  }
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = vdbeSorterIterNext(db, pIter);
  }
  return rc;
}

































































/*
** This function is called to compare two iterator keys when merging 
** multiple b-tree segments. Parameter iOut is the index of the aTree[] 
** value to recalculate.
*/
static int vdbeSorterDoCompare(VdbeCursor *pCsr, int iOut){
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
................................................................................
  p2 = &pSorter->aIter[i2];

  if( p1->pFile==0 ){
    iRes = i2;
  }else if( p2->pFile==0 ){
    iRes = i1;
  }else{
    char aSpace[150];
    UnpackedRecord *r1;

    r1 = sqlite3VdbeRecordUnpack(
        pCsr->pKeyInfo, p1->nKey, p1->aKey, aSpace, sizeof(aSpace)
    );
    if( r1==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;

    if( sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare(p2->nKey, p2->aKey, r1)>=0 ){
      iRes = i1;
    }else{
      iRes = i2;
    }
    sqlite3VdbeDeleteUnpackedRecord(r1);
  }

  pSorter->aTree[iOut] = iRes;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Initialize the temporary index cursor just opened as a sorter cursor.
*/
int sqlite3VdbeSorterInit(sqlite3 *db, VdbeCursor *pCsr){




  assert( pCsr->pKeyInfo && pCsr->pBt );
  pCsr->pSorter = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(VdbeSorter));

  return (pCsr->pSorter ? SQLITE_OK : SQLITE_NOMEM);























}

/*
** Free any cursor components allocated by sqlite3VdbeSorterXXX routines.
*/
void sqlite3VdbeSorterClose(sqlite3 *db, VdbeCursor *pCsr){
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
................................................................................
        vdbeSorterIterZero(db, &pSorter->aIter[i]);
      }
      sqlite3DbFree(db, pSorter->aIter);
    }
    if( pSorter->pTemp1 ){
      sqlite3OsCloseFree(pSorter->pTemp1);
    }


    sqlite3DbFree(db, pSorter);
    pCsr->pSorter = 0;
  }
}

/*
** Allocate space for a file-handle and open a temporary file. If successful,
................................................................................
  return sqlite3OsOpenMalloc(db->pVfs, 0, ppFile,
      SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL |
      SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE    | SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE |
      SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE    | SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE, &dummy
  );
}















































/*
















































** Write the current contents of the b-tree to a PMA. Return SQLITE_OK
** if successful, or an SQLite error code otherwise.
**
** The format of a PMA is:
**
**     * A varint. This varint contains the total number of bytes of content
**       in the PMA (not including the varint itself).
**
**     * One or more records packed end-to-end in order of ascending keys. 
**       Each record consists of a varint followed by a blob of data (the 
**       key). The varint is the number of bytes in the blob of data.
*/
static int vdbeSorterBtreeToPMA(sqlite3 *db, VdbeCursor *pCsr){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
  int res = 0;


  /* sqlite3BtreeFirst() cannot fail because sorter btrees are always held
  ** in memory and so an I/O error is not possible. */
  rc = sqlite3BtreeFirst(pCsr->pCursor, &res);
  if( NEVER(rc!=SQLITE_OK) || res ) return rc;


  assert( pSorter->nBtree>0 );

  /* If the first temporary PMA file has not been opened, open it now. */
  if( pSorter->pTemp1==0 ){
    rc = vdbeSorterOpenTempFile(db, &pSorter->pTemp1);
    assert( rc!=SQLITE_OK || pSorter->pTemp1 );
    assert( pSorter->iWriteOff==0 );
    assert( pSorter->nPMA==0 );
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    i64 iWriteOff = pSorter->iWriteOff;
    void *aMalloc = 0;            /* Array used to hold a single record */
    int nMalloc = 0;              /* Allocated size of aMalloc[] in bytes */

    pSorter->nPMA++;
    for(
      rc = vdbeSorterWriteVarint(pSorter->pTemp1, pSorter->nBtree, &iWriteOff);
      rc==SQLITE_OK && res==0;
      rc = sqlite3BtreeNext(pCsr->pCursor, &res)
    ){
      i64 nKey;                   /* Size of this key in bytes */

      /* Write the size of the record in bytes to the output file */
      (void)sqlite3BtreeKeySize(pCsr->pCursor, &nKey);

      rc = vdbeSorterWriteVarint(pSorter->pTemp1, nKey, &iWriteOff);

