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Artifact f8b59d186a31bcdfbd6683c7e7db8152b81bbefbb90235bfa37707c8bc7b6474:


# 2014 January 11
#
# The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
# a legal notice, here is a blessing:
#
#    May you do good and not evil.
#    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
#    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.
#
#***********************************************************************
# This file implements regression tests for SQLite library.  The
# focus of this file is testing the WITH clause.
#

set testdir [file dirname $argv0]
source $testdir/tester.tcl
set ::testprefix with1

ifcapable {!cte} {
  finish_test
  return
}

do_execsql_test 1.0 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(x INTEGER, y INTEGER);
  WITH x(a) AS ( SELECT * FROM t1) SELECT 10
} {10}

do_execsql_test 1.1 {
  SELECT * FROM ( WITH x AS ( SELECT * FROM t1) SELECT 10 );
} {10}

do_execsql_test 1.2 {
  WITH x(a) AS ( SELECT * FROM t1) INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1,2);
} {}

do_execsql_test 1.3 {
  WITH x(a) AS ( SELECT * FROM t1) DELETE FROM t1;
} {}

do_execsql_test 1.4 {
  WITH x(a) AS ( SELECT * FROM t1) UPDATE t1 SET x = y;
} {}
 
#--------------------------------------------------------------------------

do_execsql_test 2.1 {
  DROP TABLE IF EXISTS t1;
  CREATE TABLE t1(x);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2);
  WITH tmp AS ( SELECT * FROM t1 ) SELECT x FROM tmp;
} {1 2}

do_execsql_test 2.2 {
  WITH tmp(a) AS ( SELECT * FROM t1 ) SELECT a FROM tmp;
} {1 2}

do_execsql_test 2.3 {
  SELECT * FROM (
    WITH tmp(a) AS ( SELECT * FROM t1 ) SELECT a FROM tmp
  );
} {1 2}

do_execsql_test 2.4 {
  WITH tmp1(a) AS ( SELECT * FROM t1 ),
       tmp2(x) AS ( SELECT * FROM tmp1)
  SELECT * FROM tmp2;
} {1 2}

do_execsql_test 2.5 {
  WITH tmp2(x) AS ( SELECT * FROM tmp1),
       tmp1(a) AS ( SELECT * FROM t1 )
  SELECT * FROM tmp2;
} {1 2}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
do_catchsql_test 3.1 {
  WITH tmp2(x) AS ( SELECT * FROM tmp1 ),
       tmp1(a) AS ( SELECT * FROM tmp2 )
  SELECT * FROM tmp1;
} {1 {circular reference: tmp1}}

do_catchsql_test 3.2 {
  CREATE TABLE t2(x INTEGER);
  WITH tmp(a) AS (SELECT * FROM t1),
       tmp(a) AS (SELECT * FROM t1)
  SELECT * FROM tmp;
} {1 {duplicate WITH table name: tmp}}

do_execsql_test 3.3 {
  CREATE TABLE t3(x);
  CREATE TABLE t4(x);

  INSERT INTO t3 VALUES('T3');
  INSERT INTO t4 VALUES('T4');

  WITH t3(a) AS (SELECT * FROM t4)
  SELECT * FROM t3;
} {T4}

do_execsql_test 3.4 {
  WITH tmp  AS ( SELECT * FROM t3 ),
       tmp2 AS ( WITH tmp AS ( SELECT * FROM t4 ) SELECT * FROM tmp )
  SELECT * FROM tmp2;
} {T4}

do_execsql_test 3.5 {
  WITH tmp  AS ( SELECT * FROM t3 ),
       tmp2 AS ( WITH xxxx AS ( SELECT * FROM t4 ) SELECT * FROM tmp )
  SELECT * FROM tmp2;
} {T3}

do_catchsql_test 3.6 {
  WITH tmp AS ( SELECT * FROM t3 ),
  SELECT * FROM tmp;
} {1 {near "SELECT": syntax error}}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
do_execsql_test 4.1 {
  DROP TABLE IF EXISTS t1;
  CREATE TABLE t1(x);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(1);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(3);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(4);

