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SQLite training in Houston TX on 2019-11-05 (details)
Part of the 2019 Tcl Conference

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Overview
Comment:Simplification of the syntax: Merely append "WITHOUT rowid" to the end of the table definition.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | omit-rowid
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: 131cc6e152abe1a2d48e6d8d40d2c2f8dbe723e7
User & Date: drh 2013-10-21 02:14:45
Context
2013-10-22
01:18
Previous refactor is not going to be helpful because implied indices must be created in the same order that they appear in the CREATE TABLE statement for backwards compatibility. This is a much smaller change to clean up a few loose ends. check-in: 824b549f user: drh tags: omit-rowid
2013-10-21
23:55
Minor refactoring of the PRIMARY KEY parsing logic to facilitate enhancements. Closed-Leaf check-in: 4e69dd5f user: drh tags: omit-rowid
02:14
Simplification of the syntax: Merely append "WITHOUT rowid" to the end of the table definition. check-in: 131cc6e1 user: drh tags: omit-rowid
2013-10-19
23:31
Experimental changes toward "index only" tables. Add the ability to specify options on CREATE TABLE statements using the WITH clause modeled after PostgreSQL and SQL Server. Only the "omit_rowid" option is currently recognized and that option is currently a no-op. check-in: 0248ec5e user: drh tags: omit-rowid
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to src/build.c.

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** was called to create a table generated from a 
** "CREATE TABLE ... AS SELECT ..." statement.  The column names of
** the new table will match the result set of the SELECT.
*/
void sqlite3EndTable(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parse context */
  Token *pCons,           /* The ',' token after the last column defn. */
  Token *pEnd1,           /* The ')' before options in the CREATE TABLE */
  Token *pEnd2,           /* The final ')' in the whole CREATE TABLE */
  IdList *pOpts,          /* List of table options.  May be NULL */
  Select *pSelect         /* Select from a "CREATE ... AS SELECT" */
){
  Table *p;                 /* The new table */
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db; /* The database connection */
  int iDb;                  /* Database in which the table lives */
  Index *pIdx;              /* An implied index of the table */

  if( (pEnd1==0 && pSelect==0) || db->mallocFailed ){
    goto end_table_exception;
  }
  p = pParse->pNewTable;
  if( p==0 ) goto end_table_exception;

  assert( !db->init.busy || !pSelect );

  if( pOpts ){
    int i;
    for(i=0; i<pOpts->nId; i++){
      if( sqlite3_stricmp(pOpts->a[i].zName, "omit_rowid")==0 ){
        p->tabFlags |= TF_WithoutRowid;
        if( (p->tabFlags & TF_HasPrimaryKey)==0 ){
          sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "no PRIMARY KEY for table %s", p->zName);
        }
        continue;
      }
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "unknown table option: %s", pOpts->a[i].zName);
    }

  }

  iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, p->pSchema);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK
  /* Resolve names in all CHECK constraint expressions.
  */
................................................................................
    int n;
    Vdbe *v;
    char *zType;    /* "view" or "table" */
    char *zType2;   /* "VIEW" or "TABLE" */
    char *zStmt;    /* Text of the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement */

    v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
    if( NEVER(v==0) ) goto end_table_exception;

    sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, 0);

    /* 
    ** Initialize zType for the new view or table.
    */
    if( p->pSelect==0 ){
................................................................................
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_P2ISREG);
      pParse->nTab = 2;
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Table, 1);
      sqlite3Select(pParse, pSelect, &dest);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, 1);
      if( pParse->nErr==0 ){
        pSelTab = sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(pParse, pSelect);
        if( pSelTab==0 ) goto end_table_exception;
        assert( p->aCol==0 );
        p->nCol = pSelTab->nCol;
        p->aCol = pSelTab->aCol;
        pSelTab->nCol = 0;
        pSelTab->aCol = 0;
        sqlite3DeleteTable(db, pSelTab);
      }
    }