      /* Make sure the aMalloc[] buffer is large enough for the record */
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK && nKey>nMalloc ){
        aMalloc = sqlite3DbReallocOrFree(db, aMalloc, nKey);
        if( !aMalloc ){ 
          rc = SQLITE_NOMEM; 
        }else{
          nMalloc = nKey;
        }
      }

      /* Write the record itself to the output file */
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        /* sqlite3BtreeKey() cannot fail because sorter btrees held in memory */
        rc = sqlite3BtreeKey(pCsr->pCursor, 0, nKey, aMalloc);
        if( ALWAYS(rc==SQLITE_OK) ){
          rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pSorter->pTemp1, aMalloc, nKey, iWriteOff);
          iWriteOff += nKey;
        }
      }

      if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) break;

    }

    /* This assert verifies that unless an error has occurred, the size of 
    ** the PMA on disk is the same as the expected size stored in
    ** pSorter->nBtree. */ 
    assert( rc!=SQLITE_OK || pSorter->nBtree==(
          iWriteOff-pSorter->iWriteOff-sqlite3VarintLen(pSorter->nBtree)
    ));

    pSorter->iWriteOff = iWriteOff;
    sqlite3DbFree(db, aMalloc);
  }

  pSorter->nBtree = 0;
  return rc;
}

/*
** This function is called on a sorter cursor by the VDBE before each row 
** is inserted into VdbeCursor.pCsr. Argument nKey is the size of the key, in
** bytes, about to be inserted.
**
** If it is determined that the temporary b-tree accessed via VdbeCursor.pCsr
** is large enough, its contents are written to a sorted PMA on disk and the
** tree emptied. This prevents the b-tree (which must be small enough to
** fit entirely in the cache in order to support efficient inserts) from
** growing too large.
**
** An SQLite error code is returned if an error occurs. Otherwise, SQLITE_OK.
*/
int sqlite3VdbeSorterWrite(sqlite3 *db, VdbeCursor *pCsr, int nKey){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
  if( pSorter ){
    Pager *pPager = sqlite3BtreePager(pCsr->pBt);
    int nPage;                    /* Current size of temporary file in pages */

    /* Sorters never spill to disk */
    assert( sqlite3PagerFile(pPager)->pMethods==0 );

    /* Determine how many pages the temporary b-tree has grown to */
    sqlite3PagerPagecount(pPager, &nPage);

    /* If pSorter->nWorking is still zero, but the temporary file has been
    ** created in the file-system, then the most recent insert into the
    ** current b-tree segment probably caused the cache to overflow (it is
    ** also possible that sqlite3_release_memory() was called). So set the
    ** size of the working set to a little less than the current size of the 
    ** file in pages.  */
    if( pSorter->nWorking==0 && sqlite3PagerUnderStress(pPager) ){
      pSorter->nWorking = nPage-5;
      if( pSorter->nWorking<SORTER_MIN_WORKING ){
        pSorter->nWorking = SORTER_MIN_WORKING;
      }
    }

    /* If the number of pages used by the current b-tree segment is greater
    ** than the size of the working set (VdbeSorter.nWorking), start a new
    ** segment b-tree.  */
    if( pSorter->nWorking && nPage>=pSorter->nWorking ){
      BtCursor *p = pCsr->pCursor;/* Cursor structure to close and reopen */
      int iRoot;                  /* Root page of new tree */

      /* Copy the current contents of the b-tree into a PMA in sorted order.
      ** Close the currently open b-tree cursor. */
      rc = vdbeSorterBtreeToPMA(db, pCsr);
      sqlite3BtreeCloseCursor(p);

      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        rc = sqlite3BtreeDropTable(pCsr->pBt, 2, 0);
#ifdef SQLITE_DEBUG
        sqlite3PagerPagecount(pPager, &nPage);
        assert( rc!=SQLITE_OK || nPage==1 );
#endif
      }
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        rc = sqlite3BtreeCreateTable(pCsr->pBt, &iRoot, BTREE_BLOBKEY);
      }
      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
        assert( iRoot==2 );
        rc = sqlite3BtreeCursor(pCsr->pBt, iRoot, 1, pCsr->pKeyInfo, p);
      }
    }

    pSorter->nBtree += sqlite3VarintLen(nKey) + nKey;
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Helper function for sqlite3VdbeSorterRewind(). 
*/
static int vdbeSorterInitMerge(
................................................................................
  i64 iWrite2 = 0;                /* Write offset for pTemp2 */
  int nIter;                      /* Number of iterators used */
  int nByte;                      /* Bytes of space required for aIter/aTree */
  int N = 2;                      /* Power of 2 >= nIter */

  assert( pSorter );