  WITH dset AS ( SELECT 2 UNION ALL SELECT 4 )
  DELETE FROM t1 WHERE x IN dset;
  SELECT * FROM t1;
} {1 3}

do_execsql_test 4.2 {
  WITH iset AS ( SELECT 2 UNION ALL SELECT 4 )
  INSERT INTO t1 SELECT * FROM iset;
  SELECT * FROM t1;
} {1 3 2 4}

do_execsql_test 4.3 {
  WITH uset(a, b) AS ( SELECT 2, 8 UNION ALL SELECT 4, 9 )
  UPDATE t1 SET x = COALESCE( (SELECT b FROM uset WHERE a=x), x );
  SELECT * FROM t1;
} {1 3 8 9}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
do_execsql_test 5.1 {
  WITH i(x) AS ( VALUES(1) UNION ALL SELECT x+1 FROM i)
  SELECT x FROM i LIMIT 10;
} {1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10}

do_catchsql_test 5.2 {
  WITH i(x) AS ( VALUES(1) UNION ALL SELECT x+1 FROM i ORDER BY 1)
  SELECT x FROM i LIMIT 10;
} {0 {1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10}}

do_execsql_test 5.2.1 {
  CREATE TABLE edge(xfrom, xto, seq, PRIMARY KEY(xfrom, xto)) WITHOUT ROWID;
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(0, 1, 10);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(1, 2, 20);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(0, 3, 30);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(2, 4, 40);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(3, 4, 40);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(2, 5, 50);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(3, 6, 60);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(5, 7, 70);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(3, 7, 70);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(4, 8, 80);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(7, 8, 80);
  INSERT INTO edge VALUES(8, 9, 90);
  
  WITH RECURSIVE
    ancest(id, mtime) AS
      (VALUES(0, 0)
       UNION
       SELECT edge.xto, edge.seq FROM edge, ancest
        WHERE edge.xfrom=ancest.id
        ORDER BY 2
      )
  SELECT * FROM ancest;
} {0 0 1 10 2 20 3 30 4 40 5 50 6 60 7 70 8 80 9 90}
do_execsql_test 5.2.2 {
  WITH RECURSIVE
    ancest(id, mtime) AS
      (VALUES(0, 0)
       UNION ALL
       SELECT edge.xto, edge.seq FROM edge, ancest
        WHERE edge.xfrom=ancest.id
        ORDER BY 2
      )
  SELECT * FROM ancest;
} {0 0 1 10 2 20 3 30 4 40 4 40 5 50 6 60 7 70 7 70 8 80 8 80 8 80 8 80 9 90 9 90 9 90 9 90}
do_execsql_test 5.2.3 {
  WITH RECURSIVE
    ancest(id, mtime) AS
      (VALUES(0, 0)
       UNION ALL
       SELECT edge.xto, edge.seq FROM edge, ancest
        WHERE edge.xfrom=ancest.id
        ORDER BY 2 LIMIT 4 OFFSET 2
      )
  SELECT * FROM ancest;
} {2 20 3 30 4 40 4 40}

do_catchsql_test 5.3 {
  WITH i(x) AS ( VALUES(1) UNION ALL SELECT x+1 FROM i LIMIT 5)
  SELECT x FROM i;
} {0 {1 2 3 4 5}}

do_execsql_test 5.4 {
  WITH i(x) AS ( VALUES(1) UNION ALL SELECT (x+1)%10 FROM i)
  SELECT x FROM i LIMIT 20;
} {1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0}

do_execsql_test 5.5 {
  WITH i(x) AS ( VALUES(1) UNION SELECT (x+1)%10 FROM i)
  SELECT x FROM i LIMIT 20;
} {1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0}

do_catchsql_test 5.6.1 {
  WITH i(x, y) AS ( VALUES(1) )
  SELECT * FROM i;
} {1 {table i has 1 values for 2 columns}}

do_catchsql_test 5.6.2 {
  WITH i(x) AS ( VALUES(1,2) )
  SELECT * FROM i;
} {1 {table i has 2 values for 1 columns}}

do_catchsql_test 5.6.3 {
  CREATE TABLE t5(a, b);
  WITH i(x) AS ( SELECT * FROM t5 )
  SELECT * FROM i;
} {1 {table i has 2 values for 1 columns}}

do_catchsql_test 5.6.4 {
  WITH i(x) AS ( SELECT 1, 2 UNION ALL SELECT 1 )
  SELECT * FROM i;
} {1 {table i has 2 values for 1 columns}}

do_catchsql_test 5.6.5 {
  WITH i(x) AS ( SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT 1, 2 )
  SELECT * FROM i;
} {1 {SELECTs to the left and right of UNION ALL do not have the same number of result columns}}

do_catchsql_test 5.6.6 {
  WITH i(x) AS ( SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT x+1, x*2 FROM i )
  SELECT * FROM i;
} {1 {SELECTs to the left and right of UNION ALL do not have the same number of result columns}}

do_catchsql_test 5.6.7 {
  WITH i(x) AS ( SELECT 1, 2 UNION SELECT x+1 FROM i )
  SELECT * FROM i;
} {1 {table i has 2 values for 1 columns}}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
do_execsql_test 6.1 {
  CREATE TABLE f(
      id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, parentid REFERENCES f, name TEXT
  );

