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Overview
Comment:Remove over 300 lines of unused code, code that implemented the older Guttman insertion algorithms that are no longer used.
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Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | rtree-enhancements
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SHA1: 3ba5f295c709faebf5505e61f6dc5266b811b086
User & Date: drh 2014-04-14 12:18:17
Context
2014-04-14
14:43
Fix comments on the rtreenode() and rtreedepth() test function in the R-Tree module. check-in: ade5b986 user: drh tags: rtree-enhancements
12:18
Remove over 300 lines of unused code, code that implemented the older Guttman insertion algorithms that are no longer used. check-in: 3ba5f295 user: drh tags: rtree-enhancements
2014-04-13
16:10
Continuing work on the new custom query mechanism for r-tree. check-in: ca7357e6 user: drh tags: rtree-enhancements
Changes
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**      of 4-byte coordinates. For leaf nodes the integer is the rowid
**      of a record. For internal nodes it is the node number of a
**      child page.
*/

#if !defined(SQLITE_CORE) || defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_RTREE)

/*
** This file contains an implementation of a couple of different variants
** of the r-tree algorithm. See the README file for further details. The 
** same data-structure is used for all, but the algorithms for insert and
** delete operations vary. The variants used are selected at compile time 
** by defining the following symbols:
*/

/* Either, both or none of the following may be set to activate 
** r*tree variant algorithms.
*/
#define VARIANT_RSTARTREE_CHOOSESUBTREE 0
#define VARIANT_RSTARTREE_REINSERT      1

/* 
** Exactly one of the following must be set to 1.
*/
#define VARIANT_GUTTMAN_QUADRATIC_SPLIT 0
#define VARIANT_GUTTMAN_LINEAR_SPLIT    0
#define VARIANT_RSTARTREE_SPLIT         1

#define VARIANT_GUTTMAN_SPLIT \
        (VARIANT_GUTTMAN_LINEAR_SPLIT||VARIANT_GUTTMAN_QUADRATIC_SPLIT)

#if VARIANT_GUTTMAN_QUADRATIC_SPLIT
  #define PickNext QuadraticPickNext
  #define PickSeeds QuadraticPickSeeds
  #define AssignCells splitNodeGuttman
#endif
#if VARIANT_GUTTMAN_LINEAR_SPLIT
  #define PickNext LinearPickNext
  #define PickSeeds LinearPickSeeds
  #define AssignCells splitNodeGuttman
#endif
#if VARIANT_RSTARTREE_SPLIT
  #define AssignCells splitNodeStartree
#endif

#if !defined(NDEBUG) && !defined(SQLITE_DEBUG) 
# define NDEBUG 1
#endif

#ifndef SQLITE_CORE
  #include "sqlite3ext.h"
  SQLITE_EXTENSION_INIT1
#else
  #include "sqlite3.h"
#endif

................................................................................
  RtreeCell cell;
  memcpy(&cell, p, sizeof(RtreeCell));
  area = cellArea(pRtree, &cell);
  cellUnion(pRtree, &cell, pCell);
  return (cellArea(pRtree, &cell)-area);
}

#if VARIANT_RSTARTREE_CHOOSESUBTREE || VARIANT_RSTARTREE_SPLIT
static RtreeDValue cellOverlap(
  Rtree *pRtree, 
  RtreeCell *p, 
  RtreeCell *aCell, 
  int nCell, 
  int iExclude
){
  int ii;
  RtreeDValue overlap = 0.0;
  for(ii=0; ii<nCell; ii++){
#if VARIANT_RSTARTREE_CHOOSESUBTREE
    if( ii!=iExclude )
#else
    assert( iExclude==-1 );
    UNUSED_PARAMETER(iExclude);
#endif
    {
      int jj;
      RtreeDValue o = (RtreeDValue)1;
      for(jj=0; jj<(pRtree->nDim*2); jj+=2){
        RtreeDValue x1, x2;

        x1 = MAX(DCOORD(p->aCoord[jj]), DCOORD(aCell[ii].aCoord[jj]));
        x2 = MIN(DCOORD(p->aCoord[jj+1]), DCOORD(aCell[ii].aCoord[jj+1]));

        if( x2<x1 ){
          o = 0.0;

          break;
        }else{
          o = o * (x2-x1);
        }
      }
      overlap += o;
    }
  }
  return overlap;
}
#endif