    /* Compute the complete text of the CREATE statement */
    if( pSelect ){
      zStmt = createTableStmt(db, p);
    }else{
      n = (int)(pEnd2->z - pParse->sNameToken.z) + 1;

      zStmt = sqlite3MPrintf(db, 
          "CREATE %s %.*s", zType2, n, pParse->sNameToken.z
      );
    }

    /* A slot for the record has already been allocated in the 
    ** SQLITE_MASTER table.  We just need to update that slot with all
................................................................................
    Schema *pSchema = p->pSchema;
    assert( sqlite3SchemaMutexHeld(db, iDb, 0) );
    pOld = sqlite3HashInsert(&pSchema->tblHash, p->zName,
                             sqlite3Strlen30(p->zName),p);
    if( pOld ){
      assert( p==pOld );  /* Malloc must have failed inside HashInsert() */
      db->mallocFailed = 1;
      goto end_table_exception;
    }
    pParse->pNewTable = 0;
    db->flags |= SQLITE_InternChanges;

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_ALTERTABLE
    if( !p->pSelect ){
      const char *zName = (const char *)pParse->sNameToken.z;
      int nName;
      assert( !pSelect && pCons && pEnd1 );
      if( pCons->z==0 ){
        pCons = pEnd1;
      }
      nName = (int)((const char *)pCons->z - zName);
      p->addColOffset = 13 + sqlite3Utf8CharLen(zName, nName);
    }
#endif
  }

end_table_exception:
  sqlite3IdListDelete(db, pOpts);
  return;
}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW
/*
** The parser calls this routine in order to create a new VIEW
*/
void sqlite3CreateView(
................................................................................
  n = (int)(sEnd.z - pBegin->z);
  z = pBegin->z;
  while( ALWAYS(n>0) && sqlite3Isspace(z[n-1]) ){ n--; }
  sEnd.z = &z[n-1];
  sEnd.n = 1;

  /* Use sqlite3EndTable() to add the view to the SQLITE_MASTER table */
  sqlite3EndTable(pParse, 0, &sEnd, &sEnd, 0, 0);
  return;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW */

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE)
/*
** The Table structure pTable is really a VIEW.  Fill in the names of







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** was called to create a table generated from a 
** "CREATE TABLE ... AS SELECT ..." statement.  The column names of
** the new table will match the result set of the SELECT.
*/
void sqlite3EndTable(
  Parse *pParse,          /* Parse context */
  Token *pCons,           /* The ',' token after the last column defn. */
  Token *pEnd,            /* The ')' before options in the CREATE TABLE */
  u8 tabOpts,             /* Extra table options. Usually 0. */

  Select *pSelect         /* Select from a "CREATE ... AS SELECT" */
){
  Table *p;                 /* The new table */
  sqlite3 *db = pParse->db; /* The database connection */
  int iDb;                  /* Database in which the table lives */
  Index *pIdx;              /* An implied index of the table */

  if( (pEnd==0 && pSelect==0) || db->mallocFailed ){
    return;
  }
  p = pParse->pNewTable;
  if( p==0 ) return;

  assert( !db->init.busy || !pSelect );





  if( tabOpts & TF_WithoutRowid ){
    if( (p->tabFlags & TF_HasPrimaryKey)==0 ){
      sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "no PRIMARY KEY for table %s", p->zName);
    }




    p->tabFlags |= TF_WithoutRowid;
  }

  iDb = sqlite3SchemaToIndex(db, p->pSchema);

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_CHECK
  /* Resolve names in all CHECK constraint expressions.
  */
................................................................................
    int n;
    Vdbe *v;
    char *zType;    /* "view" or "table" */
    char *zType2;   /* "VIEW" or "TABLE" */
    char *zStmt;    /* Text of the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement */

    v = sqlite3GetVdbe(pParse);
    if( NEVER(v==0) ) return;

    sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, 0);