  INSERT INTO f VALUES(0, NULL, '');
  INSERT INTO f VALUES(1, 0, 'bin');
    INSERT INTO f VALUES(2, 1, 'true');
    INSERT INTO f VALUES(3, 1, 'false');
    INSERT INTO f VALUES(4, 1, 'ls');
    INSERT INTO f VALUES(5, 1, 'grep');
  INSERT INTO f VALUES(6, 0, 'etc');
    INSERT INTO f VALUES(7, 6, 'rc.d');
      INSERT INTO f VALUES(8, 7, 'rc.apache');
      INSERT INTO f VALUES(9, 7, 'rc.samba');
  INSERT INTO f VALUES(10, 0, 'home');
    INSERT INTO f VALUES(11, 10, 'dan');
      INSERT INTO f VALUES(12, 11, 'public_html');
        INSERT INTO f VALUES(13, 12, 'index.html');
          INSERT INTO f VALUES(14, 13, 'logo.gif');
}

do_execsql_test 6.2 {
  WITH flat(fid, fpath) AS (
    SELECT id, '' FROM f WHERE parentid IS NULL
    UNION ALL
    SELECT id, fpath || '/' || name FROM f, flat WHERE parentid=fid
  )
  SELECT fpath FROM flat WHERE fpath!='' ORDER BY 1;
} {
  /bin 
  /bin/false /bin/grep /bin/ls /bin/true 
  /etc 
  /etc/rc.d 
  /etc/rc.d/rc.apache /etc/rc.d/rc.samba 
  /home 
  /home/dan 
  /home/dan/public_html 
  /home/dan/public_html/index.html 
  /home/dan/public_html/index.html/logo.gif
}

do_execsql_test 6.3 {
  WITH flat(fid, fpath) AS (
    SELECT id, '' FROM f WHERE parentid IS NULL
    UNION ALL
    SELECT id, fpath || '/' || name FROM f, flat WHERE parentid=fid
  )
  SELECT count(*) FROM flat;
} {15}

do_execsql_test 6.4 {
  WITH x(i) AS (
    SELECT 1
    UNION ALL
    SELECT i+1 FROM x WHERE i<10
  )
  SELECT count(*) FROM x
} {10}


#-------------------------------------------------------------------------

do_execsql_test 7.1 {
  CREATE TABLE tree(i, p);
  INSERT INTO tree VALUES(1, NULL);
  INSERT INTO tree VALUES(2, 1);
  INSERT INTO tree VALUES(3, 1);
  INSERT INTO tree VALUES(4, 2);
  INSERT INTO tree VALUES(5, 4);
}

do_execsql_test 7.2 {
  WITH t(id, path) AS (
    SELECT i, '' FROM tree WHERE p IS NULL
    UNION ALL
    SELECT i, path || '/' || i FROM tree, t WHERE p = id
  ) 
  SELECT path FROM t;
} {{} /2 /3 /2/4 /2/4/5}

do_execsql_test 7.3 {
  WITH t(id) AS (
    VALUES(2)
    UNION ALL
    SELECT i FROM tree, t WHERE p = id
  ) 
  SELECT id FROM t;
} {2 4 5}

do_catchsql_test 7.4 {
  WITH t(id) AS (
    VALUES(2)
    UNION ALL
    SELECT i FROM tree WHERE p IN (SELECT id FROM t)
  ) 
  SELECT id FROM t;
} {1 {recursive reference in a subquery: t}}

do_catchsql_test 7.5 {
  WITH t(id) AS (
    VALUES(2)
    UNION ALL
    SELECT i FROM tree, t WHERE p = id AND p IN (SELECT id FROM t)
  ) 
  SELECT id FROM t;
} {1 {multiple recursive references: t}}

do_catchsql_test 7.6 {
  WITH t(id) AS (
    SELECT i FROM tree WHERE 2 IN (SELECT id FROM t)
    UNION ALL
    SELECT i FROM tree, t WHERE p = id
  ) 
  SELECT id FROM t;
} {1 {circular reference: t}}

# Compute the mandelbrot set using a recursive query
#
do_execsql_test 8.1-mandelbrot {
  WITH RECURSIVE
    xaxis(x) AS (VALUES(-2.0) UNION ALL SELECT x+0.05 FROM xaxis WHERE x<1.2),
    yaxis(y) AS (VALUES(-1.0) UNION ALL SELECT y+0.1 FROM yaxis WHERE y<1.0),
    m(iter, cx, cy, x, y) AS (
      SELECT 0, x, y, 0.0, 0.0 FROM xaxis, yaxis
      UNION ALL
      SELECT iter+1, cx, cy, x*x-y*y + cx, 2.0*x*y + cy FROM m 
       WHERE (x*x + y*y) < 4.0 AND iter<28
    ),
    m2(iter, cx, cy) AS (
      SELECT max(iter), cx, cy FROM m GROUP BY cx, cy
    ),
    a(t) AS (
      SELECT group_concat( substr(' .+*#', 1+min(iter/7,4), 1), '') 
      FROM m2 GROUP BY cy
    )
  SELECT group_concat(rtrim(t),x'0a') FROM a;
} {{                                    ....#
                                   ..#*..
                                 ..+####+.
                            .......+####....   +
                           ..##+*##########+.++++
                          .+.##################+.
              .............+###################+.+
              ..++..#.....*#####################+.
             ...+#######++#######################.
          ....+*################################.
 #############################################...
          ....+*################################.
             ...+#######++#######################.
              ..++..#.....*#####################+.
              .............+###################+.+
                          .+.##################+.
                           ..##+*##########+.++++
                            .......+####....   +
                                 ..+####+.
                                   ..#*..
                                    ....#
                                    +.}}