  /* Write the current b-tree to a PMA. Close the b-tree cursor. */
  rc = vdbeSorterBtreeToPMA(db, pCsr);
  sqlite3BtreeCloseCursor(pCsr->pCursor);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
  if( pSorter->nPMA==0 ){
    *pbEof = 1;

    return SQLITE_OK;
  }





  /* Allocate space for aIter[] and aTree[]. */
  nIter = pSorter->nPMA;
  if( nIter>SORTER_MAX_MERGE_COUNT ) nIter = SORTER_MAX_MERGE_COUNT;
  assert( nIter>0 );
  while( N<nIter ) N += N;
  nByte = N * (sizeof(int) + sizeof(VdbeSorterIter));
................................................................................
}

/*
** Advance to the next element in the sorter.
*/
int sqlite3VdbeSorterNext(sqlite3 *db, VdbeCursor *pCsr, int *pbEof){
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;



  int iPrev = pSorter->aTree[1];  /* Index of iterator to advance */
  int i;                          /* Index of aTree[] to recalculate */
  int rc;                         /* Return code */

  rc = vdbeSorterIterNext(db, &pSorter->aIter[iPrev]);
  for(i=(pSorter->nTree+iPrev)/2; rc==SQLITE_OK && i>0; i=i/2){
    rc = vdbeSorterDoCompare(pCsr, i);
  }

  *pbEof = (pSorter->aIter[pSorter->aTree[1]].pFile==0);








  return rc;
}






















/*
** Copy the current sorter key into the memory cell pOut.
*/
int sqlite3VdbeSorterRowkey(VdbeCursor *pCsr, Mem *pOut){
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
  VdbeSorterIter *pIter;

  pIter = &pSorter->aIter[ pSorter->aTree[1] ];

  /* Coverage testing note: As things are currently, this call will always
  ** succeed. This is because the memory cell passed by the VDBE layer 
  ** happens to be the same one as was used to assemble the keys before they
  ** were passed to the sorter - meaning it is always large enough for the
  ** largest key. But this could change very easily, so we leave the call
  ** to sqlite3VdbeMemGrow() in. */
  if( NEVER(sqlite3VdbeMemGrow(pOut, pIter->nKey, 0)) ){
    return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }
  pOut->n = pIter->nKey;
  MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Blob);
  memcpy(pOut->z, pIter->aKey, pIter->nKey);

  return SQLITE_OK;
}


























#endif /* #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT */







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#include "sqliteInt.h"
#include "vdbeInt.h"

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT

typedef struct VdbeSorterIter VdbeSorterIter;
typedef struct SorterRecord SorterRecord;

/*
** NOTES ON DATA STRUCTURE USED FOR N-WAY MERGES:
**
** As keys are added to the sorter, they are written to disk in a series
** of sorted packed-memory-arrays (PMAs). The size of each PMA is roughly
** the same as the cache-size allowed for temporary databases. In order
................................................................................
**     aTree[] = { X, 0   0, 6    0, 3, 5, 6 }
**
** In other words, each time we advance to the next sorter element, log2(N)
** key comparison operations are required, where N is the number of segments
** being merged (rounded up to the next power of 2).
*/
struct VdbeSorter {
  int nInMemory;                  /* Current size of pRecord list as PMA */

  int nTree;                      /* Used size of aTree/aIter (power of 2) */
  VdbeSorterIter *aIter;          /* Array of iterators to merge */
  int *aTree;                     /* Current state of incremental merge */
  i64 iWriteOff;                  /* Current write offset within file pTemp1 */
  i64 iReadOff;                   /* Current read offset within file pTemp1 */
  sqlite3_file *pTemp1;           /* PMA file 1 */
  int nPMA;                       /* Number of PMAs stored in pTemp1 */
  SorterRecord *pRecord;          /* Head of in-memory record list */
  int mnPmaSize;                  /* Minimum PMA size, in bytes */
  int mxPmaSize;                  /* Maximum PMA size, in bytes.  0==no limit */
  char *aSpace;                   /* Space for UnpackRecord() */
  int nSpace;                     /* Size of aSpace in bytes */
};