    /* 
    ** Initialize zType for the new view or table.
    */
    if( p->pSelect==0 ){
................................................................................
      sqlite3VdbeChangeP5(v, OPFLAG_P2ISREG);
      pParse->nTab = 2;
      sqlite3SelectDestInit(&dest, SRT_Table, 1);
      sqlite3Select(pParse, pSelect, &dest);
      sqlite3VdbeAddOp1(v, OP_Close, 1);
      if( pParse->nErr==0 ){
        pSelTab = sqlite3ResultSetOfSelect(pParse, pSelect);
        if( pSelTab==0 ) return;
        assert( p->aCol==0 );
        p->nCol = pSelTab->nCol;
        p->aCol = pSelTab->aCol;
        pSelTab->nCol = 0;
        pSelTab->aCol = 0;
        sqlite3DeleteTable(db, pSelTab);
      }
    }

    /* Compute the complete text of the CREATE statement */
    if( pSelect ){
      zStmt = createTableStmt(db, p);
    }else{
      n = (int)(pParse->sLastToken.z - pParse->sNameToken.z);
      if( pParse->sLastToken.z[0]!=';' ) n += pParse->sLastToken.n;
      zStmt = sqlite3MPrintf(db, 
          "CREATE %s %.*s", zType2, n, pParse->sNameToken.z
      );
    }

    /* A slot for the record has already been allocated in the 
    ** SQLITE_MASTER table.  We just need to update that slot with all
................................................................................
    Schema *pSchema = p->pSchema;
    assert( sqlite3SchemaMutexHeld(db, iDb, 0) );
    pOld = sqlite3HashInsert(&pSchema->tblHash, p->zName,
                             sqlite3Strlen30(p->zName),p);
    if( pOld ){
      assert( p==pOld );  /* Malloc must have failed inside HashInsert() */
      db->mallocFailed = 1;
      return;
    }
    pParse->pNewTable = 0;
    db->flags |= SQLITE_InternChanges;

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_ALTERTABLE
    if( !p->pSelect ){
      const char *zName = (const char *)pParse->sNameToken.z;
      int nName;
      assert( !pSelect && pCons && pEnd );
      if( pCons->z==0 ){
        pCons = pEnd;
      }
      nName = (int)((const char *)pCons->z - zName);
      p->addColOffset = 13 + sqlite3Utf8CharLen(zName, nName);
    }
#endif
  }




}

#ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW
/*
** The parser calls this routine in order to create a new VIEW
*/
void sqlite3CreateView(
................................................................................
  n = (int)(sEnd.z - pBegin->z);
  z = pBegin->z;
  while( ALWAYS(n>0) && sqlite3Isspace(z[n-1]) ){ n--; }
  sEnd.z = &z[n-1];
  sEnd.n = 1;

  /* Use sqlite3EndTable() to add the view to the SQLITE_MASTER table */
  sqlite3EndTable(pParse, 0, &sEnd, 0, 0);
  return;
}
#endif /* SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW */

#if !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIEW) || !defined(SQLITE_OMIT_VIRTUALTABLE)
/*
** The Table structure pTable is really a VIEW.  Fill in the names of

Changes to src/parse.y.

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ifnotexists(A) ::= .              {A = 0;}
ifnotexists(A) ::= IF NOT EXISTS. {A = 1;}
%type temp {int}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
temp(A) ::= TEMP.  {A = 1;}
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
temp(A) ::= .      {A = 0;}
create_table_args ::= LP columnlist conslist_opt(X) RP(E1). {
  sqlite3EndTable(pParse,&X,&E1,&E1,0,0);
}
create_table_args ::= LP columnlist conslist_opt(X) RP(E1)
                      WITH LP idlist(Z) RP(E2). {
  sqlite3EndTable(pParse,&X,&E1,&E2,Z,0);
}
create_table_args ::= AS select(S). {
  sqlite3EndTable(pParse,0,0,0,0,S);
  sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, S);










}
columnlist ::= columnlist COMMA column.
columnlist ::= column.