# Solve a sudoku puzzle using a recursive query
#
do_execsql_test 8.2-soduko {
  WITH RECURSIVE
    input(sud) AS (
      VALUES('53..7....6..195....98....6.8...6...34..8.3..17...2...6.6....28....419..5....8..79')
    ),
  
    /* A table filled with digits 1..9, inclusive. */
    digits(z, lp) AS (
      VALUES('1', 1)
      UNION ALL SELECT
      CAST(lp+1 AS TEXT), lp+1 FROM digits WHERE lp<9
    ),
  
    /* The tricky bit. */
    x(s, ind) AS (
      SELECT sud, instr(sud, '.') FROM input
      UNION ALL
      SELECT
        substr(s, 1, ind-1) || z || substr(s, ind+1),
        instr( substr(s, 1, ind-1) || z || substr(s, ind+1), '.' )
       FROM x, digits AS z
      WHERE ind>0
        AND NOT EXISTS (
              SELECT 1
                FROM digits AS lp
               WHERE z.z = substr(s, ((ind-1)/9)*9 + lp, 1)
                  OR z.z = substr(s, ((ind-1)%9) + (lp-1)*9 + 1, 1)
                  OR z.z = substr(s, (((ind-1)/3) % 3) * 3
                          + ((ind-1)/27) * 27 + lp
                          + ((lp-1) / 3) * 6, 1)
           )
    )
  SELECT s FROM x WHERE ind=0;
} {534678912672195348198342567859761423426853791713924856961537284287419635345286179}

#--------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Some tests that use LIMIT and OFFSET in the definition of recursive CTEs.
# 
set I [list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20]
proc limit_test {tn iLimit iOffset} {
  if {$iOffset < 0} { set iOffset 0 }
  if {$iLimit < 0 } {
    set result [lrange $::I $iOffset end]
  } else {
    set result [lrange $::I $iOffset [expr $iLimit+$iOffset-1]]
  }
  uplevel [list do_execsql_test $tn [subst -nocommands {
    WITH ii(a) AS (
      VALUES(1)
      UNION ALL 
      SELECT a+1 FROM ii WHERE a<20 
      LIMIT $iLimit OFFSET $iOffset
    )
    SELECT * FROM ii
  }] $result]
}

limit_test 9.1    20  0
limit_test 9.2     0  0
limit_test 9.3    19  1
limit_test 9.4    20 -1
limit_test 9.5     5  5
limit_test 9.6     0 -1
limit_test 9.7    40 -1
limit_test 9.8    -1 -1
limit_test 9.9    -1 -1

#--------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Test the ORDER BY clause on recursive tables.
#

do_execsql_test 10.1 {
  DROP TABLE IF EXISTS tree;
  CREATE TABLE tree(id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, parentid, payload);
}

proc insert_into_tree {L} {
  db eval { DELETE FROM tree }
  foreach key $L {
    unset -nocomplain parentid
    foreach seg [split $key /] {
      if {$seg==""} continue
      set id [db one {
        SELECT id FROM tree WHERE parentid IS $parentid AND payload=$seg
      }]
      if {$id==""} {
        db eval { INSERT INTO tree VALUES(NULL, $parentid, $seg) }
        set parentid [db last_insert_rowid]
      } else {
        set parentid $id
      }
    }
  }
}

insert_into_tree {
  /a/a/a
  /a/b/c
  /a/b/c/d
  /a/b/d
}
do_execsql_test 10.2 {
  WITH flat(fid, p) AS (
    SELECT id, '/' || payload FROM tree WHERE parentid IS NULL
    UNION ALL
    SELECT id, p || '/' || payload FROM flat, tree WHERE parentid=fid
  )
  SELECT p FROM flat ORDER BY p;
} {
  /a /a/a /a/a/a 
     /a/b /a/b/c /a/b/c/d
          /a/b/d
}