/*
** The following type is an iterator for a PMA. It caches the current key in 
** variables nKey/aKey. If the iterator is at EOF, pFile==0.
*/
struct VdbeSorterIter {
................................................................................
  i64 iEof;                       /* 1 byte past EOF for this iterator */
  sqlite3_file *pFile;            /* File iterator is reading from */
  int nAlloc;                     /* Bytes of space at aAlloc */
  u8 *aAlloc;                     /* Allocated space */
  int nKey;                       /* Number of bytes in key */
  u8 *aKey;                       /* Pointer to current key */
};

/*
** A structure to store a single record. All in-memory records are connected
** together into a linked list headed at VdbeSorter.pRecord using the 
** SorterRecord.pNext pointer.
*/
struct SorterRecord {
  void *pVal;
  int nVal;
  SorterRecord *pNext;
};

/* Minimum allowable value for the VdbeSorter.nWorking variable */
#define SORTER_MIN_WORKING 10

/* Maximum number of segments to merge in a single pass. */
#define SORTER_MAX_MERGE_COUNT 16

................................................................................
  }
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    rc = vdbeSorterIterNext(db, pIter);
  }
  return rc;
}


/*
** Compare key1 (buffer pKey1, size nKey1 bytes) with key2 (buffer pKey2, 
** size nKey2 bytes).  Argument pKeyInfo supplies the collation functions
** used by the comparison. If an error occurs, return an SQLite error code.
** Otherwise, return SQLITE_OK and set *pRes to a negative, zero or positive
** value, depending on whether key1 is smaller, equal to or larger than key2.
**
** If the bOmitRowid argument is non-zero, assume both keys end in a rowid
** field. For the purposes of the comparison, ignore it. Also, if bOmitRowid
** is true and key1 contains even a single NULL value, it is considered to
** be less than key2. Even if key2 also contains NULL values.
**
** If pKey2 is passed a NULL pointer, then it is assumed that the pCsr->aSpace
** has been allocated and contains an unpacked record that is used as key2.
*/
static int vdbeSorterCompare(
  VdbeCursor *pCsr,               /* Cursor object (for pKeyInfo) */
  int bOmitRowid,                 /* Ignore rowid field at end of keys */
  void *pKey1, int nKey1,         /* Left side of comparison */
  void *pKey2, int nKey2,         /* Right side of comparison */
  int *pRes                       /* OUT: Result of comparison */
){
  KeyInfo *pKeyInfo = pCsr->pKeyInfo;
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
  char *aSpace = pSorter->aSpace;
  int nSpace = pSorter->nSpace;
  UnpackedRecord *r2;
  int i;

  if( aSpace==0 ){
    nSpace = ROUND8(sizeof(UnpackedRecord))+(pKeyInfo->nField+1)*sizeof(Mem);
    aSpace = (char *)sqlite3Malloc(nSpace);
    if( aSpace==0 ) return SQLITE_NOMEM;
    pSorter->aSpace = aSpace;
    pSorter->nSpace = nSpace;
  }

  if( pKey2 ){
    /* This call cannot fail. As the memory is already allocated. */
    r2 = sqlite3VdbeRecordUnpack(pKeyInfo, nKey2, pKey2, aSpace, nSpace);
    assert( r2 && (r2->flags & UNPACKED_NEED_FREE)==0 );
    assert( r2==aSpace );
  }else{
    r2 = (UnpackedRecord *)aSpace;
    assert( !bOmitRowid );
  }

  if( bOmitRowid ){
    for(i=0; i<r2->nField-1; i++){
      if( r2->aMem[i].flags & MEM_Null ){
        *pRes = -1;
        return SQLITE_OK;
      }
    }
    r2->flags |= UNPACKED_PREFIX_MATCH;
    r2->nField--;
    assert( r2->nField>0 );
  }