#if VARIANT_RSTARTREE_CHOOSESUBTREE
static RtreeDValue cellOverlapEnlargement(
  Rtree *pRtree, 
  RtreeCell *p, 
  RtreeCell *pInsert, 
  RtreeCell *aCell, 
  int nCell, 
  int iExclude
){
  RtreeDValue before, after;
  before = cellOverlap(pRtree, p, aCell, nCell, iExclude);
  cellUnion(pRtree, p, pInsert);
  after = cellOverlap(pRtree, p, aCell, nCell, iExclude);
  return (after-before);
}
#endif


/*
** This function implements the ChooseLeaf algorithm from Gutman[84].
** ChooseSubTree in r*tree terminology.
*/
static int ChooseLeaf(
................................................................................

  for(ii=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && ii<(pRtree->iDepth-iHeight); ii++){
    int iCell;
    sqlite3_int64 iBest = 0;

    RtreeDValue fMinGrowth = 0.0;
    RtreeDValue fMinArea = 0.0;
#if VARIANT_RSTARTREE_CHOOSESUBTREE
    RtreeDValue fMinOverlap = 0.0;
    RtreeDValue overlap;
#endif

    int nCell = NCELL(pNode);
    RtreeCell cell;
    RtreeNode *pChild;

    RtreeCell *aCell = 0;

#if VARIANT_RSTARTREE_CHOOSESUBTREE
    if( ii==(pRtree->iDepth-1) ){
      int jj;
      aCell = sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(RtreeCell)*nCell);
      if( !aCell ){
        rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
        nodeRelease(pRtree, pNode);
        pNode = 0;
        continue;
      }
      for(jj=0; jj<nCell; jj++){
        nodeGetCell(pRtree, pNode, jj, &aCell[jj]);
      }
    }
#endif

    /* Select the child node which will be enlarged the least if pCell
    ** is inserted into it. Resolve ties by choosing the entry with
    ** the smallest area.
    */
    for(iCell=0; iCell<nCell; iCell++){
      int bBest = 0;
      RtreeDValue growth;
      RtreeDValue area;
      nodeGetCell(pRtree, pNode, iCell, &cell);
      growth = cellGrowth(pRtree, &cell, pCell);
      area = cellArea(pRtree, &cell);

#if VARIANT_RSTARTREE_CHOOSESUBTREE
      if( ii==(pRtree->iDepth-1) ){
        overlap = cellOverlapEnlargement(pRtree,&cell,pCell,aCell,nCell,iCell);
      }else{
        overlap = 0.0;
      }
      if( (iCell==0) 
       || (overlap<fMinOverlap) 
       || (overlap==fMinOverlap && growth<fMinGrowth)
       || (overlap==fMinOverlap && growth==fMinGrowth && area<fMinArea)
      ){
        bBest = 1;
        fMinOverlap = overlap;
      }
#else
      if( iCell==0||growth<fMinGrowth||(growth==fMinGrowth && area<fMinArea) ){
        bBest = 1;
      }
#endif
      if( bBest ){
        fMinGrowth = growth;
        fMinArea = area;
        iBest = cell.iRowid;
      }
    }

................................................................................
  sqlite3_bind_int64(pRtree->pWriteParent, 2, iPar);
  sqlite3_step(pRtree->pWriteParent);
  return sqlite3_reset(pRtree->pWriteParent);
}

static int rtreeInsertCell(Rtree *, RtreeNode *, RtreeCell *, int);

#if VARIANT_GUTTMAN_LINEAR_SPLIT
/*
** Implementation of the linear variant of the PickNext() function from
** Guttman[84].
*/
static RtreeCell *LinearPickNext(
  Rtree *pRtree,
  RtreeCell *aCell, 
  int nCell, 
  RtreeCell *pLeftBox, 
  RtreeCell *pRightBox,
  int *aiUsed
){
  int ii;
  for(ii=0; aiUsed[ii]; ii++);
  aiUsed[ii] = 1;
  return &aCell[ii];
}