# Scan the tree-structure currently stored in table tree. Return a list
# of nodes visited.
#
proc scan_tree {bDepthFirst bReverse} {

  set order "ORDER BY "
  if {$bDepthFirst==0} { append order "2 ASC," }
  if {$bReverse==0} { 
    append order " 3 ASC" 
  } else {
    append order " 3 DESC" 
  }

  db eval "
    WITH flat(fid, depth, p) AS (
        SELECT id, 1, '/' || payload FROM tree WHERE parentid IS NULL
        UNION ALL
        SELECT id, depth+1, p||'/'||payload FROM flat, tree WHERE parentid=fid
        $order
    )
    SELECT p FROM flat;
  "
}

insert_into_tree {
  /a/b
  /a/b/c
  /a/d
  /a/d/e
  /a/d/f
  /g/h
}

# Breadth first, siblings in ascending order.
#
do_test 10.3 {
  scan_tree 0 0
} [list {*}{
  /a /g
  /a/b /a/d /g/h
  /a/b/c /a/d/e /a/d/f
}]

# Depth first, siblings in ascending order.
#
do_test 10.4 {
  scan_tree 1 0
} [list {*}{
  /a /a/b /a/b/c
     /a/d /a/d/e 
          /a/d/f
  /g /g/h
}]

# Breadth first, siblings in descending order.
#
do_test 10.5 {
  scan_tree 0 1
} [list {*}{
  /g /a 
  /g/h /a/d /a/b 
  /a/d/f /a/d/e /a/b/c 
}]

# Depth first, siblings in ascending order.
#
do_test 10.6 {
  scan_tree 1 1
} [list {*}{
  /g /g/h
  /a /a/d /a/d/f 
          /a/d/e 
     /a/b /a/b/c
}]


# Test name resolution in ORDER BY clauses.
#
do_catchsql_test 10.7.1 {
  WITH t(a) AS (
    SELECT 1 AS b UNION ALL SELECT a+1 AS c FROM t WHERE a<5 ORDER BY a
  ) 
  SELECT * FROM t
} {1 {1st ORDER BY term does not match any column in the result set}}
do_execsql_test 10.7.2 {
  WITH t(a) AS (
    SELECT 1 AS b UNION ALL SELECT a+1 AS c FROM t WHERE a<5 ORDER BY b
  ) 
  SELECT * FROM t
} {1 2 3 4 5}
do_execsql_test 10.7.3 {
  WITH t(a) AS (
    SELECT 1 AS b UNION ALL SELECT a+1 AS c FROM t WHERE a<5 ORDER BY c
  ) 
  SELECT * FROM t
} {1 2 3 4 5}

# Test COLLATE clauses attached to ORDER BY.
#
insert_into_tree {
  /a/b
  /a/C
  /a/d
  /B/e
  /B/F
  /B/g
  /c/h
  /c/I
  /c/j
}

do_execsql_test 10.8.1 {
  WITH flat(fid, depth, p) AS (
    SELECT id, 1, '/' || payload FROM tree WHERE parentid IS NULL
    UNION ALL
    SELECT id, depth+1, p||'/'||payload FROM flat, tree WHERE parentid=fid
    ORDER BY 2, 3 COLLATE nocase
  )
  SELECT p FROM flat;
} {
  /a /B /c
  /a/b /a/C /a/d /B/e /B/F /B/g /c/h /c/I /c/j
}
do_execsql_test 10.8.2 {
  WITH flat(fid, depth, p) AS (
      SELECT id, 1, ('/' || payload) COLLATE nocase 
      FROM tree WHERE parentid IS NULL
    UNION ALL
      SELECT id, depth+1, (p||'/'||payload)
      FROM flat, tree WHERE parentid=fid
    ORDER BY 2, 3
  )
  SELECT p FROM flat;
} {
  /a /B /c
  /a/b /a/C /a/d /B/e /B/F /B/g /c/h /c/I /c/j
}

do_execsql_test 10.8.3 {
  WITH flat(fid, depth, p) AS (
      SELECT id, 1, ('/' || payload)
      FROM tree WHERE parentid IS NULL
    UNION ALL
      SELECT id, depth+1, (p||'/'||payload) COLLATE nocase 
      FROM flat, tree WHERE parentid=fid
    ORDER BY 2, 3
  )
  SELECT p FROM flat;
} {
  /a /B /c
  /a/b /a/C /a/d /B/e /B/F /B/g /c/h /c/I /c/j
}

do_execsql_test 10.8.4.1 {
  CREATE TABLE tst(a,b);
  INSERT INTO tst VALUES('a', 'A');
  INSERT INTO tst VALUES('b', 'B');
  INSERT INTO tst VALUES('c', 'C');
  SELECT a COLLATE nocase FROM tst UNION ALL SELECT b FROM tst ORDER BY 1;
} {a A b B c C}
do_execsql_test 10.8.4.2 {
  SELECT a FROM tst UNION ALL SELECT b COLLATE nocase FROM tst ORDER BY 1;
} {A B C a b c}
do_execsql_test 10.8.4.3 {
  SELECT a||'' FROM tst UNION ALL SELECT b COLLATE nocase FROM tst ORDER BY 1;
} {a A b B c C}