  *pRes = sqlite3VdbeRecordCompare(nKey1, pKey1, r2);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** This function is called to compare two iterator keys when merging 
** multiple b-tree segments. Parameter iOut is the index of the aTree[] 
** value to recalculate.
*/
static int vdbeSorterDoCompare(VdbeCursor *pCsr, int iOut){
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
................................................................................
  p2 = &pSorter->aIter[i2];

  if( p1->pFile==0 ){
    iRes = i2;
  }else if( p2->pFile==0 ){
    iRes = i1;
  }else{
    int res;
    int rc = vdbeSorterCompare(
        pCsr, 0, p1->aKey, p1->nKey, p2->aKey, p2->nKey, &res
    );
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;
    if( res<=0 ){



      iRes = i1;
    }else{
      iRes = i2;
    }

  }

  pSorter->aTree[iOut] = iRes;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Initialize the temporary index cursor just opened as a sorter cursor.
*/
int sqlite3VdbeSorterInit(sqlite3 *db, VdbeCursor *pCsr){
  int pgsz;                       /* Page size of main database */
  int mxCache;                    /* Cache size */
  VdbeSorter *pSorter;            /* The new sorter */

  assert( pCsr->pKeyInfo && pCsr->pBt==0 );
  pCsr->pSorter = pSorter = sqlite3DbMallocZero(db, sizeof(VdbeSorter));
  if( pSorter==0 ){
    return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }

  if( !sqlite3TempInMemory(db) ){
    pgsz = sqlite3BtreeGetPageSize(db->aDb[0].pBt);
    pSorter->mnPmaSize = SORTER_MIN_WORKING * pgsz;
    mxCache = db->aDb[0].pSchema->cache_size;
    if( mxCache<SORTER_MIN_WORKING ) mxCache = SORTER_MIN_WORKING;
    pSorter->mxPmaSize = mxCache * pgsz;
  }

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Free the list of sorted records starting at pRecord.
*/
static void vdbeSorterRecordFree(sqlite3 *db, SorterRecord *pRecord){
  SorterRecord *p;
  SorterRecord *pNext;
  for(p=pRecord; p; p=pNext){
    pNext = p->pNext;
    sqlite3DbFree(db, p);
  }
}

/*
** Free any cursor components allocated by sqlite3VdbeSorterXXX routines.
*/
void sqlite3VdbeSorterClose(sqlite3 *db, VdbeCursor *pCsr){
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
................................................................................
        vdbeSorterIterZero(db, &pSorter->aIter[i]);
      }
      sqlite3DbFree(db, pSorter->aIter);
    }
    if( pSorter->pTemp1 ){
      sqlite3OsCloseFree(pSorter->pTemp1);
    }
    vdbeSorterRecordFree(db, pSorter->pRecord);
    sqlite3_free(pSorter->aSpace);
    sqlite3DbFree(db, pSorter);
    pCsr->pSorter = 0;
  }
}

/*
** Allocate space for a file-handle and open a temporary file. If successful,
................................................................................
  return sqlite3OsOpenMalloc(db->pVfs, 0, ppFile,
      SQLITE_OPEN_TEMP_JOURNAL |
      SQLITE_OPEN_READWRITE    | SQLITE_OPEN_CREATE |
      SQLITE_OPEN_EXCLUSIVE    | SQLITE_OPEN_DELETEONCLOSE, &dummy
  );
}

/*
** Attemp to merge the two sorted lists p1 and p2 into a single list. If no
** error occurs set *ppOut to the head of the new list and return SQLITE_OK.
*/
static int vdbeSorterMerge(
  sqlite3 *db,                    /* Database handle */
  VdbeCursor *pCsr,               /* For pKeyInfo */
  SorterRecord *p1,               /* First list to merge */
  SorterRecord *p2,               /* Second list to merge */
  SorterRecord **ppOut            /* OUT: Head of merged list */
){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  SorterRecord *pFinal = 0;
  SorterRecord **pp = &pFinal;
  void *pVal2 = p2 ? p2->pVal : 0;

  while( p1 && p2 ){
    int res;
    rc = vdbeSorterCompare(pCsr, 0, p1->pVal, p1->nVal, pVal2, p2->nVal, &res);
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      *pp = 0;
      vdbeSorterRecordFree(db, p1);
      vdbeSorterRecordFree(db, p2);
      vdbeSorterRecordFree(db, pFinal);
      *ppOut = 0;
      return rc;
    }
    if( res<=0 ){
      *pp = p1;
      pp = &p1->pNext;
      p1 = p1->pNext;
      pVal2 = 0;
    }else{
      *pp = p2;
       pp = &p2->pNext;
      p2 = p2->pNext;
      if( p2==0 ) break;
      pVal2 = p2->pVal;
    }
  }
  *pp = p1 ? p1 : p2;