/*
** Implementation of the linear variant of the PickSeeds() function from
** Guttman[84].
*/
static void LinearPickSeeds(
  Rtree *pRtree,
  RtreeCell *aCell, 
  int nCell, 
  int *piLeftSeed, 
  int *piRightSeed
){
  int i;
  int iLeftSeed = 0;
  int iRightSeed = 1;
  RtreeDValue maxNormalInnerWidth = (RtreeDValue)0;

  /* Pick two "seed" cells from the array of cells. The algorithm used
  ** here is the LinearPickSeeds algorithm from Gutman[1984]. The 
  ** indices of the two seed cells in the array are stored in local
  ** variables iLeftSeek and iRightSeed.
  */
  for(i=0; i<pRtree->nDim; i++){
    RtreeDValue x1 = DCOORD(aCell[0].aCoord[i*2]);
    RtreeDValue x2 = DCOORD(aCell[0].aCoord[i*2+1]);
    RtreeDValue x3 = x1;
    RtreeDValue x4 = x2;
    int jj;

    int iCellLeft = 0;
    int iCellRight = 0;

    for(jj=1; jj<nCell; jj++){
      RtreeDValue left = DCOORD(aCell[jj].aCoord[i*2]);
      RtreeDValue right = DCOORD(aCell[jj].aCoord[i*2+1]);

      if( left<x1 ) x1 = left;
      if( right>x4 ) x4 = right;
      if( left>x3 ){
        x3 = left;
        iCellRight = jj;
      }
      if( right<x2 ){
        x2 = right;
        iCellLeft = jj;
      }
    }

    if( x4!=x1 ){
      RtreeDValue normalwidth = (x3 - x2) / (x4 - x1);
      if( normalwidth>maxNormalInnerWidth ){
        iLeftSeed = iCellLeft;
        iRightSeed = iCellRight;
      }
    }
  }

  *piLeftSeed = iLeftSeed;
  *piRightSeed = iRightSeed;
}
#endif /* VARIANT_GUTTMAN_LINEAR_SPLIT */

#if VARIANT_GUTTMAN_QUADRATIC_SPLIT
/*
** Implementation of the quadratic variant of the PickNext() function from
** Guttman[84].
*/
static RtreeCell *QuadraticPickNext(
  Rtree *pRtree,
  RtreeCell *aCell, 
  int nCell, 
  RtreeCell *pLeftBox, 
  RtreeCell *pRightBox,
  int *aiUsed
){
  #define FABS(a) ((a)<0.0?-1.0*(a):(a))

  int iSelect = -1;
  RtreeDValue fDiff;
  int ii;
  for(ii=0; ii<nCell; ii++){
    if( aiUsed[ii]==0 ){
      RtreeDValue left = cellGrowth(pRtree, pLeftBox, &aCell[ii]);
      RtreeDValue right = cellGrowth(pRtree, pLeftBox, &aCell[ii]);
      RtreeDValue diff = FABS(right-left);
      if( iSelect<0 || diff>fDiff ){
        fDiff = diff;
        iSelect = ii;
      }
    }
  }
  aiUsed[iSelect] = 1;
  return &aCell[iSelect];
}

/*
** Implementation of the quadratic variant of the PickSeeds() function from
** Guttman[84].
*/
static void QuadraticPickSeeds(
  Rtree *pRtree,
  RtreeCell *aCell, 
  int nCell, 
  int *piLeftSeed, 
  int *piRightSeed
){
  int ii;
  int jj;

  int iLeftSeed = 0;
  int iRightSeed = 1;
  RtreeDValue fWaste = 0.0;

  for(ii=0; ii<nCell; ii++){
    for(jj=ii+1; jj<nCell; jj++){
      RtreeDValue right = cellArea(pRtree, &aCell[jj]);
      RtreeDValue growth = cellGrowth(pRtree, &aCell[ii], &aCell[jj]);
      RtreeDValue waste = growth - right;

      if( waste>fWaste ){
        iLeftSeed = ii;
        iRightSeed = jj;
        fWaste = waste;
      }
    }
  }