// A "column" is a complete description of a single column in a
// CREATE TABLE statement.  This includes the column name, its
// datatype, and other keywords such as PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE, REFERENCES,
................................................................................
// This obviates the need for the "id" nonterminal.
//
%fallback ID
  ABORT ACTION AFTER ANALYZE ASC ATTACH BEFORE BEGIN BY CASCADE CAST COLUMNKW
  CONFLICT DATABASE DEFERRED DESC DETACH EACH END EXCLUSIVE EXPLAIN FAIL FOR
  IGNORE IMMEDIATE INITIALLY INSTEAD LIKE_KW MATCH NO PLAN
  QUERY KEY OF OFFSET PRAGMA RAISE RELEASE REPLACE RESTRICT ROW ROLLBACK
  SAVEPOINT TEMP TRIGGER VACUUM VIEW VIRTUAL WITH
%ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
  EXCEPT INTERSECT UNION
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
  REINDEX RENAME CTIME_KW IF
  .
%wildcard ANY.








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ifnotexists(A) ::= .              {A = 0;}
ifnotexists(A) ::= IF NOT EXISTS. {A = 1;}
%type temp {int}
%ifndef SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
temp(A) ::= TEMP.  {A = 1;}
%endif  SQLITE_OMIT_TEMPDB
temp(A) ::= .      {A = 0;}



create_table_args ::= LP columnlist conslist_opt(X) RP(E) table_options(F). {

  sqlite3EndTable(pParse,&X,&E,F,0);
}
create_table_args ::= AS select(S). {
  sqlite3EndTable(pParse,0,0,0,S);
  sqlite3SelectDelete(pParse->db, S);
}
%type table_options {u8}
table_options(A) ::= .    {A = 0;}
table_options(A) ::= WITHOUT nm(X). {
  if( X.n==5 && sqlite3_strnicmp(X.z,"rowid",5)==0 ){
    A = TF_WithoutRowid;
  }else{
    A = 0;
    sqlite3ErrorMsg(pParse, "unknown table option: %.*s", X.n, X.z);
  }
}
columnlist ::= columnlist COMMA column.
columnlist ::= column.

// A "column" is a complete description of a single column in a
// CREATE TABLE statement.  This includes the column name, its
// datatype, and other keywords such as PRIMARY KEY, UNIQUE, REFERENCES,
................................................................................
// This obviates the need for the "id" nonterminal.
//
%fallback ID
  ABORT ACTION AFTER ANALYZE ASC ATTACH BEFORE BEGIN BY CASCADE CAST COLUMNKW
  CONFLICT DATABASE DEFERRED DESC DETACH EACH END EXCLUSIVE EXPLAIN FAIL FOR
  IGNORE IMMEDIATE INITIALLY INSTEAD LIKE_KW MATCH NO PLAN
  QUERY KEY OF OFFSET PRAGMA RAISE RELEASE REPLACE RESTRICT ROW ROLLBACK
  SAVEPOINT TEMP TRIGGER VACUUM VIEW VIRTUAL WITHOUT
%ifdef SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
  EXCEPT INTERSECT UNION
%endif SQLITE_OMIT_COMPOUND_SELECT
  REINDEX RENAME CTIME_KW IF
  .
%wildcard ANY.

Changes to src/sqliteInt.h.

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void sqlite3AddColumn(Parse*,Token*);
void sqlite3AddNotNull(Parse*, int);
void sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(Parse*, Expr*);
void sqlite3AddColumnType(Parse*,Token*);
void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse*,ExprSpan*);
void sqlite3AddCollateType(Parse*, Token*);
void sqlite3EndTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,Token*,IdList*,Select*);
int sqlite3ParseUri(const char*,const char*,unsigned int*,
                    sqlite3_vfs**,char**,char **);
Btree *sqlite3DbNameToBtree(sqlite3*,const char*);
int sqlite3CodeOnce(Parse *);