  *ppOut = pFinal;
  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Sort the linked list of records headed at pCsr->pRecord. Return SQLITE_OK
** if successful, or an SQLite error code (i.e. SQLITE_NOMEM) if an error
** occurs.
*/
static int vdbeSorterSort(sqlite3 *db, VdbeCursor *pCsr){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;
  int i;
  SorterRecord **aSlot;
  SorterRecord *p;
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;

  aSlot = (SorterRecord **)sqlite3MallocZero(64 * sizeof(SorterRecord *));
  if( !aSlot ){
    return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }

  p = pSorter->pRecord;
  while( p ){
    SorterRecord *pNext = p->pNext;
    p->pNext = 0;
    for(i=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && aSlot[i]; i++){
      rc = vdbeSorterMerge(db, pCsr, p, aSlot[i], &p);
      aSlot[i] = 0;
    }
    if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
      vdbeSorterRecordFree(db, pNext);
      break;
    }
    aSlot[i] = p;
    p = pNext;
  }

  p = 0;
  for(i=0; i<64; i++){
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      rc = vdbeSorterMerge(db, pCsr, p, aSlot[i], &p);
    }else{
      vdbeSorterRecordFree(db, aSlot[i]);
    }
  }
  pSorter->pRecord = p;

  sqlite3_free(aSlot);
  return rc;
}


/*
** Write the current contents of the in-memory linked-list to a PMA. Return
** SQLITE_OK if successful, or an SQLite error code otherwise.
**
** The format of a PMA is:
**
**     * A varint. This varint contains the total number of bytes of content
**       in the PMA (not including the varint itself).
**
**     * One or more records packed end-to-end in order of ascending keys. 
**       Each record consists of a varint followed by a blob of data (the 
**       key). The varint is the number of bytes in the blob of data.
*/
static int vdbeSorterListToPMA(sqlite3 *db, VdbeCursor *pCsr){
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return code */
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;


  if( pSorter->nInMemory==0 ){
    assert( pSorter->pRecord==0 );


    return rc;
  }

  rc = vdbeSorterSort(db, pCsr);

  /* If the first temporary PMA file has not been opened, open it now. */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && pSorter->pTemp1==0 ){
    rc = vdbeSorterOpenTempFile(db, &pSorter->pTemp1);
    assert( rc!=SQLITE_OK || pSorter->pTemp1 );
    assert( pSorter->iWriteOff==0 );
    assert( pSorter->nPMA==0 );
  }

  if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
    i64 iOff = pSorter->iWriteOff;
    SorterRecord *p;
    SorterRecord *pNext = 0;

    pSorter->nPMA++;

    rc = vdbeSorterWriteVarint(pSorter->pTemp1, pSorter->nInMemory, &iOff);
    for(p=pSorter->pRecord; rc==SQLITE_OK && p; p=pNext){






      pNext = p->pNext;
      rc = vdbeSorterWriteVarint(pSorter->pTemp1, p->nVal, &iOff);












      if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){



        rc = sqlite3OsWrite(pSorter->pTemp1, p->pVal, p->nVal, iOff);
        iOff += p->nVal;
      }



      sqlite3DbFree(db, p);
    }

    /* This assert verifies that unless an error has occurred, the size of 
    ** the PMA on disk is the same as the expected size stored in
    ** pSorter->nInMemory. */ 
    assert( rc!=SQLITE_OK || pSorter->nInMemory==(
          iOff-pSorter->iWriteOff-sqlite3VarintLen(pSorter->nInMemory)
    ));

    pSorter->iWriteOff = iOff;
    pSorter->pRecord = p;
  }


  return rc;
}

/*
** Add a record to the sorter.
*/
int sqlite3VdbeSorterWrite(
  sqlite3 *db,                    /* Database handle */
  VdbeCursor *pCsr,               /* Sorter cursor */
  Mem *pVal                       /* Memory cell containing record */
){
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
  int rc = SQLITE_OK;             /* Return Code */
  SorterRecord *pNew;             /* New list element */

  assert( pSorter );
  pSorter->nInMemory += sqlite3VarintLen(pVal->n) + pVal->n;

  pNew = (SorterRecord *)sqlite3DbMallocRaw(db, pVal->n + sizeof(SorterRecord));
  if( pNew==0 ){
    rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }else{
    pNew->pVal = (void *)&pNew[1];
    memcpy(pNew->pVal, pVal->z, pVal->n);
    pNew->nVal = pVal->n;
    pNew->pNext = pSorter->pRecord;
    pSorter->pRecord = pNew;
  }