  *piLeftSeed = iLeftSeed;
  *piRightSeed = iRightSeed;
}
#endif /* VARIANT_GUTTMAN_QUADRATIC_SPLIT */

/*
** Arguments aIdx, aDistance and aSpare all point to arrays of size
** nIdx. The aIdx array contains the set of integers from 0 to 
** (nIdx-1) in no particular order. This function sorts the values
** in aIdx according to the indexed values in aDistance. For
** example, assuming the inputs:
................................................................................
        assert( xleft1<=xright1 && (xleft1<xright1 || xleft2<=xright2) );
      }
    }
#endif
  }
}

#if VARIANT_RSTARTREE_SPLIT
/*
** Implementation of the R*-tree variant of SplitNode from Beckman[1990].
*/
static int splitNodeStartree(
  Rtree *pRtree,
  RtreeCell *aCell,
  int nCell,
................................................................................
          cellUnion(pRtree, &left, &aCell[aaSorted[ii][kk]]);
        }else{
          cellUnion(pRtree, &right, &aCell[aaSorted[ii][kk]]);
        }
      }
      margin += cellMargin(pRtree, &left);
      margin += cellMargin(pRtree, &right);
      overlap = cellOverlap(pRtree, &left, &right, 1, -1);
      area = cellArea(pRtree, &left) + cellArea(pRtree, &right);
      if( (nLeft==RTREE_MINCELLS(pRtree))
       || (overlap<fBestOverlap)
       || (overlap==fBestOverlap && area<fBestArea)
      ){
        iBestLeft = nLeft;
        fBestOverlap = overlap;
................................................................................
    nodeInsertCell(pRtree, pTarget, pCell);
    cellUnion(pRtree, pBbox, pCell);
  }

  sqlite3_free(aaSorted);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
#endif

#if VARIANT_GUTTMAN_SPLIT
/*
** Implementation of the regular R-tree SplitNode from Guttman[1984].
*/
static int splitNodeGuttman(
  Rtree *pRtree,
  RtreeCell *aCell,
  int nCell,
  RtreeNode *pLeft,
  RtreeNode *pRight,
  RtreeCell *pBboxLeft,
  RtreeCell *pBboxRight
){
  int iLeftSeed = 0;
  int iRightSeed = 1;
  int *aiUsed;
  int i;

  aiUsed = sqlite3_malloc(sizeof(int)*nCell);
  if( !aiUsed ){
    return SQLITE_NOMEM;
  }
  memset(aiUsed, 0, sizeof(int)*nCell);

  PickSeeds(pRtree, aCell, nCell, &iLeftSeed, &iRightSeed);

  memcpy(pBboxLeft, &aCell[iLeftSeed], sizeof(RtreeCell));
  memcpy(pBboxRight, &aCell[iRightSeed], sizeof(RtreeCell));
  nodeInsertCell(pRtree, pLeft, &aCell[iLeftSeed]);
  nodeInsertCell(pRtree, pRight, &aCell[iRightSeed]);
  aiUsed[iLeftSeed] = 1;
  aiUsed[iRightSeed] = 1;

  for(i=nCell-2; i>0; i--){
    RtreeCell *pNext;
    pNext = PickNext(pRtree, aCell, nCell, pBboxLeft, pBboxRight, aiUsed);
    RtreeDValue diff =  
      cellGrowth(pRtree, pBboxLeft, pNext) - 
      cellGrowth(pRtree, pBboxRight, pNext)
    ;
    if( (RTREE_MINCELLS(pRtree)-NCELL(pRight)==i)
     || (diff>0.0 && (RTREE_MINCELLS(pRtree)-NCELL(pLeft)!=i))
    ){
      nodeInsertCell(pRtree, pRight, pNext);
      cellUnion(pRtree, pBboxRight, pNext);
    }else{
      nodeInsertCell(pRtree, pLeft, pNext);
      cellUnion(pRtree, pBboxLeft, pNext);
    }
  }

  sqlite3_free(aiUsed);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}
#endif

static int updateMapping(
  Rtree *pRtree, 
  i64 iRowid, 
  RtreeNode *pNode, 
  int iHeight
){
................................................................................
    rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    goto splitnode_out;
  }

  memset(pLeft->zData, 0, pRtree->iNodeSize);
  memset(pRight->zData, 0, pRtree->iNodeSize);

  rc = AssignCells(pRtree, aCell, nCell, pLeft, pRight, &leftbbox, &rightbbox);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    goto splitnode_out;
  }