# Test cases to illustrate on the ORDER BY clause on a recursive query can be
# used to control depth-first versus breath-first search in a tree.
#
do_execsql_test 11.1 {
  CREATE TABLE org(
    name TEXT PRIMARY KEY,
    boss TEXT REFERENCES org
  ) WITHOUT ROWID;
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Alice',NULL);
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Bob','Alice');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Cindy','Alice');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Dave','Bob');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Emma','Bob');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Fred','Cindy');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Gail','Cindy');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Harry','Dave');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Ingrid','Dave');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Jim','Emma');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Kate','Emma');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Lanny','Fred');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Mary','Fred');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Noland','Gail');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Olivia','Gail');
  -- The above are all under Alice.  Add a few more records for people
  -- not in Alice's group, just to prove that they won't be selected.
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Xaviar',NULL);
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Xia','Xaviar');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Xerxes','Xaviar');
  INSERT INTO org VALUES('Xena','Xia');
  -- Find all members of Alice's group, breath-first order  
  WITH RECURSIVE
    under_alice(name,level) AS (
       VALUES('Alice','0')
       UNION ALL
       SELECT org.name, under_alice.level+1
         FROM org, under_alice
        WHERE org.boss=under_alice.name
        ORDER BY 2
    )
  SELECT group_concat(substr('...............',1,level*3) || name,x'0a')
    FROM under_alice;
} {{Alice
...Bob
...Cindy
......Dave
......Emma
......Fred
......Gail
.........Harry
.........Ingrid
.........Jim
.........Kate
.........Lanny
.........Mary
.........Noland
.........Olivia}}

# The previous query used "ORDER BY level" to yield a breath-first search.
# Change that to "ORDER BY level DESC" for a depth-first search.
#
do_execsql_test 11.2 {
  WITH RECURSIVE
    under_alice(name,level) AS (
       VALUES('Alice','0')
       UNION ALL
       SELECT org.name, under_alice.level+1
         FROM org, under_alice
        WHERE org.boss=under_alice.name
        ORDER BY 2 DESC
    )
  SELECT group_concat(substr('...............',1,level*3) || name,x'0a')
    FROM under_alice;
} {{Alice
...Bob
......Dave
.........Harry
.........Ingrid
......Emma
.........Jim
.........Kate
...Cindy
......Fred
.........Lanny
.........Mary
......Gail
.........Noland
.........Olivia}}

# Without an ORDER BY clause, the recursive query should use a FIFO,
# resulting in a breath-first search.
#
do_execsql_test 11.3 {
  WITH RECURSIVE
    under_alice(name,level) AS (
       VALUES('Alice','0')
       UNION ALL
       SELECT org.name, under_alice.level+1
         FROM org, under_alice
        WHERE org.boss=under_alice.name
    )
  SELECT group_concat(substr('...............',1,level*3) || name,x'0a')
    FROM under_alice;
} {{Alice
...Bob
...Cindy
......Dave
......Emma
......Fred
......Gail
.........Harry
.........Ingrid
.........Jim
.........Kate
.........Lanny
.........Mary
.........Noland
.........Olivia}}

#--------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Ticket [31a19d11b97088296ac104aaff113a9790394927] (2014-02-09)
# Name resolution issue with compound SELECTs and Common Table Expressions 
#
do_execsql_test 12.1 {
WITH RECURSIVE
  t1(x) AS (VALUES(2) UNION ALL SELECT x+2 FROM t1 WHERE x<20),
  t2(y) AS (VALUES(3) UNION ALL SELECT y+3 FROM t2 WHERE y<20)
SELECT x FROM t1 EXCEPT SELECT y FROM t2 ORDER BY 1;
} {2 4 8 10 14 16 20}

# 2015-03-21
# Column wildcards on the LHS of a recursive table expression
#
do_catchsql_test 13.1 {
  WITH RECURSIVE c(i) AS (SELECT * UNION ALL SELECT i+1 FROM c WHERE i<10)
  SELECT i FROM c;
} {1 {no tables specified}}
do_catchsql_test 13.2 {
  WITH RECURSIVE c(i) AS (SELECT 5,* UNION ALL SELECT i+1 FROM c WHERE i<10)
  SELECT i FROM c;
} {1 {no tables specified}}
do_catchsql_test 13.3 {
  WITH RECURSIVE c(i,j) AS (SELECT 5,* UNION ALL SELECT i+1,11 FROM c WHERE i<10)
  SELECT i FROM c;
} {1 {table c has 1 values for 2 columns}}