Bitvec *sqlite3BitvecCreate(u32);
int sqlite3BitvecTest(Bitvec*, u32);







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void sqlite3AddColumn(Parse*,Token*);
void sqlite3AddNotNull(Parse*, int);
void sqlite3AddPrimaryKey(Parse*, ExprList*, int, int, int);
void sqlite3AddCheckConstraint(Parse*, Expr*);
void sqlite3AddColumnType(Parse*,Token*);
void sqlite3AddDefaultValue(Parse*,ExprSpan*);
void sqlite3AddCollateType(Parse*, Token*);
void sqlite3EndTable(Parse*,Token*,Token*,u8,Select*);
int sqlite3ParseUri(const char*,const char*,unsigned int*,
                    sqlite3_vfs**,char**,char **);
Btree *sqlite3DbNameToBtree(sqlite3*,const char*);
int sqlite3CodeOnce(Parse *);

Bitvec *sqlite3BitvecCreate(u32);
int sqlite3BitvecTest(Bitvec*, u32);

Changes to test/alter.test.

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  do_test alter-15.$tn.2 {
    catchsql "ALTER TABLE $tbl ADD COLUMN xyz"
  } [list 1 "table $tbl may not be altered"]
}

#------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Verify that ALTER TABLE works on tables with WITH options.
#
do_execsql_test alter-16.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t16a(a TEXT, b REAL, c INT, PRIMARY KEY(a,b)) WITH (omit_rowid);
  INSERT INTO t16a VALUES('abc',1.25,99);
  ALTER TABLE t16a ADD COLUMN d TEXT DEFAULT 'xyzzy';
  INSERT INTO t16a VALUES('cba',5.5,98,'fizzle');
  SELECT * FROM t16a ORDER BY a;
} {abc 1.25 99 xyzzy cba 5.5 98 fizzle}
do_execsql_test alter-16.2 {
  ALTER TABLE t16a RENAME TO t16a_rn;
  SELECT * FROM t16a_rn ORDER BY a;
} {abc 1.25 99 xyzzy cba 5.5 98 fizzle}

finish_test







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  do_test alter-15.$tn.2 {
    catchsql "ALTER TABLE $tbl ADD COLUMN xyz"
  } [list 1 "table $tbl may not be altered"]
}

#------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Verify that ALTER TABLE works on tables with the WITHOUT rowid option.
#
do_execsql_test alter-16.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t16a(a TEXT, b REAL, c INT, PRIMARY KEY(a,b)) WITHOUT rowid;
  INSERT INTO t16a VALUES('abc',1.25,99);
  ALTER TABLE t16a ADD COLUMN d TEXT DEFAULT 'xyzzy';
  INSERT INTO t16a VALUES('cba',5.5,98,'fizzle');
  SELECT * FROM t16a ORDER BY a;
} {abc 1.25 99 xyzzy cba 5.5 98 fizzle}
do_execsql_test alter-16.2 {
  ALTER TABLE t16a RENAME TO t16a_rn;
  SELECT * FROM t16a_rn ORDER BY a;
} {abc 1.25 99 xyzzy cba 5.5 98 fizzle}

finish_test

Changes to test/tableopts.test.

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set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl

do_test tableopt-1.1 {
  catchsql {
    CREATE TABLE t1(a,b) WITH (omit_rowid);
  }
} {1 {no PRIMARY KEY for table t1}}
do_test tableopt-1.2 {
  catchsql {
    CREATE TABLE t1(a,b) WITH (unknown1, unknown2);
  }
} {1 {unknown table option: unknown2}}
do_test tableopt-1.3 {
  catchsql {
    CREATE TABLE t1(a,b,c,PRIMARY KEY(a,b)) WITH (omit_rowid, unknown3);
  }
} {1 {unknown table option: unknown3}}
do_test tableopt-1.4 {
  catchsql {
    CREATE TABLE t1(a,b,c,PRIMARY KEY(a,b)) WITH (unknown4, omit_rowid);
  }
} {1 {unknown table option: unknown4}}