  /* Ensure both child nodes have node numbers assigned to them by calling
  ** nodeWrite(). Node pRight always needs a node number, as it was created
  ** by nodeNew() above. But node pLeft sometimes already has a node number.
................................................................................
    if( pChild ){
      nodeRelease(pRtree, pChild->pParent);
      nodeReference(pNode);
      pChild->pParent = pNode;
    }
  }
  if( nodeInsertCell(pRtree, pNode, pCell) ){
#if VARIANT_RSTARTREE_REINSERT
    if( iHeight<=pRtree->iReinsertHeight || pNode->iNode==1){
      rc = SplitNode(pRtree, pNode, pCell, iHeight);
    }else{
      pRtree->iReinsertHeight = iHeight;
      rc = Reinsert(pRtree, pNode, pCell, iHeight);
    }
#else
    rc = SplitNode(pRtree, pNode, pCell, iHeight);
#endif
  }else{
    rc = AdjustTree(pRtree, pNode, pCell);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      if( iHeight==0 ){
        rc = rowidWrite(pRtree, pCell->iRowid, pNode->iNode);
      }else{
        rc = parentWrite(pRtree, pCell->iRowid, pNode->iNode);







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**      of 4-byte coordinates. For leaf nodes the integer is the rowid
**      of a record. For internal nodes it is the node number of a
**      child page.
*/

#if !defined(SQLITE_CORE) || defined(SQLITE_ENABLE_RTREE)











































#ifndef SQLITE_CORE
  #include "sqlite3ext.h"
  SQLITE_EXTENSION_INIT1
#else
  #include "sqlite3.h"
#endif

................................................................................
  RtreeCell cell;
  memcpy(&cell, p, sizeof(RtreeCell));
  area = cellArea(pRtree, &cell);
  cellUnion(pRtree, &cell, pCell);
  return (cellArea(pRtree, &cell)-area);
}


static RtreeDValue cellOverlap(
  Rtree *pRtree, 
  RtreeCell *p, 
  RtreeCell *aCell, 
  int nCell

){
  int ii;
  RtreeDValue overlap = 0.0;
  for(ii=0; ii<nCell; ii++){







    int jj;
    RtreeDValue o = (RtreeDValue)1;
    for(jj=0; jj<(pRtree->nDim*2); jj+=2){
      RtreeDValue x1, x2;

      x1 = MAX(DCOORD(p->aCoord[jj]), DCOORD(aCell[ii].aCoord[jj]));
      x2 = MIN(DCOORD(p->aCoord[jj+1]), DCOORD(aCell[ii].aCoord[jj+1]));

      if( x2<x1 ){

        o = (RtreeDValue)0;
        break;
      }else{
        o = o * (x2-x1);
      }
    }
    overlap += o;

  }
  return overlap;
}




















/*
** This function implements the ChooseLeaf algorithm from Gutman[84].
** ChooseSubTree in r*tree terminology.
*/
static int ChooseLeaf(
................................................................................

  for(ii=0; rc==SQLITE_OK && ii<(pRtree->iDepth-iHeight); ii++){
    int iCell;
    sqlite3_int64 iBest = 0;

    RtreeDValue fMinGrowth = 0.0;
    RtreeDValue fMinArea = 0.0;





    int nCell = NCELL(pNode);
    RtreeCell cell;
    RtreeNode *pChild;

    RtreeCell *aCell = 0;

