# 2015-04-12
#
do_execsql_test 14.1 {
  WITH x AS (SELECT * FROM t) SELECT 0 EXCEPT SELECT 0 ORDER BY 1 COLLATE binary;
} {}

# 2015-05-27:  Do not allow rowid usage within a CTE
#
do_catchsql_test 15.1 {
  WITH RECURSIVE
    d(x) AS (VALUES(1) UNION ALL SELECT rowid+1 FROM d WHERE rowid<10)
  SELECT x FROM d;
} {1 {no such column: rowid}}

# 2015-07-05:  Do not allow aggregate recursive queries
#
do_catchsql_test 16.1 {
  WITH RECURSIVE
    i(x) AS (VALUES(1) UNION SELECT count(*) FROM i)
  SELECT * FROM i;
} {1 {recursive aggregate queries not supported}}

# Or window-function recursive queries. Ticket e8275b41.
#
ifcapable windowfunc {
  do_catchsql_test 16.2 {
    WITH RECURSIVE
      i(x) AS (VALUES(1) UNION SELECT count(*) OVER () FROM i)
      SELECT * FROM i;
  } {1 {cannot use window functions in recursive queries}}
  do_catchsql_test 16.3 {
    WITH RECURSIVE
      t(id, parent) AS (VALUES(1,2)),
      q(id, parent, rn) AS (
          VALUES(1,2,3)
          UNION ALL
          SELECT t.*, ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY t.id) AS rn
          FROM q JOIN t ON t.parent = q.id
          )
        SELECT * FROM q;
  } {1 {cannot use window functions in recursive queries}}
}

#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
do_execsql_test 17.1 {
  WITH x(a) AS (
    WITH y(b) AS (SELECT 10)
    SELECT 9 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM y
  )
  SELECT * FROM x
} {9 10}

do_execsql_test 17.2 {
  WITH x AS (
    WITH y(b) AS (SELECT 10)
    SELECT * FROM y UNION ALL SELECT * FROM y
  )
  SELECT * FROM x
} {10 10}

do_test 17.2 {
  db eval {
    WITH x AS (
        WITH y(b) AS (SELECT 10)
        SELECT * FROM y UNION ALL SELECT * FROM y
    )
    SELECT * FROM x
  } A {
    # no op
  }
  set A(*)
} {b}

do_catchsql_test 17.3 {
  WITH i AS (
    WITH j AS (SELECT 5)
    SELECT 5 FROM i UNION SELECT 8 FROM i
  )
  SELECT * FROM i;
} {1 {circular reference: i}}

do_catchsql_test 17.4 {
  WITH i AS (
    WITH j AS (SELECT 5)
    SELECT 5 FROM t1 UNION SELECT 8 FROM t11
  )
  SELECT * FROM i;
} {1 {no such table: t11}}

do_execsql_test 17.5 {
  WITH 
  x1 AS (SELECT 10),
  x2 AS (SELECT * FROM x1),
  x3 AS (
    WITH x1 AS (SELECT 11)
    SELECT * FROM x2 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM x2
  )
  SELECT * FROM x3;
} {10 10}

do_execsql_test 17.6 {
  WITH 
  x1 AS (SELECT 10),
  x2 AS (SELECT * FROM x1),
  x3 AS (
    WITH x1 AS (SELECT 11)
    SELECT * FROM x2 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM x1
  )
  SELECT * FROM x3;
} {10 11}

do_execsql_test 17.7 {
  WITH 
  x1 AS (SELECT 10),
  x2 AS (SELECT * FROM x1),
  x3 AS (
    WITH 
      x1 AS ( SELECT 11 ),
      x4 AS ( SELECT * FROM x2 )
    SELECT * FROM x4 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM x1
  )
  SELECT * FROM x3;
} {10 11}

do_execsql_test 17.8 {
  WITH 
  x1 AS (SELECT 10),
  x2 AS (SELECT * FROM x1),
  x3 AS (
    WITH 
      x1 AS ( SELECT 11 ),
      x4 AS ( SELECT * FROM x2 )
    SELECT * FROM x4 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM x1
  )
  SELECT * FROM x3;
} {10 11}

do_execsql_test 17.9 {
  WITH 
  x1 AS (SELECT 10),
  x2 AS (SELECT 11),
  x3 AS (
    SELECT * FROM x1 UNION ALL SELECT * FROM x2
  ),
  x4 AS (
    WITH 
    x1 AS (SELECT 12),
    x2 AS (SELECT 13)
    SELECT * FROM x3
  )
  SELECT * FROM x4;
} {10 11}