  /* See if the contents of the sorter should now be written out. They
  ** are written out when either of the following are true:
  **
  **   * The total memory allocated for the in-memory list is greater 
  **     than (page-size * cache-size), or
  **
  **   * The total memory allocated for the in-memory list is greater 
  **     than (page-size * 10) and sqlite3HeapNearlyFull() returns true.
  */
  if( rc==SQLITE_OK && pSorter->mxPmaSize>0 && (
        (pSorter->nInMemory>pSorter->mxPmaSize)
     || (pSorter->nInMemory>pSorter->mnPmaSize && sqlite3HeapNearlyFull())
  )){
    rc = vdbeSorterListToPMA(db, pCsr);
    pSorter->nInMemory = 0;
  }



























  return rc;
}

/*
** Helper function for sqlite3VdbeSorterRewind(). 
*/
static int vdbeSorterInitMerge(
................................................................................
  i64 iWrite2 = 0;                /* Write offset for pTemp2 */
  int nIter;                      /* Number of iterators used */
  int nByte;                      /* Bytes of space required for aIter/aTree */
  int N = 2;                      /* Power of 2 >= nIter */

  assert( pSorter );

  /* If no data has been written to disk, then do not do so now. Instead,
  ** sort the VdbeSorter.pRecord list. The vdbe layer will read data directly
  ** from the in-memory list.  */

  if( pSorter->nPMA==0 ){
    *pbEof = !pSorter->pRecord;
    assert( pSorter->aTree==0 );
    return vdbeSorterSort(db, pCsr);
  }

  /* Write the current b-tree to a PMA. Close the b-tree cursor. */
  rc = vdbeSorterListToPMA(db, pCsr);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ) return rc;

  /* Allocate space for aIter[] and aTree[]. */
  nIter = pSorter->nPMA;
  if( nIter>SORTER_MAX_MERGE_COUNT ) nIter = SORTER_MAX_MERGE_COUNT;
  assert( nIter>0 );
  while( N<nIter ) N += N;
  nByte = N * (sizeof(int) + sizeof(VdbeSorterIter));
................................................................................
}

/*
** Advance to the next element in the sorter.
*/
int sqlite3VdbeSorterNext(sqlite3 *db, VdbeCursor *pCsr, int *pbEof){
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
  int rc;                         /* Return code */

  if( pSorter->aTree ){
    int iPrev = pSorter->aTree[1];/* Index of iterator to advance */
    int i;                        /* Index of aTree[] to recalculate */


    rc = vdbeSorterIterNext(db, &pSorter->aIter[iPrev]);
    for(i=(pSorter->nTree+iPrev)/2; rc==SQLITE_OK && i>0; i=i/2){
      rc = vdbeSorterDoCompare(pCsr, i);
    }

    *pbEof = (pSorter->aIter[pSorter->aTree[1]].pFile==0);
  }else{
    SorterRecord *pFree = pSorter->pRecord;
    pSorter->pRecord = pFree->pNext;
    pFree->pNext = 0;
    vdbeSorterRecordFree(db, pFree);
    *pbEof = !pSorter->pRecord;
    rc = SQLITE_OK;
  }
  return rc;
}

/*
** Return a pointer to a buffer owned by the sorter that contains the 
** current key.
*/
static void *vdbeSorterRowkey(
  VdbeSorter *pSorter,            /* Sorter object */
  int *pnKey                      /* OUT: Size of current key in bytes */
){
  void *pKey;
  if( pSorter->aTree ){
    VdbeSorterIter *pIter;
    pIter = &pSorter->aIter[ pSorter->aTree[1] ];
    *pnKey = pIter->nKey;
    pKey = pIter->aKey;
  }else{
    *pnKey = pSorter->pRecord->nVal;
    pKey = pSorter->pRecord->pVal;
  }
  return pKey;
}