do_execsql_test tableopt-2.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b, c, PRIMARY KEY(a,b)) WITH (omit_rowid);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1,2,3),(2,3,4);
  SELECT c FROM t1 WHERE a IN (1,2) ORDER BY b;
} {3 4}
do_execsql_test tableopt-2.2 {
  VACUUM;
  SELECT c FROM t1 WHERE a IN (1,2) ORDER BY b;
} {3 4}
do_test tableopt-2.3 {
  sqlite3 db2 test.db
  db2 eval {SELECT c FROM t1 WHERE a IN (1,2) ORDER BY b;}
} {3 4}
db2 close
  










finish_test







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set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl

do_test tableopt-1.1 {
  catchsql {
    CREATE TABLE t1(a,b) WITHOUT rowid;
  }
} {1 {no PRIMARY KEY for table t1}}
do_test tableopt-1.2 {
  catchsql {
    CREATE TABLE t1(a,b) WITHOUT unknown2;
  }
} {1 {unknown table option: unknown2}}











do_execsql_test tableopt-2.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(a, b, c, PRIMARY KEY(a,b)) WITHOUT rowid;
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1,2,3),(2,3,4);
  SELECT c FROM t1 WHERE a IN (1,2) ORDER BY b;
} {3 4}
do_execsql_test tableopt-2.2 {
  VACUUM;
  SELECT c FROM t1 WHERE a IN (1,2) ORDER BY b;
} {3 4}
do_test tableopt-2.3 {
  sqlite3 db2 test.db
  db2 eval {SELECT c FROM t1 WHERE a IN (1,2) ORDER BY b;}
} {3 4}
db2 close

# Make sure the "without" keyword is still usable as a table or
# column name.
#
do_execsql_test tableopt-3.1 {
  CREATE TABLE without(x INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, without TEXT);
  INSERT INTO without VALUES(1, 'xyzzy'), (2, 'fizzle');
  SELECT * FROM without WHERE without='xyzzy';
} {1 xyzzy}

  
finish_test

Changes to tool/mkkeywordhash.c.

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  { "UNIQUE",           "TK_UNIQUE",       ALWAYS                 },
  { "UPDATE",           "TK_UPDATE",       ALWAYS                 },
  { "USING",            "TK_USING",        ALWAYS                 },
  { "VACUUM",           "TK_VACUUM",       VACUUM                 },
  { "VALUES",           "TK_VALUES",       ALWAYS                 },
  { "VIEW",             "TK_VIEW",         VIEW                   },
  { "VIRTUAL",          "TK_VIRTUAL",      VTAB                   },
  { "WITH",             "TK_WITH",         ALWAYS                 },
  { "WHEN",             "TK_WHEN",         ALWAYS                 },
  { "WHERE",            "TK_WHERE",        ALWAYS                 },
};

/* Number of keywords */
static int nKeyword = (sizeof(aKeywordTable)/sizeof(aKeywordTable[0]));








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  { "UNIQUE",           "TK_UNIQUE",       ALWAYS                 },
  { "UPDATE",           "TK_UPDATE",       ALWAYS                 },
  { "USING",            "TK_USING",        ALWAYS                 },
  { "VACUUM",           "TK_VACUUM",       VACUUM                 },
  { "VALUES",           "TK_VALUES",       ALWAYS                 },
  { "VIEW",             "TK_VIEW",         VIEW                   },
  { "VIRTUAL",          "TK_VIRTUAL",      VTAB                   },
  { "WITHOUT",          "TK_WITHOUT",      ALWAYS                 },
  { "WHEN",             "TK_WHEN",         ALWAYS                 },
  { "WHERE",            "TK_WHERE",        ALWAYS                 },
};

/* Number of keywords */
static int nKeyword = (sizeof(aKeywordTable)/sizeof(aKeywordTable[0]));