I've not used the -batch mode, so gave it a whirl. <code> ~ [user] sqlite -batch select x'c3a1',hex(??); Error: near line 1: no such column: á </code> This is typed in, but even when pasted in it came back empty, but changed the pasted input: <code> SELECT x'c3a1', hex('??'); </code> It seems this thread (as helpful as it has been) is out of scope for this forum so I don't want to take up any more resources here. I've managed to get it working under Big Sur, and that will likely be my next migration.