/*
** Copy the current sorter key into the memory cell pOut.
*/
int sqlite3VdbeSorterRowkey(VdbeCursor *pCsr, Mem *pOut){
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
  void *pKey; int nKey;           /* Sorter key to copy into pOut */

  pKey = vdbeSorterRowkey(pSorter, &nKey);






  if( sqlite3VdbeMemGrow(pOut, nKey, 0) ){

    return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }
  pOut->n = nKey;
  MemSetTypeFlag(pOut, MEM_Blob);
  memcpy(pOut->z, pKey, nKey);

  return SQLITE_OK;
}

/*
** Compare the key in memory cell pVal with the key that the sorter cursor
** passed as the first argument currently points to. For the purposes of
** the comparison, ignore the rowid field at the end of each record.
**
** If an error occurs, return an SQLite error code (i.e. SQLITE_NOMEM).
** Otherwise, set *pRes to a negative, zero or positive value if the
** key in pVal is smaller than, equal to or larger than the current sorter
** key.
*/
int sqlite3VdbeSorterCompare(
  VdbeCursor *pCsr,               /* Sorter cursor */
  Mem *pVal,                      /* Value to compare to current sorter key */
  int *pRes                       /* OUT: Result of comparison */
){
  int rc;
  VdbeSorter *pSorter = pCsr->pSorter;
  void *pKey; int nKey;           /* Sorter key to compare pVal with */

  pKey = vdbeSorterRowkey(pSorter, &nKey);
  rc = vdbeSorterCompare(pCsr, 1, pVal->z, pVal->n, pKey, nKey, pRes);
  assert( rc!=SQLITE_OK || pVal->db->mallocFailed || (*pRes)<=0 );
  return rc;
}

#endif /* #ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_MERGE_SORT */

Changes to test/distinct.test.

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  uplevel [list do_test $tn [list is_distinct_noop $sql] 0]
}

proc do_temptables_test {tn sql temptables} {
  uplevel [list do_test $tn [subst -novar {
    set ret ""
    db eval "EXPLAIN [set sql]" {
      if {$opcode == "OpenEphemeral"} { 
        if {$p5 != "10" && $p5!="00"} { error "p5 = $p5" }
        if {$p5 == "10"} {
          lappend ret hash
        } else {
          lappend ret btree
        }
      }







|







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  uplevel [list do_test $tn [list is_distinct_noop $sql] 0]
}

proc do_temptables_test {tn sql temptables} {
  uplevel [list do_test $tn [subst -novar {
    set ret ""
    db eval "EXPLAIN [set sql]" {
      if {$opcode == "OpenEphemeral" || $opcode == "SorterOpen"} { 
        if {$p5 != "10" && $p5!="00"} { error "p5 = $p5" }
        if {$p5 == "10"} {
          lappend ret hash
        } else {
          lappend ret btree
        }
      }

Changes to test/index4.test.

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    DROP TABLE t1;
    CREATE TABLE t1(x);
  COMMIT;
  CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(x); 
  PRAGMA integrity_check
} {ok}
















finish_test







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    DROP TABLE t1;
    CREATE TABLE t1(x);
  COMMIT;
  CREATE INDEX i1 ON t1(x); 
  PRAGMA integrity_check
} {ok}

do_execsql_test 2.1 {
  BEGIN;
    CREATE TABLE t2(x);
    INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(14);
    INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(35);
    INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(15);
    INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(35);
    INSERT INTO t2 VALUES(16);
  COMMIT;
}
do_catchsql_test 2.2 {
  CREATE UNIQUE INDEX i3 ON t2(x);
} {1 {indexed columns are not unique}}


finish_test

Changes to test/misc3.test.

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        a INTEGER DEFAULT 54321,
        b TEXT DEFAULT "hello",
        c REAL DEFAULT 3.1415926
      );
      CREATE UNIQUE INDEX ex1i1 ON ex1(a);
      EXPLAIN REINDEX;
    }]
    regexp { IsUnique \d+ \d+ \d+ \d+ } $x
  } {1}
  if {[regexp {16} [db one {PRAGMA encoding}]]} {
    do_test misc3-6.11-utf16 {
      set x [execsql {
        EXPLAIN SELECT a+123456789012, b*4.5678, c FROM ex1 ORDER BY +a, b DESC
      }]
      set y [regexp { 123456789012 } $x]







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        a INTEGER DEFAULT 54321,
        b TEXT DEFAULT "hello",
        c REAL DEFAULT 3.1415926
      );
      CREATE UNIQUE INDEX ex1i1 ON ex1(a);
      EXPLAIN REINDEX;
    }]
    regexp { SorterCompare \d+ \d+ \d+ } $x
  } {1}
  if {[regexp {16} [db one {PRAGMA encoding}]]} {
    do_test misc3-6.11-utf16 {
      set x [execsql {
        EXPLAIN SELECT a+123456789012, b*4.5678, c FROM ex1 ORDER BY +a, b DESC
      }]
      set y [regexp { 123456789012 } $x]