# Added to test a fix to a faulty assert() discovered by libFuzzer.
#
do_execsql_test 18.1 {
  WITH xyz(x) AS (VALUES(NULL) UNION SELECT round(1<x) FROM xyz ORDER BY 1)
  SELECT quote(x) FROM xyz;
} {NULL}
do_execsql_test 18.2 {
  WITH xyz(x) AS (
    SELECT printf('%d', 5) * NULL
    UNION SELECT round(1<1+x) 
    FROM xyz ORDER BY 1
  )
  SELECT 1 FROM xyz;
} 1

# EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN on a self-join of a CTE
#
do_execsql_test 19.1a {
  DROP TABLE IF EXISTS t1;
  CREATE TABLE t1(x);
}
do_eqp_test 19.1b {
  WITH
    x1(a) AS (values(100))
  INSERT INTO t1(x)
    SELECT * FROM (WITH x2(y) AS (SELECT * FROM x1) SELECT y+a FROM x1, x2);
  SELECT * FROM t1;
} {
  QUERY PLAN
  |--MATERIALIZE xxxxxx
  |  `--SCAN CONSTANT ROW
  |--SCAN SUBQUERY xxxxxx
  `--SCAN SUBQUERY xxxxxx
}

# 2017-10-28.
# See check-in https://sqlite.org/src/info/0926df095faf72c2
# Tried to optimize co-routine processing by changing a Copy opcode
# into SCopy.  But OSSFuzz found two (similar) cases where that optimization
# does not work.
#
do_execsql_test 20.1 {
  WITH c(i)AS(VALUES(9)UNION SELECT~i FROM c)SELECT max(5)>i fROM c;
} {0}
do_execsql_test 20.2 {
  WITH c(i)AS(VALUES(5)UNIoN SELECT 0)SELECT min(1)-i fROM c;
} {1}

# 2018-12-26
# Two different CTE tables with the same name appear in within a single FROM
# clause due to the query-flattener optimization.  make sure this does not cause
# problems.  This problem was discovered by Matt Denton.
#
do_execsql_test 21.1 {
   WITH RECURSIVE t21(a,b) AS (
    WITH t21(x) AS (VALUES(1))
    SELECT x, x FROM t21 ORDER BY 1
  )
  SELECT * FROM t21 AS tA, t21 AS tB
} {1 1 1 1}
do_execsql_test 21.1b {
   /* This variant from chromium bug 922312 on 2019-01-16 */
   WITH RECURSIVE t21(a,b) AS (
    WITH t21(x) AS (VALUES(1))
    SELECT x, x FROM t21 ORDER BY 1 LIMIT 5
  )
  SELECT * FROM t21 AS tA, t21 AS tB
} {1 1 1 1}
do_execsql_test 21.2 {
  SELECT printf('',
     EXISTS (WITH RECURSIVE Table0 AS (WITH Table0 AS (SELECT DISTINCT 1)
                                       SELECT *, * FROM Table0 ORDER BY 1 DESC)
             SELECT * FROM Table0  NATURAL JOIN  Table0));
} {{}}

# 2019-01-17
# Make sure crazy nexted CTE joins terminate with an error quickly.
#
do_catchsql_test 22.1 {
  WITH RECURSIVE c AS (
     WITH RECURSIVE c AS (
        WITH RECURSIVE c AS (
           WITH RECURSIVE c AS (
               WITH  c AS (VALUES(0))
               SELECT 1 FROM c LEFT JOIN c ON ltrim(1)
           )
           SELECT 1 FROM c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c
        )
        SELECT  2 FROM c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c
     )
     SELECT 3 FROM c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c
  )
  SELECT 4 FROM c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c,c;
} {1 {too many FROM clause terms, max: 200}}

# 2019-05-22
# ticket https://www.sqlite.org/src/tktview/ce823231949d3abf42453c8f20
#
sqlite3 db :memory:
do_execsql_test 23.1 {
  CREATE TABLE t1(id INTEGER NULL PRIMARY KEY, name Text);
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (1, 'john');
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (2, 'james');
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (3, 'jingle');
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (4, 'himer');
  INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (5, 'smith');
  CREATE VIEW v2 AS
    WITH t4(Name) AS (VALUES ('A'), ('B'))
    SELECT Name Name FROM t4;
  CREATE VIEW v3 AS
    WITH t4(Att, Val, Act) AS (VALUES
      ('C', 'D', 'E'),
      ('F', 'G', 'H')
    )
    SELECT D.Id Id, P.Name Protocol, T.Att Att, T.Val Val, T.Act Act
    FROM t1 D
    CROSS JOIN v2 P
    CROSS JOIN t4 T;
  SELECT * FROM v3;
} {1 A C D E 1 A F G H 1 B C D E 1 B F G H 2 A C D E 2 A F G H 2 B C D E 2 B F G H 3 A C D E 3 A F G H 3 B C D E 3 B F G H 4 A C D E 4 A F G H 4 B C D E 4 B F G H 5 A C D E 5 A F G H 5 B C D E 5 B F G H}

finish_test