    /* Select the child node which will be enlarged the least if pCell
    ** is inserted into it. Resolve ties by choosing the entry with
    ** the smallest area.
    */
    for(iCell=0; iCell<nCell; iCell++){
      int bBest = 0;
      RtreeDValue growth;
      RtreeDValue area;
      nodeGetCell(pRtree, pNode, iCell, &cell);
      growth = cellGrowth(pRtree, &cell, pCell);
      area = cellArea(pRtree, &cell);
















      if( iCell==0||growth<fMinGrowth||(growth==fMinGrowth && area<fMinArea) ){
        bBest = 1;
      }

      if( bBest ){
        fMinGrowth = growth;
        fMinArea = area;
        iBest = cell.iRowid;
      }
    }

................................................................................
  sqlite3_bind_int64(pRtree->pWriteParent, 2, iPar);
  sqlite3_step(pRtree->pWriteParent);
  return sqlite3_reset(pRtree->pWriteParent);
}

static int rtreeInsertCell(Rtree *, RtreeNode *, RtreeCell *, int);























































































































































/*
** Arguments aIdx, aDistance and aSpare all point to arrays of size
** nIdx. The aIdx array contains the set of integers from 0 to 
** (nIdx-1) in no particular order. This function sorts the values
** in aIdx according to the indexed values in aDistance. For
** example, assuming the inputs:
................................................................................
        assert( xleft1<=xright1 && (xleft1<xright1 || xleft2<=xright2) );
      }
    }
#endif
  }
}


/*
** Implementation of the R*-tree variant of SplitNode from Beckman[1990].
*/
static int splitNodeStartree(
  Rtree *pRtree,
  RtreeCell *aCell,
  int nCell,
................................................................................
          cellUnion(pRtree, &left, &aCell[aaSorted[ii][kk]]);
        }else{
          cellUnion(pRtree, &right, &aCell[aaSorted[ii][kk]]);
        }
      }
      margin += cellMargin(pRtree, &left);
      margin += cellMargin(pRtree, &right);
      overlap = cellOverlap(pRtree, &left, &right, 1);
      area = cellArea(pRtree, &left) + cellArea(pRtree, &right);
      if( (nLeft==RTREE_MINCELLS(pRtree))
       || (overlap<fBestOverlap)
       || (overlap==fBestOverlap && area<fBestArea)
      ){
        iBestLeft = nLeft;
        fBestOverlap = overlap;
................................................................................
    nodeInsertCell(pRtree, pTarget, pCell);
    cellUnion(pRtree, pBbox, pCell);
  }

  sqlite3_free(aaSorted);
  return SQLITE_OK;
}


























































static int updateMapping(
  Rtree *pRtree, 
  i64 iRowid, 
  RtreeNode *pNode, 
  int iHeight
){
................................................................................
    rc = SQLITE_NOMEM;
    goto splitnode_out;
  }

  memset(pLeft->zData, 0, pRtree->iNodeSize);
  memset(pRight->zData, 0, pRtree->iNodeSize);

  rc = splitNodeStartree(pRtree, aCell, nCell, pLeft, pRight,&leftbbox,&rightbbox);
  if( rc!=SQLITE_OK ){
    goto splitnode_out;
  }

  /* Ensure both child nodes have node numbers assigned to them by calling
  ** nodeWrite(). Node pRight always needs a node number, as it was created
  ** by nodeNew() above. But node pLeft sometimes already has a node number.
................................................................................
    if( pChild ){
      nodeRelease(pRtree, pChild->pParent);
      nodeReference(pNode);
      pChild->pParent = pNode;
    }
  }
  if( nodeInsertCell(pRtree, pNode, pCell) ){

    if( iHeight<=pRtree->iReinsertHeight || pNode->iNode==1){
      rc = SplitNode(pRtree, pNode, pCell, iHeight);
    }else{
      pRtree->iReinsertHeight = iHeight;
      rc = Reinsert(pRtree, pNode, pCell, iHeight);
    }



  }else{
    rc = AdjustTree(pRtree, pNode, pCell);
    if( rc==SQLITE_OK ){
      if( iHeight==0 ){
        rc = rowidWrite(pRtree, pCell->iRowid, pNode->iNode);
      }else{
        rc = parentWrite(pRtree, pCell->iRowid, pNode->iNode);